What is development controls tools ?•As a roughly definition, tools here is not amachineries or an equipment that is use for thedevelopment controls. The tools here brings themeanings of implementation that is been used.The meaning of controls is a standard that isneeded to be achieved in a certain condition.
•Any development need to be controls in orderto creates a good place without having to wastelike the waste of land use. Because of that, thedevelopment controls tools is exist to avoid suchmistakes in a development.•Although there are no complete list of astandards for the development tools, but thereis still a standard that is been followed by thedeveloper for a new project that need to bedone by referring to this sources:
Legislative standardsFederal / Central government administrativestandardsEmpirical standards
Legislative Standards Piawaian Undangan Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172) Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (amendment) 1995 Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 (Act 133) Local Government Act 1976 (Act171) Local by-laws that relate to development
Federal/Central Government Administrative Standards Planning Policies are formulated at the federal government in order to assist the local authorities in their development implementation. These include the design and planning bulletins, development and local plans manual, circulars and handbooks that again aim to assist the public and private development agencies.
Empirical StandardsPrinciples or values that is gained fromexperience, observation and also works over theyears e.g. road specification standards, shop lot,residential, industry and facilities standards.Examples: road specification standard such asthe calculation of the curve, shop lot locationbased on several factors, residential places,industry and also facilities standards.
Guidelines is an indication of a future course of actionare. It is one of the D.T. used by the local authorities for development control. Local authorities has played an important role in order to make the development control tools success such as the “Garis Panduan Warisan dan kawasan Pemuliharaan”.
Examples of Guidelines SAFETY AND SECURITY Safety and security in the design, to minimize crime and vandalism. Security aspects should be considered as an integral part of the overall scheme design. Public and private areas should be clearly distinguishable, (private, semi-public or public). Encourage public areas being overlooked by habitable rooms and kitchens to permit surveillance. Designated play areas being within sight of the child’s home.
Cont… PENANG GUIDELINES FOR CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL Guidelines to Heritage Building Category II3. Facade should be retained 5. Internal renovation can be unless needed for preservation allowed with the council and maintenances (MPPP) approval5. Redevelopment of certain 7. Adaptive Re-use can be building in the conservation allowable as long as the area may be allowed existing façade is not ruin or depending on the situation. touch7. Any alterations or additional to 9. Restoration of the roof must be the existing building only from original materials or allowable depending to the equivalent. design proposal merit system 11. Mechanical equipment should be screen from the road level point of view.
DESIGN GUIDELINES OF CAR PARKPODIUM FOR SAFETY PURPOSES DESIGN GUIDELINES OF BALCONY RAILINGS FOR SAFETY PURPOSES
The process of development control involves a technique for the systematic anthology of expert quantitative examination and qualitative judgment of project land use and property development capability. A systematic system is needed in order to control the development process in order to provide a good land use and others resources wisely.
The database that have the statistics about the growth management program can be accessed in order to provide a good and systematic ways in development. By using the statistics also, the development can be design to be in most cost effective ways. The system will also provide transparency and consistency in the development control procedure.
Planning Standards is a Government manual of criteria for determining the scale, location and site requirements of various land uses and facilities of specific development program. The uses of planning standards is to ensure that every developments project are unfailing, comfortable and safe. Planning standards will help to avoid conflicts in land or building use.
Examples of Planning Standards ZONING Zoning; term used in urban planning for a system of land-use regulation objectives to avoid excessive land use. The word is derived from the practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one set of land uses from another. Zoning laws typically specify the areas in which residential, industrial, recreational or commercial activities may take place in a larger areas.
DENSITY CONTROL•In the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act172), density means the intensity of use of landreckoned or expressed in terms of the number ofpersons, dwelling units or habitable rooms, orany combination of those factors, per unit areaof land; and for the purpose of this definition,‘habitable room’ does not include a kitchen,storeroom, utility room, lavatory, bathroom orgarage.
RESIDENTIAL DENSITYSystem of measurement expressing inmathematical terms the number of people(population) or the amount of housing(accommodation) divided by the number ofhectares including dwellings and gardens plushalf the width of surrounding roads.In a simpler words; Number of dwelling units inan area. e.g. Low density 1 - 6 unit per hectare = 5 - 30 population Medium density 12-15 unit per hectare = 50-75 population High density 60-100 unit per hectare = 300-500 population
The main function of residential density are to : Ensure effectiveness of the land. Ensure variety of development in an area. To give reasonable minimum requirements for comfort and a satisfactory environment Ensure an adequate condition of community facilities in an area.
COMMERCIAL DENSITY CD standards is aimed at achieving a variety and division of commercial activity which allows the town/city to function at its most efficient level, ensuring a balanced pattern of growth and commercials needs also acting as a guide for the future development. It also ensures that adequate space is available for movement, car parking, etc., and to safeguard sunlight and daylight within the proposed layout of buildings. There is no common standard for measuring and controlling the intensity of shop or office use. E.g. plot ratio
PLOT RATIOIn the Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act172), plot ratio means the ratio of the total floorarea of a building to the area of the building plotas measured between the survey boundary linesor, if there are no survey boundary lines, betweenthe provisional boundary lines. It is used tocontrol the density for developments other thanfor the residential area.
Plot ratio standards express the relationship between the gross area of a site, and the total gross floor area of a building. In a easier words; the area of total floor including external wall to the area of floor inside internal walls. PLOT RATIO = GROSS FLOOR AREA OF BUILDING _____________________________ GROSS SITE AREA PR = 1234 abcde
SETBACK STANDARDDetached Setback Standard Terrace House Semi-detached House Setback Standard Setback Standard
Other planning standards including theplinth area, sizes of roads, streets and backlanes, car parks and distance of publicfacilities within a community.