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LOCUS RAGS
PHARMA COKINETICS OF DRUGS ASSIGNMENT HELP
Jackson Bird
6/15/2017
Cheap Assignment Help Page 2
CASE STUDY 1
INTRODUCTION
This assignment is aiming to identify and discuss pharma
cokinetics of drugs given to a patient suffering from
asthma, GERD and hypothyroidism. Case study is already
been given, drugs given to the patient are protonix,
synthroid and metaclopromide. There pharmacokinetics are
as follows
1. A What are the pharmacokinetics (precautions,
adverse effects, interactions, absorption, distribution,
metabolism, and excretion) and pharma codynamics of each
medication? Make sure you cover all aspects of these items
for ALL drugs
2. Protonix:- protonix is a proton pump inhibitor
which is used to inhibit gastric juice secretion. Its common
side effects include nausea, headache, abdominal pain and
flatulence. In rare case there are some serious side effects
like thrombocytopenia. Pantoprazole is the primary parent
drug and it is absorbed through stomach and small intestine. It is metabolised in liver and its bioavailability
after first pass metabolism is approximately 77 percent. Metabolization of this drug is done through
cytochrome p 450 system. Methylation and sulfation of the drug is done in liver to metabolise it. In terms
of distribution it is bonded with albumin protein with 98 percent affinity. Its primary excretion is fromrenal
system which is 71 percent while fecal accounts for 18 percent of the excretion. Its elimination half life is
approximately one hour for adults and drug is given precautionary to patients suffering from muscular
disorder or acute nephritis. There is no significant interaction of the drug (Bullock, Manias, & Galbraith,
2007)
3. synthroid is another drug given to the patient to manage thyroid level. It is a synthetic thyroid Hormone
replacement. It is given to patients suffering from hypothyroidism. Its dosage should be calculated very
carefully as slight overdose can lead to adverse effects like insomnia, weight loss, confusions, anxiousness,
in severe dosages it can induce heart failure or coma followed by death.
Calcium and iron supplements are the primary chemicals which interact with the absorption of this drug. There are
many micro nutrients which can interact with the drug like manganese, aluminium etc so drugs containing these
elements should be avoided. It can be given both orally and IV form and its bioavailability is 100 percent. Secondly
its metabolism is primarily done in liver but there are some percentage of drugs which is metabolised in kidney,
muscles and even brain. Half life period of synthetic thyroxin given for hypothyroidism is approximately 9-10 days.
Distribution of drug is through protein binding and its excretion is mainly from urine and faeces. Patient suffering
from hypertension, cardiac disorders, kidney failure and mental disorders should be given this drug with precaution
(Sneader, 2005).
3. Metaclopromide:- metaclopromide is a anti emetic drug given to the patient to manage nausea and vomiting
sensation. This drug acts on the brain Centre of nausea and vomiting present in the medulla oblongata and
suppress the Centre. Since patient is suffering GERD this drug will be the primary drug to manage
symptoms of disease. Common side effects include hypertension, glactorrohea etc. it can be given both
orally as well as IV, its bioavailability is 80 percent in human body through oral route. Its excretion is
through renal route 70-85 percent and 2 percent from faecal. It interacts with dopamine and it might induce
lactation so its given with precaution to young mothers (Cooke and Mehra, 1994).
4. B How will the side effects of each medication listed influence your physical assessment of the patient?
In assessment of this patient we need to take care that dosages are calculated in a optimal manner because patient is
a athletes and she cannot afford to have hypertension because of high thyroxine levels. Patient might on calciumand
Cheap Assignment Help Page 3
iron supplements as well because of her high level of physical activity and they might interact with the absorption of
drugs. Patient should be given food and fluids in a controlled manner and she should be monitored for a ny
symptoms indicating over dose or a drug interaction reaction. She also needs to avoid dehydration by participating
in track meets for a few days after treatment (Nagle, 2005).
1. C What educational information should you provide to the patient and her family about gastrointestinal and
endocrine drugs?
Ans:- patient would be informed in detail about GERD and how she needs to modify her eating habits. Patient
cannot afford to eat in excess at any given time; she should develop habit of eating small portions at regular
intervals. Some drugs which are given to patient are endocrine in nature and they might have impact on her
performance as a athletes. Half life of her dosage is 9-10 days which means she can experience symptoms even after
discontinuing the treatment.
CASE STUDY 2
INTRODUCTION
In this case study patient is suffering from a
acute case of Myocardial infarction. Patient is a
African American male of age 56 years. Patient
is complaining of severe chest pain and he is
admitted to the ER room and started with drugs
like Nitro glycerine, morphine, heparin and
albuterol.
1. A What are the pharmacokinetics
(precautions, adverse effects, interactions,
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and
excretion) and pharmacodynamics of each
medication? Make sure you cover all aspects of
these items for ALL drugs
2. Morphine:- morphine is a highly potent
opiate analgesic drug which is used to treat
severe pain in patients. It can be given to
various routes like inhalation, IV, IM, SC, oral,
rectal etc. its bioavailability varies according to
the route of administration. In case of oral route
it is 20-40 percent while in case of rectal it is
35-70 percent. Adverse reaction includes constipation, addiction of the drugs, disorientation, confusion etc.
in case of acute overdose it can lead to a very serious depression of heart rate and breathing Centre. Its
metabolism is done primarily through liver and it is also metabolised in liver in small amount. It is
distributed in the body through 30-40 percent protein binding. Its excretion is primarily through renal
system and its half life period if 2-2.5 hours. It is contraindicated or given with extreme precautions in
patients suffering from respiratory suppression, renal disorders, colic etc.
3. Nitroglycerine:- Nitro glycerine belongs to a group of drugs known as Nitrates and they are us ed in cardiac
arrests. Its primary route of administration is sublingually or IVbecause oral route gives a bioavailability of
less than 1 percent. It is a rapidly metabolising drug and it is metabolised through hepatic route. Half life of
this active drug is less than 3 minutes. Its adverse effect includes Oxidative stress and plasma volume
expansion. It is excreted through renal route majorly. It is also given with caution to patient suffering from
renal failure, nephritis and in pregnancy. Drug interactions are generally not seen because of different route
of administration (Rang, et al. 2007).
4. Heparin:- Heparin is a highly sulphated glycosoaminoglycan. It is used as a anticoagulant in patient
suffering from cardiac thrombosis, MI, pulmonary embolism etc. this drug can be administered both orally
and IV but its bioavailability is not reliable through oral route so IV is preferred. Its metabolism is done
Cheap Assignment Help Page 4
through hepatic system using Cytochrome P 450 metabolism system. Excretion of the drug is done through
renal excretory system and its half life period is approximately 1.5 hours. In case of acute dosage
spontaneous bleeding, thrombocytopenia is common. Asthmatic patients are given this drug with caution
and it is also contraindicated in pregnant women.
5. Albuterol:- it is a short acting beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist. It is majorly used to relieve patients from
symptoms of asthma like broncho spasm and COPD. Its route of administration is mainly inhalation and
IV, in some cases it is also given orally. Half life period of drug is 1.5-2 hours and it is metabolised in liver.
Its common side effects include tremors, headache, shivering, dry mouths, palpitation etc. in case of
patients suffering from renal failure this drug is given with caution because it can induce hypokalemia in
patient. It is excreted through urine (Craig & Stitzel, 2004).
6. B How will the side effects of each medication listed influence your physical assessment of the patient?
Ans:- patient is suffering from MI but he also has a history of COPD since many years. Patient is highly susceptible
towards the side effect of drugs like heparin and morphine. Morphine causes depression of respiratory Centre and
patient is already suffering from asthma. Asthmatic drugs are given as a counter mechanism to that impact. While
physically assessing the patient, it would be ensured that his vital signs are monitored round the clock and his
dosage of morphine and heparin are calculated in a optimal manner (Rod, et al. 2007).
1. C What educational information should you provide to the patient and her family about Cardiovascular
AND Respiratory drugs?
Ans:- patient would be properly informed about each drug, its action and possible side effects. Patient would be
specially informed about drugs like morphine which can easily cause severe side effects and become life
threatening. Patient’s family would also be instructed that he should be monitored for breathlessness and other
symptoms as long as he is on morphine. Similarly patient would be informed about thrombocytopenia and its impact
on human body. Patient would be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptom he experiences while on
medication (Maehle, 2002).
REFERENCES
Sneader, W. (2005) Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley and Sons, 2005 ISBN 0-471-89980-1.
Rod, F.; Humphrey P., Rang, M., Dale; R. and James, M. (2007) Rang & Dale’s pharmacology. Edinburgh:
Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-06911-5.
Rang, P. Dale, M. Ritter, M. and Flower, J. (2007) Pharmacology. China: Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-06911-5
Nagle, H. (2005) Pharmacology: An Introduction. Boston: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-312275-0
Bullock, S, Manias, E. & Galbraith, A. (2007) Fundamentals of pharmacology, (5th ed.). Sydney, Pearson Education
Australia.
Craig, C.R., & Stitzel, R.E. (Ed), (2004) Modern pharmacology with clinical applications (6th ed.). Boston: Little,
Brown and Co.
Cooke, C. E.; Mehra, I. V. (1994) “Oral ondansetron for preventing nausea and vomiting”. American journal of
hospital pharmacy 51 (6): 762–771. PMID 8010314.
Maehle, H. (2002) “The emergence of the drug receptor theory”. Nat Rev Drug Discov 1 (8): 637–41.
doi:10.1038/nrd875. PMID 12402503. Order Now

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Pharma cokinetics of drugs assignment help

  • 1. LOCUS RAGS PHARMA COKINETICS OF DRUGS ASSIGNMENT HELP Jackson Bird 6/15/2017
  • 2. Cheap Assignment Help Page 2 CASE STUDY 1 INTRODUCTION This assignment is aiming to identify and discuss pharma cokinetics of drugs given to a patient suffering from asthma, GERD and hypothyroidism. Case study is already been given, drugs given to the patient are protonix, synthroid and metaclopromide. There pharmacokinetics are as follows 1. A What are the pharmacokinetics (precautions, adverse effects, interactions, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and pharma codynamics of each medication? Make sure you cover all aspects of these items for ALL drugs 2. Protonix:- protonix is a proton pump inhibitor which is used to inhibit gastric juice secretion. Its common side effects include nausea, headache, abdominal pain and flatulence. In rare case there are some serious side effects like thrombocytopenia. Pantoprazole is the primary parent drug and it is absorbed through stomach and small intestine. It is metabolised in liver and its bioavailability after first pass metabolism is approximately 77 percent. Metabolization of this drug is done through cytochrome p 450 system. Methylation and sulfation of the drug is done in liver to metabolise it. In terms of distribution it is bonded with albumin protein with 98 percent affinity. Its primary excretion is fromrenal system which is 71 percent while fecal accounts for 18 percent of the excretion. Its elimination half life is approximately one hour for adults and drug is given precautionary to patients suffering from muscular disorder or acute nephritis. There is no significant interaction of the drug (Bullock, Manias, & Galbraith, 2007) 3. synthroid is another drug given to the patient to manage thyroid level. It is a synthetic thyroid Hormone replacement. It is given to patients suffering from hypothyroidism. Its dosage should be calculated very carefully as slight overdose can lead to adverse effects like insomnia, weight loss, confusions, anxiousness, in severe dosages it can induce heart failure or coma followed by death. Calcium and iron supplements are the primary chemicals which interact with the absorption of this drug. There are many micro nutrients which can interact with the drug like manganese, aluminium etc so drugs containing these elements should be avoided. It can be given both orally and IV form and its bioavailability is 100 percent. Secondly its metabolism is primarily done in liver but there are some percentage of drugs which is metabolised in kidney, muscles and even brain. Half life period of synthetic thyroxin given for hypothyroidism is approximately 9-10 days. Distribution of drug is through protein binding and its excretion is mainly from urine and faeces. Patient suffering from hypertension, cardiac disorders, kidney failure and mental disorders should be given this drug with precaution (Sneader, 2005). 3. Metaclopromide:- metaclopromide is a anti emetic drug given to the patient to manage nausea and vomiting sensation. This drug acts on the brain Centre of nausea and vomiting present in the medulla oblongata and suppress the Centre. Since patient is suffering GERD this drug will be the primary drug to manage symptoms of disease. Common side effects include hypertension, glactorrohea etc. it can be given both orally as well as IV, its bioavailability is 80 percent in human body through oral route. Its excretion is through renal route 70-85 percent and 2 percent from faecal. It interacts with dopamine and it might induce lactation so its given with precaution to young mothers (Cooke and Mehra, 1994). 4. B How will the side effects of each medication listed influence your physical assessment of the patient? In assessment of this patient we need to take care that dosages are calculated in a optimal manner because patient is a athletes and she cannot afford to have hypertension because of high thyroxine levels. Patient might on calciumand
  • 3. Cheap Assignment Help Page 3 iron supplements as well because of her high level of physical activity and they might interact with the absorption of drugs. Patient should be given food and fluids in a controlled manner and she should be monitored for a ny symptoms indicating over dose or a drug interaction reaction. She also needs to avoid dehydration by participating in track meets for a few days after treatment (Nagle, 2005). 1. C What educational information should you provide to the patient and her family about gastrointestinal and endocrine drugs? Ans:- patient would be informed in detail about GERD and how she needs to modify her eating habits. Patient cannot afford to eat in excess at any given time; she should develop habit of eating small portions at regular intervals. Some drugs which are given to patient are endocrine in nature and they might have impact on her performance as a athletes. Half life of her dosage is 9-10 days which means she can experience symptoms even after discontinuing the treatment. CASE STUDY 2 INTRODUCTION In this case study patient is suffering from a acute case of Myocardial infarction. Patient is a African American male of age 56 years. Patient is complaining of severe chest pain and he is admitted to the ER room and started with drugs like Nitro glycerine, morphine, heparin and albuterol. 1. A What are the pharmacokinetics (precautions, adverse effects, interactions, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and pharmacodynamics of each medication? Make sure you cover all aspects of these items for ALL drugs 2. Morphine:- morphine is a highly potent opiate analgesic drug which is used to treat severe pain in patients. It can be given to various routes like inhalation, IV, IM, SC, oral, rectal etc. its bioavailability varies according to the route of administration. In case of oral route it is 20-40 percent while in case of rectal it is 35-70 percent. Adverse reaction includes constipation, addiction of the drugs, disorientation, confusion etc. in case of acute overdose it can lead to a very serious depression of heart rate and breathing Centre. Its metabolism is done primarily through liver and it is also metabolised in liver in small amount. It is distributed in the body through 30-40 percent protein binding. Its excretion is primarily through renal system and its half life period if 2-2.5 hours. It is contraindicated or given with extreme precautions in patients suffering from respiratory suppression, renal disorders, colic etc. 3. Nitroglycerine:- Nitro glycerine belongs to a group of drugs known as Nitrates and they are us ed in cardiac arrests. Its primary route of administration is sublingually or IVbecause oral route gives a bioavailability of less than 1 percent. It is a rapidly metabolising drug and it is metabolised through hepatic route. Half life of this active drug is less than 3 minutes. Its adverse effect includes Oxidative stress and plasma volume expansion. It is excreted through renal route majorly. It is also given with caution to patient suffering from renal failure, nephritis and in pregnancy. Drug interactions are generally not seen because of different route of administration (Rang, et al. 2007). 4. Heparin:- Heparin is a highly sulphated glycosoaminoglycan. It is used as a anticoagulant in patient suffering from cardiac thrombosis, MI, pulmonary embolism etc. this drug can be administered both orally and IV but its bioavailability is not reliable through oral route so IV is preferred. Its metabolism is done
  • 4. Cheap Assignment Help Page 4 through hepatic system using Cytochrome P 450 metabolism system. Excretion of the drug is done through renal excretory system and its half life period is approximately 1.5 hours. In case of acute dosage spontaneous bleeding, thrombocytopenia is common. Asthmatic patients are given this drug with caution and it is also contraindicated in pregnant women. 5. Albuterol:- it is a short acting beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist. It is majorly used to relieve patients from symptoms of asthma like broncho spasm and COPD. Its route of administration is mainly inhalation and IV, in some cases it is also given orally. Half life period of drug is 1.5-2 hours and it is metabolised in liver. Its common side effects include tremors, headache, shivering, dry mouths, palpitation etc. in case of patients suffering from renal failure this drug is given with caution because it can induce hypokalemia in patient. It is excreted through urine (Craig & Stitzel, 2004). 6. B How will the side effects of each medication listed influence your physical assessment of the patient? Ans:- patient is suffering from MI but he also has a history of COPD since many years. Patient is highly susceptible towards the side effect of drugs like heparin and morphine. Morphine causes depression of respiratory Centre and patient is already suffering from asthma. Asthmatic drugs are given as a counter mechanism to that impact. While physically assessing the patient, it would be ensured that his vital signs are monitored round the clock and his dosage of morphine and heparin are calculated in a optimal manner (Rod, et al. 2007). 1. C What educational information should you provide to the patient and her family about Cardiovascular AND Respiratory drugs? Ans:- patient would be properly informed about each drug, its action and possible side effects. Patient would be specially informed about drugs like morphine which can easily cause severe side effects and become life threatening. Patient’s family would also be instructed that he should be monitored for breathlessness and other symptoms as long as he is on morphine. Similarly patient would be informed about thrombocytopenia and its impact on human body. Patient would be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptom he experiences while on medication (Maehle, 2002). REFERENCES Sneader, W. (2005) Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley and Sons, 2005 ISBN 0-471-89980-1. Rod, F.; Humphrey P., Rang, M., Dale; R. and James, M. (2007) Rang & Dale’s pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-06911-5. Rang, P. Dale, M. Ritter, M. and Flower, J. (2007) Pharmacology. China: Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-06911-5 Nagle, H. (2005) Pharmacology: An Introduction. Boston: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-312275-0 Bullock, S, Manias, E. & Galbraith, A. (2007) Fundamentals of pharmacology, (5th ed.). Sydney, Pearson Education Australia. Craig, C.R., & Stitzel, R.E. (Ed), (2004) Modern pharmacology with clinical applications (6th ed.). Boston: Little, Brown and Co. Cooke, C. E.; Mehra, I. V. (1994) “Oral ondansetron for preventing nausea and vomiting”. American journal of hospital pharmacy 51 (6): 762–771. PMID 8010314. Maehle, H. (2002) “The emergence of the drug receptor theory”. Nat Rev Drug Discov 1 (8): 637–41. doi:10.1038/nrd875. PMID 12402503. Order Now