Paper presented at 8th University of Sydney TESOL Research Network
Colloquium in conjunction with Macquarie University
7 S...
Background
A debate about reasons for Code switching (CS):

language deficiency or bilingual strategy?

Research of CS on ...
Background
Why bilingual program?
Status of English:
In ASEAN, English is becoming formalised as the
official working lang...
Background
Why students’ CS?

Students are the central objective of the
teaching
Students struggle in learning content and...
Context

The program:
Bilingual program
vocational tertiary level
Diploma 3

Located in Malang,
East Java, Indonesia
Estab...
Context
Students: 1st & 3rd year
bilingual program

Male:34% female:66 %,
Classroom size: 22-25
students
Medium of instruc...
Research question
What are the reasons for students to code
switch?

Research methods
Ethnographic case study
Prolonged ob...
Data
Observation
3 classes in one bilingual program:
2 Computer Accounting/MYOB
courses, 1 Introduction to Business
over o...
Reasons for students to code switch:

struggling in
using English

concerned that
peers may not
understand

expressing
sol...
Struggling in using English
Example 1:

(S5) Okay now I will explain to you about capital of limited
company, capital of l...
Reason:
I did not know the equivalent words in English.
I was afraid if I made mistakes. Well, because in
fact it is reall...
Struggling in using English
Structuring questions in English related to the
topic discussed is not easy (S2 interview)
For...
Concerned that peers may not understand
Example 1:
P1: Presenter 1, Ss: students, S4: student asking question

(P1) Any qu...
Concerned that peers may not understand

Reason:
First I had difficulty to transfer the content
when I delivered in Englis...
Expressing solidarity with cultural identity
Example 1
(S6) So the first I wanna give entertain to our friends but the
pre...
Expressing solidarity with cultural identity
Reason:
We use Bahasa Indonesia because we want to
respect the nation, especi...
Expressing solidarity with cultural identity
Example 2

Silahkan berdiri (stand up please) [talking
to other presenters in...
Discussion
Code-scaffolding (Cook, 2001; Fennema-Bloom,
2010)

Emotional support (Swain 2013)
Nationalism as the result of...
Conclusion
CS as a tool which not only served
as a ‘make-up’ for
their language
insufficiency, but also

as a response to ...
Conclusion
a positive perception of code switching
 to ease of
communication
 to social and
national identity and
social...
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Blom, J.P. & Gumperz, J. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code-switching in ...
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Beyond language deficit students codeswitching in indonesian tertiary bilingual classrooms

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This presentation describes three reasons for students of the bilingual classroom to code switch: because they were struggling in using English, they were concerned that peers may not understand, and they wanted to express solidarity with cultural identity.

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Beyond language deficit students codeswitching in indonesian tertiary bilingual classrooms

  1. 1. Paper presented at 8th University of Sydney TESOL Research Network Colloquium in conjunction with Macquarie University 7 September 2013 Beyond a language deficit: Students’ code switching in Indonesian tertiary bilingual classrooms Hilda Cahyani PhD Scholar, University of South Australia
  2. 2. Background A debate about reasons for Code switching (CS): language deficiency or bilingual strategy? Research of CS on syntactic aspects (Poplack, 1980) and sociolinguistic aspects (Blom and Gumperz, 1972)
  3. 3. Background Why bilingual program? Status of English: In ASEAN, English is becoming formalised as the official working language (Kirkpatrick , 2012) In Indonesia, international education is not a new phenomenon (Zacharias, 2013)
  4. 4. Background Why students’ CS? Students are the central objective of the teaching Students struggle in learning content and partly using the additional language Research in CS is more interested to see teachers’
  5. 5. Context The program: Bilingual program vocational tertiary level Diploma 3 Located in Malang, East Java, Indonesia Established in 2010 2 Departments: Accounting, Business Administration
  6. 6. Context Students: 1st & 3rd year bilingual program Male:34% female:66 %, Classroom size: 22-25 students Medium of instruction: English and Bahasa Indonesia
  7. 7. Research question What are the reasons for students to code switch? Research methods Ethnographic case study Prolonged observation and multiple data collections (Creswell, 2013) Grounded theory
  8. 8. Data Observation 3 classes in one bilingual program: 2 Computer Accounting/MYOB courses, 1 Introduction to Business over one semester (23 sessions) Questionnaires – In the 3 classrooms observed (56 students) Interview One on one interview with 6 students Stimulated recall with 3 students Focus Group with 7 students (2 times)
  9. 9. Reasons for students to code switch: struggling in using English concerned that peers may not understand expressing solidarity with cultural identity
  10. 10. Struggling in using English Example 1: (S5) Okay now I will explain to you about capital of limited company, capital of limited company, eh the first eh the first capital is the base capital atau yang disebut dengan modal dasar yakni keseluruhan nilai perusahaan..(or we usually call authorised capital, that is the maximum amount of capital owned by a company).
  11. 11. Reason: I did not know the equivalent words in English. I was afraid if I made mistakes. Well, because in fact it is really hard. (S5 stimulated recall)
  12. 12. Struggling in using English Structuring questions in English related to the topic discussed is not easy (S2 interview) For asking questions, I frequently structure it first before asking it (S6 interview) In English presentation, we begin with English but in question session, when it gets very complicated, we will switch into Bahasa Indonesia.(S7 focus group)
  13. 13. Concerned that peers may not understand Example 1: P1: Presenter 1, Ss: students, S4: student asking question (P1) Any question? (Ss) [Some were raising right hands] (P1) [Pointing to one peer] (S4) Okay thank you eehh Can you explain to me about [reading a note] capability of limited managerial [hesitating with her E, looking at the presenters and smiling], bisakah anda jelaskan mengenai kemampuan menejerial yang terbatas (Can you tell me about the limited managerial skills)?
  14. 14. Concerned that peers may not understand Reason: First I had difficulty to transfer the content when I delivered in English. Second I was afraid if my friends could only listen and they could not understand the message (S4 Stimulated recall) When my friends listened to me, they would say, well the presentation has two languages, mixing...not just English. So they would get more attracted with in our group (S4 interview)
  15. 15. Expressing solidarity with cultural identity Example 1 (S6) So the first I wanna give entertain to our friends but the presentation is very wahh tidak mendukung (not supportive) [referring to the blackout]. This is for you all please cekidot (check it out).
  16. 16. Expressing solidarity with cultural identity Reason: We use Bahasa Indonesia because we want to respect the nation, especially for Bahasa Indonesia as the national language. (S6 Stimulated recall)
  17. 17. Expressing solidarity with cultural identity Example 2 Silahkan berdiri (stand up please) [talking to other presenters in his group] Thank you for your attention and I beg you an apology if I make mistakes, I end this session (S4) Reason Because it is the language used by our culture, that is the way we close the meeting. So I translated all using English (S4 stimulated recall)
  18. 18. Discussion Code-scaffolding (Cook, 2001; Fennema-Bloom, 2010) Emotional support (Swain 2013) Nationalism as the result of the spread and use of Bahasa Indonesia through the country (Hamied, 2012) CS behaviour in a certain group is influenced by both cognitive and social factors (Seidlitz, 2003)
  19. 19. Conclusion CS as a tool which not only served as a ‘make-up’ for their language insufficiency, but also as a response to the perceived needs of peers to express their national identity and social attachment to their cultural group
  20. 20. Conclusion a positive perception of code switching  to ease of communication  to social and national identity and social attachment to their cultural group
  21. 21. References • • • • • • • • • • Blom, J.P. & Gumperz, J. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code-switching in Norway: Directions in Sociolinguistics, edited by J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (New York), pp 407-434. Cook, V. 2001. Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review-revue Canadienne Des Langues Vivantes. vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 402-423. Creswell, JW 2013, Qualitative inquiry & research design : choosing among five approaches, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks. Fennema-Bloom, JR. 2010. Code-scaffolding: a pedagogic code-switching technique for bilingual content instruction. Journal of Education, vol. 190, no. 3, p. 27. Hamied, F.A. 2012. English in multicultural and multilingual Indonesian education. A. Kirkpatrick and R. Sussex (eds.), English as an international language in Asia: implications for language education, Multilingual Education 1, NY: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kirkpatrick, A. 2012. English as an international language in Asia: Implications for language education. A. Kirkpatrick and R. Sussex (eds.), English as an international language in Asia: implications for language education, Multilingual Education 1, NY: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Poplack, S. 1980. Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en espanol: Towards a typology of code-switching. Linguistics 18: 581-618. Seidlitz, L. M. 2003. Functions of code switching in classes of German as a foreign language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas. Retrieved May 20, 2012, http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/928/seidlitzlm032.pdf?sequence=2 Swain, M. 2013. The inseparability of cognition and emotion in second language learning. Language Teaching Journal V.46, Issue 2 pp. 195-207. Zacharias, NT 2013 'Navigating through the English-Medium-of-Instruction Policy: Voices from the Field', Current Issues in Language Planning, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 93-108.

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