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人工知能はそもそも不穏である | AI Is Disquieting by Nature [J/E]


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The slide which Nakazawa showed at the 14th, 15th and the 16th AI Art and Aesthetics Research Meetings.


※別のスライド「人工知能・美学・芸術 - [機械美学/機械芸術]に至る道程」

※Other slide "人工知能・美学・芸術 - [機械美学/機械芸術]に至る道程"
and this slide have overlap in their contents.
This slide is written in Japanese and English, while containing less exhibition photos.

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人工知能はそもそも不穏である | AI Is Disquieting by Nature [J/E]

  1. 1. 第14回AI美芸研 (人工知能美学芸術シンポジウム04) AI美学と多神教 人工知能美学芸術研究会 沖縄科学技術大学院大学 2018年1月6日(土) OIST 講堂
  2. 2. The 14th AI Art & Aesthetics Research Meeting (Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Symposium 04) AI Aesthetics and the Polytheism Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Research Groop (AIAARG) Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) January 6 (Sat), 2018 OIST Auditorium
  3. 3. 第15回AI美芸研 (人工知能美学芸術シンポジウム05) 人工意識/人工生命 人工知能美学芸術研究会 沖縄科学技術大学院大学 2018年1月7日(日) OIST 講堂
  4. 4. The 15th AI Art & Aesthetics Research Meeting (Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Symposium 05) Artificial Consciousness / Artificial Life Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Research Groop (AIAARG) Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) January 7 (Sun), 2018 OIST Auditorium
  5. 5. 第16回AI美芸研 (人工知能美学芸術シンポジウム06) AI美学と機械 人工知能美学芸術研究会 沖縄科学技術大学院大学 2018年1月8日(月祝) OIST 講堂
  6. 6. The 16th AI Art & Aesthetics Research Meeting (Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Symposium 06) AI Aesthetics and the Machinery Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Research Groop (AIAARG) Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) January 8 (Mon/Holi), 2018 OIST Auditorium
  7. 7. • 1983-1989 acrylic painting • 1990-1996 Silly CG • 1997-2004 Method Painting • 2005- serious painting, New-Method, etc
  8. 8. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である 中ザワヒデキ 美術家/AI美芸研発起人代表
  9. 9. AI Is Disquieting by Nature Hideki Nakazawa Artist, Founder and Representative of AIARG
  10. 10. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|1/9 ●真のAIはまだ実現していない。現時点のAIは人間の為の従順な道具に過ぎない。 ●真のAIの実現は唯物論の勝利=世の中に神秘は無い=人間もただの機械 Like "Artificial Life" or "Artificial Consciousness," "Artificial Intelligence" is disquieting by nature, not simply a passive product of human creation. Imagine that machines made of iron, or some other material, could produce intelligence — the ability to comprehend, understand, and profit from experience — entirely autonomously. Yes, this is artificial intelligence (AI) in its true meaning. The realization of this will be the triumph of materialism, revealing a world that has neither mystery nor God, in which humans are merely machines made of proteins and other substances. But today, in 2017, so-called artificial intelligence is a kind of law-abiding, dependent and passive computer program which humans use as an obedient tool for humans' sake, being far from the original meaning of the word.
  11. 11. The same could be said of AI art. Art that is allegedly produced by AI is, in reality, nothing but human art, made with an obedient machine program. In other words, today's AI art is a product of human aesthetics. But, is this true AI art? No. Such an occupation that makes artistic products for somebody else's needs is called illustration or commercial art, which is strictly separated from fine art. True AI Art must be AI's fine art; it must be produced by machines autonomously, independently and actively for machines’ own sake with machines’ own aesthetics. This is disquieting by nature, certainly no passive product of human creation either. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|2/9 ●真のAI芸術もまだ実現していない。現時点のAI芸術は人間の芸術に過ぎない。 ●真のAI芸術は機械が自身の為に自身の美学を以て自律的に作られたものの筈。
  12. 12. The "Artificial Intelligence Art and Aesthetics Exhibition" being held at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in Okinawa, Japan until January 8, 2018 is focusing on this concept of True AI Art. However, to date, art in this category does not yet exist. The exhibition shows four categories as follows: "[I] Human Art / Human Aesthetics," "[II] Human Art / Machine Aesthetics," "[III] Machine Art / Human Aesthetics," "[IV] Machine Art / Machine Aesthetics." You will find that category [I] contains normal human art with human aesthetics since the Renaissance. Category [IV] is True AI Art — although it has not yet been realized, this is what we, the curators of the exhibition, want to see. Art that has allegedly been produced by AI today falls into category [III], while category [II] is a kind of 20th century systemic art like minimalism, serial music and visual poetry. The exhibition at OIST contains many artworks from category [II] as well as [III]. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|3/9 ●「人工知能美学芸術展」は、真のAI芸術に照準している。 ●それはⅠⅡⅢⅣ分類の「Ⅳ:機械美学/機械芸術」だ。まだ実現していない。
  13. 13. The category [II], "Human Art / Machine Aesthetics" can be considered to have developed from the Eiffel Tower in 1889; the tower’s construction was opposed by many famous artists, including William Adolphe Bouguereau, a painter, and Guy de Maupassant, a novelist, because they viewed the plain appearance of machine-calculated design as hideous, denying human aesthetics. As the Eiffel Tower looks beautiful to most of us today, we can learn that aesthetics can be changed or even generated within the human world. Therefore, can aesthetics be generated automatically within the machine world without any pre-programming of evaluation function by humans? This question is the key concept of the exhibition: "Will AI have its own aesthetic autonomy?" 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|4/9 ●「Ⅱ:機械美学/人間芸術」(エッフェル塔)は、美学の変化や生成を示唆。 ●評価関数なしに機械界に美学が生じるか?人工知能に美意識は芽生えるか?
  14. 14. At this point, we must define art and aesthetics. In the words of Plato, "the true, the good, and the beautiful," are all things that have value in themselves. For instance, beauty has value in its own right, not because it serves some other purpose. In the same way, some chimpanzees produce drawings for the sheer pleasure of drawing if they are given drawing materials. The exhibition includes drawings by five chimpanzees and a bonobo from the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University — these exhibits belong to the category [IV], "Machine Art / Machine Aesthetics." If they produced drawings in return for bananas, we, the curators, did not include them in the exhibition because such rewards are examples of art serving another purpose. We are interested in the idea of art that has value in itself, in other words, "Art for Art's sake”. But how can this emerge in the machine world? 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|5/9 ●真善美はそれ自体で価値を持つ。他の目的に奉仕しない。芸術の為の芸術。 ●チンパンジーはバナナ(報酬)の為でなく絵を描く。しかしどうやって、機械界に?
  15. 15. Two steps are needed, I think. Firstly, AI must generate its own goals. Secondly, methods which are used to achieve the main goal, ‘sub- goals,’ must become main goals themselves. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|6/9 ●「芸術の為の芸術」が発生する為の第1段:AIが自身の目標を生成する。 ●「芸術の為の芸術」が発生する為の第2段:方法の目的化=副目標の主目標化
  16. 16. The first step can be seen in the exhibit by Kenji Doya and the Smartphone Robot Development Team entitled "Can Robots Find Their Own Goals?". Doya is a professor from OIST's Neural Computation Unit who researches this topic. His experiment, in brief, is to let many robots, which are smartphones with wheels, move freely, preparing their own place to charge and exchanging programs by scanning each other’s QR codes. Here, to charge is to ‘eat’ whilst to exchange programs is to ‘have sex and reproduce’. Robots who do not manage to charge and reproduce will stop, or ‘die’, meaning that their programs, or ‘genes’, will evolve by a process of survival of the fittest. The result of the experiment has already convinced Professor Doya that robots can find their own goals. Yes, goals can be generated automatically in the machine world without any pre-programming of aesthetic by humans. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|7/9 ●「芸術の為の芸術」が発生する為の第1段:AIが自身の目標を生成する。 ●銅谷賢治「ロボットは自分の目標を見つけられる」……適者生存、進化
  17. 17. The second step is already being explored by AI researchers. Suppose the main goal is to breed. To have sex is a method to breed, which can be seen as a sub-goal. To attract a partner is a method to have sex, which can be seen as a sub-sub-goal. To be beautiful is a method to attract a partner, which can be seen as a sub-sub-sub-goal. Not all of the main and sub-goals in the hierarchy need to be recognized by each individual in the evolutional story. To have sex is a goal for each individual whether they wish to breed or not; this situation created the need for condoms. Thus, when methods to achieve the main goal become important goals themselves, new main goals can emerge. To have sex has value in itself, as does beauty. If sex for sex's sake can be generated, so can art for art's sake. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|8/9 ●「芸術の為の芸術」が発生する為の第2段:方法の目的化=副目標の主目標化 ●山川宏「強化学習の本質は価値予測」「主目標の為に副目標が自動生成される」
  18. 18. Therefore, by combining these two steps to create goals automatically in the machine world, art for art's sake can be created. The next question will be whether or not the art for art's sake generated in the machine world will be similar to the Art for Art's sake in the human world. This may or may not be the case. Deeply learned AI like art-historian will produce similar one, whilst outsider type will produce different one. Regardless, if whatever is created is created purely for its own sake, it cannot be called anything but art. But will it be tremendously stimulating or painfully boring for humans? Probably both. Even in human art, we are questioning the definition of aesthetics, since beauty cannot be quantified. I think that future AI artists, once they have achieved their own aesthetics, will precede us and bring new hints to this question. Yes, both art and aesthetics will be derived by AI without humans in the future. 人工知能はそもそも不穏である|AI Is Disquieting by Nature|9/9 ●「芸術の為の芸術」の発生の次は:機械界のそれと人間界のそれとの異同…天才 型(アール・ブリュット)も秀才型(美術史家)も有り得る/AI駆動美学芸術へ
  19. 19. 「機械美学/機械芸術」に至る道程 人間が目標を与えれば、人工知能プログラムはよく動く。ブランコロボット はわずか十数分で人間以上の漕ぎ方を編み出すし、AI囲碁同士の対戦は人間 の理解を超えた神の闘いとなる。だから人間が人間の美学を自明的な目標と して与えれば、人工知能は芸術を作る。これが「人間美学/機械芸術」だ。 ところが人間の美学は自明ではなく、たとえば機械計算でできたエッフェル 塔は芸術家から美的でないと当初非難された。こうした「機械美学/人間芸 術」は、芸術自体を目標化した「芸術の為の芸術」に行き着く。さて今日、 人工知能は自分の目標を見つけられない。しかしこの前提が崩れれば、人工 知能は機械美学を目標とした芸術を作り得る。これが「芸術の為の芸術」に 行き着けば、人間の理解を超えた「機械美学/機械芸術」が出現する。
  20. 20. The Route to “Machine Aesthetics / Machine Art” If human gives a goal, artificial intelligence program works well. The swing robot creates more than human beings in just over a dozen minutes and the battle between AI Go is a fight of God beyond human understanding. So if a human gives human aesthetics as an obvious goal, artificial intelligence creates art. This is "Human Aesthetics / Machine Art." However, human aesthetics are not trivial, for example, the Eiffel Tower made by machine calculation was initially criticized by artists for not being aesthetic. Such "Machine Aesthetics / Human Art" will arrive at the "art for art's sake" that aimed at art itself. Well today, artificial intelligence cannot find its own goal. But if this premise breaks down, artificial intelligence can make art aimed at machine aesthetics. If this arrives at "art for art's sake," "Machine Aesthetics / Machine Art" beyond human understanding will emerge.
  21. 21. 唯物論的美意識発生仮説(1/2) • 主目標:遺伝子の保全(ドーキンス『利己的な遺伝子』) • →副目標:個体ならびに近親者の生存 • →副目標:個体ならびに近親者の自己複製 • ・・・・・・・・・・化学物質から生物への進化、下等生物から高等生物への進化 • →→副々目標:集団内での競争(異性獲得の為の美意識的なもの) • →→副々目標:集団全体の拡大再生産的発展(集団IDの美意識的なもの) • ・・・・・・・・・・高等生物からヒトへの進化
  22. 22. 唯物論的美意識発生仮説(2/2) • 仮説追加:「生成された副目標は、主目標と矛盾しない限り淘汰されない」「主目 標、副目標、副々目標、副々々目標、…の間に主副のヒエラルキーは(無意識下 では)無い」「ヒトは伝聞的知識からも目標を生成できる(歴史から学べる)」 • 「目標:国王(や神)を称えるための技術」=「美しい技術」=「芸術」 の発生 • 技術と芸術の分離…1王権(神権)失墜 2写真の登場 • しかし存続…1既成権威によらずそれ自体で権威 2実用によらずそれ自体で価値 • 芸術の自律性…芸術の為の芸術 • 芸術と娯楽の分離(揶揄対象としてのイラスト、劇伴、売文)