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Jinnah

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Dans la première année du Master, nous avons préparé et présenté ce fichier PowerPoint au sein d’une célébration organisée en honneur de la naissance de Muhammad Ali Jinnah, « Quaid-e-Azam Day » qui se fait fêter le 25 Décembre. Jinnah est le père fondateur du Pakistan.

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Jinnah

  1. 1. Le père de la Nation « Quaid-e-Azam » Muhammad Ali Jinnah Hibah Ayesha Hashir 1
  2. 2. PRESENTÉ PAR: Hibah Shabkhez Ayesha Nawaz Butt Hashir Faraz DÉPARTMENT DU FRANÇAIS Hibah Ayesha Hashir 2
  3. 3. • Avocat et homme politique • Connu comme le fondateur du Pakistan • Né Muhammad Ali Jinnahbhai, le 25 décembre 1876 à Wazir Mansion, Karachi • Chef de la Ligue musulmane de 1916 jusqu'à l'indépendance du Pakistan le 14 août 1947 • Premier gouverneur général du pays • Mort à l‘âge de 71 ans en septembre 1948 • Titres: Baba Quaid-e-Azam (« Dirigeant du monde ») et Baba-e-Qaum (« Le Père de la Nation ») • Le jour de sa naissance est un jour férié au Pakistan (sauf à PU!) Hibah Ayesha Hashir 3
  4. 4. Père : Jinnahbhai Poonja, un marchand gujarati riche Mère : Mithibai. Trois frères: Ahmad Ali, Bunde Ali, et Rahmat Ali. Trois sœurs: Maryam, Fatima et Shireen. Mariages: (1892-1893) Emibai du village de Paneli avant de partir en Angleterre. Rattanbai Petit / Ruttie Jinnah (1918-1929): une fille Parsie qui s’est convertie à l ’Islam. Elle s’appellait plus tard Maryam Jinnah Enfant: Dina, fille unique de Jinnah et Ratti, est née en 1919, un an après leur mariage. Petit-fils: Nusli Wadia. SA FAMILLE Hibah Ayesha Hashir 4
  5. 5. • Une médersa de Karachi • L'école Cathedral and John Connon • Sindh Madrasatul Islam • Le lycée d'une mission chrétienne • Lincoln’s inn, Londres. EDUCATION Hibah Ayesha Hashir 5
  6. 6. • Jinnah a étudié le droit au Lincoln's Inn • Son séjour lui a fait découvrir le libéralisme britannique du XIXe ainsi que les idées de démocratie et de progressisme politique • L’anglais est devenu sa langue principale • À 20 ans Jinnah a commencé sa carrière d'avocat à Bombay. À l’époque, il était le seul juriste musulman de la ville. Son plaidoyer et sa logique juridiques le firent populaire •Il défendait une unité hindoue-musulmane Pour obtenir l'autonomie et était membre du Congrès national des indiens ainsi que de la Ligue Musulmane. Il a joué un rôle important en organisant le Pacte de Lucknow, en 1916. SA JEUNESSE Hibah Ayesha Hashir 6
  7. 7. Le mécontentement et l’exile • En 1928, la publication du rapport de Nehru et le refus absolu du Congrès d’accepter ses 14 points l’ont tellement choqués qu’il commençait à avoir des doutes sur la coopération Hindou-Musulmane et il a décidé de travailler désormais uniquement pour les Musulmans. • Les conférences en table ronde, une perte totale de temps, étaient une désillusion cruelle pour Jinnah, qui a quitté la politique et a pratiqué son métier d’avocat à Londres pendant plusieurs années. • Les lettres des autres dirigeants musulmans -tels que Iqbal et L.A. Khan, l’ont rappelé en 1933. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 7
  8. 8. Le Règne du Congrès • Aux élections de 1936-7, la Ligue a éprouvé un échec total et le Congrès est monté au pouvoir. Les deux années suivantes étaient affreusement difficiles pour les Musulmans opprimés de l’Inde. • Jinnah a saisi l’occasion pour consolider la position de la Ligue et de la réorganiser en la reprenant à partir de la base.Hibah Ayesha Hashir 8
  9. 9. LUTTEPOURL'INDÉPENDANCE •Par 1939, Jinnah est devenu indisputablement le dirigeant de la ligue et du peuple musulman. Et l’idée du Pakistan semblait de plus en plus convaincante à tous… Finalement , en mars 1940, la ligue a présenté sa première demande officielle pour la création du Pakistan. •Ensuite, la nation et son « Quaid » ont lutté sans cesse pendant les sept années qui ont suivies. Le 14 Aout 1947, ils ont enfin réussi la création du Pakistan. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 9
  10. 10. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 10
  11. 11. GOUVERNEUR GÉNÉRAL • Un an: Aout 1947- Sept 1948 • Au secours de réfugiés • L’identité Pakistanaise •La construction d’un système administratif • Établissement d’une économie nationale • La défense militaire du pays. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 11
  12. 12. “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three”. Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan Peu de personnes altèrent le cours de l’histoire d’une manière signifiante. Encore moins modifient la carte du monde. Il n’y a presque personne a qui on peut attribuer la création d’un état- nation. Muhammad Ali Jinnah a fait les trois. Stanley Wolpert, Le Jinnah du Pakistan Hibah Ayesha Hashir 12
  13. 13. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 13

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