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Iqbal

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Dans la première année du Master, nous avons préparé et présenté ce fichier PowerPoint au sein d’une célébration organisée en honneur de la naissance de Muhammad Iqbal, « Iqbal Day » qui se fait fêter le 9 Novembre. Iqbal est le poète national du Pakistan.

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Iqbal

  1. 1. SA CONTRIBUTION DANS LA CRÉATION DU PAKISTAN IQBAL Hibah Ayesha Hashir 1
  2. 2. PRESENTÉ PAR: Hibah SHABKHEZ Ayesha Nawaz BUTT Hashir FARAZ DÉPARTMENT DU FRANÇAIS Hibah Ayesha Hashir 2
  3. 3. Poète, philosophe et politicien illustre. Un des poètes musulmans les plus célèbres du XXe siècle. Vénéré et étudié partout au Pakistan et plus largement dans le monde. Son œuvre poétique et philosophique a été composée en ourdou et en persan. Il s’est concentre sur son message. IQBAL: LA LUMIÈRE DU SCIÈCLE Hibah Ayesha Hashir 3
  4. 4.  L’exaltation des gloires passées de l’islam et le besoin d’une renaissance Islamique.  Le modèle idéal de l’homme et de la société musulmane.  Le rôle et les devoirs de la jeunesse  Réactions contre le conservatisme soporifique  Réponses à la philosophie occidentale. IQBAL: LE POÈTE D’ISLAM Hibah Ayesha Hashir 4
  5. 5. Even as I laid my headdown in prostration a cry arosefromthe earththere: Your heart is pledgedto false gods, what would you findin prayer? Alors même que je baissais la tête pour me prosterner un cri émanait de la terre ; Ton coeur appartienne aux faux dieux, qu’espères-tu trouver dans la prière? Hibah Ayesha Hashir 5
  6. 6. CHEFS D’ŒUVRES POETRY BAANG-E-DARA (1924) BAAL-E-JIBRAEL (1935) ZARB-E-KALEEM (1936) ARMAGHAN-I HIJAZ (1938) PROSE THE RECONSTRUCTION OF RELIGIOUS THOUGHT IN ISLAM (1930) ALLAHABAD ADDRESS 1930 RELIGION VS. PHILOSOPHY-TO EMBRACE OR EXCLUDE? Hibah Ayesha Hashir 6
  7. 7. Nom: Muhammad Iqbal (ourdou : ‫محمد‬‫اقبال‬ ) Né le 9 novembre1877 à Sialkot Décédé le 21 avril 1938 Famille religieuse. Profession du père: tailleur Hibah Ayesha Hashir 7
  8. 8. PÈRE DE FAMILLE FEMMES:  Karim Bi (Mariage: 1893)  Sardar Begum (Mariage: 1910)  Mukhtar Begum (Mariage: 1913) ENFANTS 1. Mi’raj Begum ( fille de Karim Bi) 2. Aftab Iqbal ( fils de Karim Bi) 3. Muneera (fille de Sardar Begum) 4. Javed Iqbal (fils de Sardar Begum)Hibah Ayesha Hashir 8
  9. 9. Éducation : Maktab (école de la mosquée) traditionnel Scotch Mission School, Sialkot Murray College Sialkot Government College, Lahore Trinity College, Cambridge Université de Ludwig Maximilian , Munich Professeurs célèbres : Syed Mir Hassan Sir Thomas Arnold Influencé par : Maulana Rumi Al Jili Henri Bergson Goethe (etc.) Hibah Ayesha Hashir 9
  10. 10. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 10
  11. 11. « Les Nations naissent dans les cœurs des poètes, elles fleurissent et murissent dans les mains des politiciens. » ” Nations are born in the heart of poets, they prosper and die in the hands of politicians. ” Dr. M. Allama Iqbal Hibah Ayesha Hashir 11
  12. 12. • Il ne approuvait pas l’engagement Indien dans la première Guerre Mondiale. • Iqbal à apporté son soutien au mouvement Khalifat alors que Jinnah l’a rejeté comme « délire religieux ». • Lorsqu’il était étudiant du droit et de la philosophie en Angleterre Iqbal est devenu un membre du division londonien de la Ligue Musulman. • En 1922, il a été annobli par le roi George V d’Angleterre qui lui a conféré le titre de « Sir ». Hibah Ayesha Hashir 12
  13. 13. • En 1926, Iqbal a été élu à l’assemblée législative du Pendjab, et il a soutenu les propos constitutionnels présentés par Jinnah et s’est fait le défenseur de l’idée d’un État musulman dans le Nord-Ouest du sous- continent indien. • Sir Muhammad Iqbal est devenu président du ligue Musulmane en 1930 à Allahabad. • Il s’opposait au Congrès et les propos de transférer le pouvoir sans les assurances légales d’une autonomie considérable ou d’Indépendance pour les régions musulmanes. Il a exprimé cette idée dans son adresse au ligue en 1932, et pendant la conférence de la table ronde. ACTIVITÉ POLITIQUE Hibah Ayesha Hashir 13
  14. 14. ACTIVITÉ LITTÉRAIRE • En 1919 il est devenu le secrétaire général de Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam • Patron du Journal Tolu-e-Islam en 1935 [Ce journal est toujours publié par Idara Tolu-e- Islam, Lahore] • Il a établie le Dar ul Islam Trust Institute à Jamalpur, à coté de Pathankot. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 14
  15. 15. VOYAGES • Il voyageait en Grande-Bretagne et en Allemagne afin de faire ses études supérieurs. • Il a visité les monuments de la règne Musulmane lorsqu’il est allé en Espagne. • Pendant ses voyages en Égypte, Afghanistan, Iran and Turquie, il a encouragé l’idée de consolider la fraternité musulmane et d’une coopération politique étroite en dépit de toutes leurs différences de race et nationalité Hibah Ayesha Hashir 15
  16. 16. LA VISION D’IQBAL • Iqbal mettait l’accent sur le fait que l’Islam nous donne des « concepts légales » avec une « signification civique » que le christianisme et des autres religions ne traitent point. • Il est devenue le premier politicien à articuler le « théorie de deux nations » Hibah Ayesha Hashir 16
  17. 17. Vers le Pakistan Iqbal croyait bien que les musulmans du sous- continent avaient leur propre identité nationale et méritaient leur propre pays, et le 29 décembre 1930 il est devenu le premier homme politique qui l’a demandé. Il travaillait donc sans cesse pour encourager les politicians et le peuple musulman à soutenir Jinnah et le ligue musulman. Et le peuple à répondu avec enthousiasme. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 17
  18. 18. Adress à Allahabad • I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces, Sind and Baluchistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of the consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India. • J’aimerais voir le Panjab, Nord-est Frontière, Sind et Balûchistân uni dans un seul État. Autonomie dans l’Empire Britannique ou autonomie sans l’Empire Britannique, la formation d’un État musulman dans le Nord-Ouest du sous-continent indien me semble le destiné final des Musulmans, au moins de ceux du Nord-est de l’Inde.Hibah Ayesha Hashir 18
  19. 19. Iqbal a joué un rôle très important en persuadant Jinnah – plus tard « le fondateur » du Pakistan – qui s’était exilé à Londres – de rentrer et s’occuper de la ligue. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 19
  20. 20. Dans les années 40s, « Iqbal Days » (les jours d’Iqbal) étaient un moyen populaire chez le ligue pour unir les Musulmans du sous-continent. On ne les organisait forcement à son anniversaire mais à n’importe quelle moment de l’année. Iqbal Days Hibah Ayesha Hashir 20
  21. 21. "To the cherished memory of our National Poet Iqbal, I pay my homage on this day, which is being celebrated in commemoration of that great poet, sage, philosopher and thinker..." HOMMAGE À IQBAL « À la mémoire de notre chère poète national Iqbal, je lui rends hommage ce jour, qu’on fête en souvenir de ce grand poète, savant, philosophe et penseur… » December 11, 1944 Hibah Ayesha Hashir 21
  22. 22. IQBAL POUR LE PAKISTAN & LES PAKISTANAIS • Un grand poète et philosophe musulman. • Un des personnages les plus importants dans l’histoire de la littérature ourdou. • D’ailleurs, dans le Sud-est de l’Asie and le monde ourdouphone ainsi qu’au Pakistan, Iqbal est considéré: – Shair-e-Mashriq ‫شاعر‬‫مشرق‬ I Le poète de l’Est. – Muffakir-e-Pakistan ‫مفکر‬‫پاکستان‬ I Le penseur du Pakistan. – Hakeem-ul-Ummat ‫حکیم‬‫االمت‬ I Le savant du Ummah. • Le gouvernement du Pakistan lui a donné officiellement le titre « Poète National » et le considère comme « fondateur idéologique du Pakistan » Hibah Ayesha Hashir 22
  23. 23. Iqbal Day ( ‫یوم‬‫اقبال‬ Yōm-e Iqbāl) ou « le jour d’Iqbal » fête l’anniversaire de Muhammad Iqbal [le 9 Novembre] et c’est un jour férié au Pakistan. ‫اقبال‬ ‫یوم‬ Hibah Ayesha Hashir 23
  24. 24. http://www.therepublicofrumi.com/ http://www.allamaiqbal.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://www.yespakistan.com/iqbal/works.asp REFERENCES Hibah Ayesha Hashir 24
  25. 25. Hibah Ayesha Hashir 25

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