Image analysis

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Image analysis

  1. 1. Image AnalysisImage Analysis Year 12Year 12 AS MediaAS Media
  2. 2. Texts…Texts…  These are anything you can read.These are anything you can read.  In Media Studies we use this to refer toIn Media Studies we use this to refer to ANYANY media product, These include: TV, films,media product, These include: TV, films, radio, newspapers, magazines, photographsradio, newspapers, magazines, photographs etc.etc.  Texts are therefore the focal point of yourTexts are therefore the focal point of your study.study.
  3. 3. Codes…Codes…  These are rules or conventions which are putThese are rules or conventions which are put together (incorporating signs) which are to betogether (incorporating signs) which are to be followed, read and create meaning.followed, read and create meaning.  What does a code mean to you and can youWhat does a code mean to you and can you think of any types of codes?think of any types of codes?
  4. 4. Codes…Codes…  The English language itself is a code:The English language itself is a code: Shapes are formed and named as lettersShapes are formed and named as letters Letters are placed with other letters to form words.Letters are placed with other letters to form words. Words are strung together to make sentences.Words are strung together to make sentences. Punctuation is added to sentences to add meaning.Punctuation is added to sentences to add meaning.
  5. 5. Codes in media texts…Codes in media texts…  We understand sound and pictures are togetherWe understand sound and pictures are together to form a sequence. How we combine theseto form a sequence. How we combine these we change the meaning we derive from them.we change the meaning we derive from them.  The technical term form these isThe technical term form these is SYNTAGMS.SYNTAGMS. A series of signs put together to create aA series of signs put together to create a meaning. (Think about it, this is a syntagm.)meaning. (Think about it, this is a syntagm.)
  6. 6. More about codes…More about codes…  Dress codes – what people where, depending onDress codes – what people where, depending on situation, socialisation etc.situation, socialisation etc.  Colour codes – these are culture specific, for exampleColour codes – these are culture specific, for example different cultures respond to white in different ways.different cultures respond to white in different ways.  Non-verbal codes – related to body language orNon-verbal codes – related to body language or gestures. Again, these are culture specific.gestures. Again, these are culture specific.  Technical codes – the ways in which media texts areTechnical codes – the ways in which media texts are actually produced. For example, a black and whiteactually produced. For example, a black and white photo may convey realism or age.photo may convey realism or age.
  7. 7. Semiotics in more detail…Semiotics in more detail…  Phrase and ideology coined by Ferdinand de SaussurePhrase and ideology coined by Ferdinand de Saussure (a Swiss linguist) – 1857-1913.(a Swiss linguist) – 1857-1913.  Roland Barthes (1913-80) was influenced byRoland Barthes (1913-80) was influenced by Saussure and is now the most influential theorists onSaussure and is now the most influential theorists on this subject (refer to him).this subject (refer to him).  Saussure saw language as something which wasSaussure saw language as something which was socially constructed, rather than something we aresocially constructed, rather than something we are born being able to learn and understand.born being able to learn and understand.  He expanded this to relate to all aspects of societyHe expanded this to relate to all aspects of society and the way it was constructed.and the way it was constructed.
  8. 8. Barthes and semiotics…Barthes and semiotics…  Took the theory further in his bookTook the theory further in his book MythologiesMythologies and applies this to all aspects ofand applies this to all aspects of daily life, particularly popular culture anddaily life, particularly popular culture and advertising.advertising.  Barthes showed us how to deconstruct media.Barthes showed us how to deconstruct media.  Allows you to look at the underlying structuresAllows you to look at the underlying structures of a text.of a text.
  9. 9. SignsSigns  Key players – Fiske and Hartley:Key players – Fiske and Hartley: Reading TelevisionReading Television (1978).(1978).  They said a sign consists of two parts: the signified and theThey said a sign consists of two parts: the signified and the signifier.signifier.  There areThere are 33 different types of signs:different types of signs:  Symbolic (arbitrary) – these have no clear link between theSymbolic (arbitrary) – these have no clear link between the sign and the object.sign and the object. CATCAT This means the signs can have several different meanings whichThis means the signs can have several different meanings which can be contested.can be contested.
  10. 10.  Iconic – these are these we are socialised toIconic – these are these we are socialised to recognise. For instance, a man on a cross =recognise. For instance, a man on a cross = Christianity. A wheelchair = disabledChristianity. A wheelchair = disabled facilities.facilities.  Indexical – they have some sort of directIndexical – they have some sort of direct connection to that which is being signified.connection to that which is being signified. For example, smoke represents fire.For example, smoke represents fire.  The fact we can read things in more than oneThe fact we can read things in more than one way means they areway means they are POLYSEMIC.POLYSEMIC.

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