What about now? What are theclues/signifiers? Discuss
What might you expect in a gangster film?• Car chases• Urban settings• Guns• Mafia• Heroes• Corrupt police/politicians• Villains• Beautiful women• Violence• Italians• Drugs (modern)
Genre• Is the term used for the classification of media texts into groups with similar characteristics• Not just for films-for print based, TV and radio texts too!• They have common elements such as: STYLE, NARRATIVE and STRUCTURE which are used again and again to make up that particular type of genre
Iconography• The signs we associate with particular genres• Any examples?• There are also actors we associate with certain genres?• What about this man?
Genre and audience• Audiences like repetition• Audiences like repetition• Audiences become familiar with the codes and conventions of a genre (James Bond) and therefore can relate to it• It also saves time! We don’t have to get used to a new set of conventions and codes every time we consume a new text• Television docu-soaps rely on audience’s understanding of how both documentaries and soap operas work-any examples?
Genre and Gender (tongue twister!)• Do you agree that certain genres appeal to certain sexes?• Discuss.• Examples: Eastenders/action films or shows.• The narrative outcomes of the above two examples are different. Eastenders usually has a cliff hanger to promote further viewing while the climatic end of a sporting fixture or action film may appeal to men. How can we critique this?• Morley (1986) said that men disapproved of watching soap operas or fiction as it was not ‘real life’ enough for them and they prefer ‘serious’ TV such as sports/current affairs.• He also stated that men do actually enjoy these types of shows but they will not admit it!
Remember!• We are not just talking about films and TV shows• Think about the magazines you read-what do you look forward to reading? In which order? Why?• Do you read magazines from the same genre? Why/why not?• Are there similar products advertised in similar magazines.• Let’s look at two examples…
Media texts=profit! Just as a high street retailer needs to seegoods that people want to buy, a media producer has to create texts that audiences will want to consume.
Criticisms of genre• If genre can be shifted or mocked then it is hard to argue its value as an organising tool on media analysis• Are texts that don’t fit into genre better than Audience those that conform?• Neale and Ryan proposed this:The audience-producer-text triangleof dependency. Producer Text
• Grouping texts may not be ideal in the current climate, but it is worth looking at genre as it can give a great deal of information about trends in popular culture-the western or sci-fi films of the ‘50’s and ‘60’s• It also helps us to recognise the constraints upon producers of media texts
Finally: limitation of genre.1. Genre can be subverted/multi genre texts/hybrid texts2. Too generalised-need for subgenres3. Limited application when it comes to newspapers, magazines and radio