Using the Internet as a delivery platform for Open and Distance Learning materials. Canterbury Christ Church College Satur...
Agenda <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Open & Distance Learning </li></ul><ul><li>What makes good Ope...
Definitions (1/2) <ul><li>Open Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A  “philosophy” .  It gives learners more  access  to learni...
Definitions (2/2) <ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates many types of media into a single package - text, pi...
The History of Open & Distance Learning <ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed materials delivered via pos...
What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (1/3) <ul><li>Psychological Support </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are usually highl...
What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (2/3) <ul><li>Pedagogic Support </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to know where th...
What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (3/3) <ul><li>Physical Support </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between the ma...
Why use the Web for Open & Distance Learning? <ul><li>User-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of content-rich materia...
The Rise of the Cybernation (1/2) The number of Internet Hosts since 1990
The Rise of the Cybernation (2/2) It is estimated that over  50,000,000  people in  90  countries are now ‘wired’...
Being ‘wired’ (1/3) <ul><li>Electronic Mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor communicates with students and facilitate...
Being ‘wired’ (2/3) <ul><li>Online Discussion Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Being ‘wired’ (3/3) <ul><li>Conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (1/3) <ul><li>Spend  LESS  time playing around with HTML, fancy graphi...
Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (2/3) <ul><li>Consult web sites that provide advice on web page layout...
Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (3/3) <ul><li>Don’t use unnecessarily large graphics or sound/video cl...
What makes good ODL Courseware? (1/5) <ul><li>Course Information   </li></ul><ul><li>office hours </li></ul><ul><li>course...
What makes good ODL Courseware? (2/5) <ul><li>Class Communication   </li></ul><ul><li>tutor’s e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>dis...
What makes good ODL Courseware? (3/5) <ul><li>Assignments & Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>distribute assignments </li></ul>...
What makes good ODL Courseware? (4/5) <ul><li>Reference Material </li></ul><ul><li>list materials in print and electronic ...
What makes good ODL Courseware? (5/5) <ul><li>Interactive Tools </li></ul><ul><li>spoken word - audio clips </li></ul><ul>...
Other Issues <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>By default work is copyright - Berne Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t  ...
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Using the Internet as a delivery platform for Open and Distance Learning materials

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A presentation given to the IATEFEL Conference on Saturday 28th February, 1998 at Canterbury Christ Church College

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Using the Internet as a delivery platform for Open and Distance Learning materials

  1. 1. Using the Internet as a delivery platform for Open and Distance Learning materials. Canterbury Christ Church College Saturday 28th February, 1998
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Open & Distance Learning </li></ul><ul><li>What makes good Open & Distance Learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Why use the Web for Open & Distance Learning? </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise of the Cybernation </li></ul><ul><li>Being ‘wired’ </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials </li></ul><ul><li>What makes good Open & Distance Learning Courseware? </li></ul><ul><li>Other Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating the effectiveness of online materials </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions (1/2) <ul><li>Open Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “philosophy” . It gives learners more access to learning, more choice and control over what and how they learn. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “technology” . It enables learners to learn without being in the same place as their teacher with the aid of specially prepared learning packages, conferencing and correspondence with a distant tutor. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions (2/2) <ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates many types of media into a single package - text, pictures, animation, video and sound. Synonymous with CD-ROMs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates many types of media into a single package - text, pictures, animation, video, sound and hypertext (links to other documents). Synonymous with the Web. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The History of Open & Distance Learning <ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed materials delivered via postal service. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OU’s and the use of broadcast and recorded media. e.g. radio, TV, fax, telephone, audio/video tape. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive and digital technologies. e.g. interactive TV, electronic networks, computer based multimedia. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (1/3) <ul><li>Psychological Support </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are usually highly motivated - this motivation needs to be stoked by stimulating materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Relevant to learner’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Attractively presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Written in a clear and friendly style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Designed to boost learner’s confidence </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (2/3) <ul><li>Pedagogic Support </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need to know where they stand in a course; what they are expected to learn; where their strengths and weaknesses are; and what progress they’ve made. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Clear structure and effective ‘chunking’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Precise objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Self-checking mechanism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Feedback (on answers to questions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Summaries </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What makes good Open & Distance Learning? (3/3) <ul><li>Physical Support </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between the material and the learner should be a happy one, and there are simple ways in which the process of using materials can be made physically less tiring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Access devices (e.g. ‘signposts’, headings, links) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Attractive and helpful layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Helpful visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- User-friendly packaging </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Why use the Web for Open & Distance Learning? <ul><li>User-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of content-rich materials </li></ul><ul><li>Customisable by tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of text, graphics, sounds, video, animation and communication into a single tool </li></ul><ul><li>A minimal learning curve to use tool </li></ul><ul><li>Students study at own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap to prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Rise of the Cybernation (1/2) The number of Internet Hosts since 1990
  11. 11. The Rise of the Cybernation (2/2) It is estimated that over 50,000,000 people in 90 countries are now ‘wired’...
  12. 12. Being ‘wired’ (1/3) <ul><li>Electronic Mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor communicates with students and facilitates interaction amongst them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Catalogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gopher Searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Searches </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Being ‘wired’ (2/3) <ul><li>Online Discussion Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List Servers (over 3000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUDs / MOOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D Virtual Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications (e.g. Word, Excel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAI (e.g. tutorials, simulations, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment (e.g. SAQs, ITQs, MCQs) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Being ‘wired’ (3/3) <ul><li>Conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (1/3) <ul><li>Spend LESS time playing around with HTML, fancy graphics and backrounds. Spend MORE time thinking about the purpose and content of your web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with new software tools for developing web pages, e.g. Microsoft FrontPage , Adobe PageMill , HotMetal & Microsoft Office 97. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise information that has already been developed for your course. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at what is already available online. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (2/3) <ul><li>Consult web sites that provide advice on web page layout and style. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilise a consistent format for each of your web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep page lengths short, thus minimise on the amount of scrolling the student will have to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide easy access to web pages and information using glossaries, indexes and site maps. </li></ul><ul><li>MAXIMISE links to internal information and MINIMISE links to external information. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Designing Online Open & Distance Learning materials (3/3) <ul><li>Don’t use unnecessarily large graphics or sound/video clips. These can take too long to download on a slow modem. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let you web site become stale and out-of-date. Continuous development and maintenance of your web site is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Test, proof-read, pilot and evaluate your web site. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What makes good ODL Courseware? (1/5) <ul><li>Course Information </li></ul><ul><li>office hours </li></ul><ul><li>course aims and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>course syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>course calendar </li></ul><ul><li>course handbooks </li></ul><ul><li>reading lists </li></ul><ul><li>examination time-table </li></ul><ul><li>who to contact </li></ul>
  19. 19. What makes good ODL Courseware? (2/5) <ul><li>Class Communication </li></ul><ul><li>tutor’s e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>discussion groups to facilitate peer-to-peer discussion (e-mail, newsgroup and web) </li></ul><ul><li>feedback forms </li></ul><ul><li>electronic noticeboard </li></ul><ul><li>FAQ’s (Frequently Asked Questions) </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge bases (learning trees) </li></ul>
  20. 20. What makes good ODL Courseware? (3/5) <ul><li>Assignments & Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>distribute assignments </li></ul><ul><li>provide assessment - SAQs, ITQs and MCQs </li></ul><ul><li>give solutions, hints, or samples of what you expect </li></ul><ul><li>Material covered in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>make lecture notes, presentations and hand-outs available either as web pages or downloadable files </li></ul>
  21. 21. What makes good ODL Courseware? (4/5) <ul><li>Reference Material </li></ul><ul><li>list materials in print and electronic form that supplement the course </li></ul><ul><li>provide links to other web pages </li></ul><ul><li>electronic journals & magazines </li></ul><ul><li>online libraries </li></ul><ul><li>online tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>information gateways </li></ul>
  22. 22. What makes good ODL Courseware? (5/5) <ul><li>Interactive Tools </li></ul><ul><li>spoken word - audio clips </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrations - video clips </li></ul><ul><li>simulations - animation </li></ul><ul><li>modelling - Java / Javascript </li></ul><ul><li>CAI - ‘Shockwave’ productions </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other Issues <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>By default work is copyright - Berne Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t necessarily need copyright notice </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing is Public Domain - unless author says so! </li></ul><ul><li>It is very hard to enforce copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>The Disability Act, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Every graphic should have associated text </li></ul><ul><li>Provide transcripts of audio/video clips </li></ul><ul><li>Provide alternative mechanisms to online forms </li></ul><ul><li>Make hypertext links descriptive not verbose </li></ul>

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