Provide an overview of the issues relating to the use of learning technologies in Higher Education   Wayne Barry Friday 24...
<ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Technology Applications </l...
Definition Learning Technology is… “ …  a term used to describe a broad range of information and communications technologi...
<ul><li>Productivity tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, DTP, SPSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commun...
<ul><li>Drill and Practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applications reinforce material which has previously been taught, may in...
National Issues 1 <ul><li>The vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Encourage more flexibility in courses, to meet the needs of ...
<ul><li>Dearing’s “Higher Education in the Learning Society” Report (1997) and “The Future of Higher Education” White Pape...
Institutional Issues 1 “ Higher Education cannot become more productive or hold costs down unless colleges and universitie...
<ul><li>Infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needed to allow for organic and adaptive growth, progression and change. </l...
<ul><li>Flexibility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers students and staff some support with flexible and widening access to mat...
<ul><li>Until recently the design and development of courses &quot;has predominantly been the role of the academic or lect...
<ul><li>Issues of accessibility – Does it meet the DDA 1995, SENDA 2001 and EU legislation? </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns the...
Design and Delivery Issues 1 “… people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of...
<ul><li>Widening student access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with on and off campus access to resources and facilities;...
<ul><li>More opportunities for social interaction and peer support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depersonalising effects (more an...
<ul><li>Potential for active & independent learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individualised, self-paced instruction; </li></...
<ul><li>Timetabling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a shift towards a technology based learning means an increase in flexibility, r...
<ul><li>Licensing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a conflict between an open, study anywhere, anytime and the realities of resourci...
<ul><li>Cultural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are comfortable with LT methods, as they are similar to the forms of info...
<ul><li>Financial: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LT and access to online / offline materials offer an alternative to place-based e...
Q & A Please feel free to ask me any questions you may have regarding this presentation. Thank You.
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Provide an overview of the issues relating to the use of learning technologies in Higher Education

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A presentation given to representatives at Canterbury Christ Church University on Friday 24th March, 2006

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Provide an overview of the issues relating to the use of learning technologies in Higher Education

  1. 1. Provide an overview of the issues relating to the use of learning technologies in Higher Education Wayne Barry Friday 24 March 2006
  2. 2. <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Technology Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impacts upon Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>Overview
  3. 3. Definition Learning Technology is… “ … a term used to describe a broad range of information and communications technologies that are used to support and enhance learning, teaching and assessment. ” (Papaefthimiou, 2003)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Productivity tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, DTP, SPSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW, Email, Bulletin Boards, Video Conferencing, IM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Assessment (CAA) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Mediated Conferencing (CMC) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia (inc. Audio and Video) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackboard, WebCT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone / Radio / Television / Interactive Whiteboards </li></ul>Types of Learning Technologies
  5. 5. <ul><li>Drill and Practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>applications reinforce material which has previously been taught, may incorporate formative assessment and feedback. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library and Information Retrieval: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used in a variety of activities from preparing coursework to problem solving exercises. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models and Simulations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive applications which capture the essence of real world examples. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>summative assessment that offers a full range of multimedia (text; images; video; audio) as well as interactive games and skills tests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Communications and Collaboration Tools </li></ul>Learning Technology Applications
  6. 6. National Issues 1 <ul><li>The vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Encourage more flexibility in courses, to meet the needs of a more diverse student body and improve support for those doing part-time degrees . ” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More explicitly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There are not enough choices for flexible study - including part-time courses, sandwich courses, distance learning, and e-learning .” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The Future of Higher Education” White Paper, 2003 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Dearing’s “Higher Education in the Learning Society” Report (1997) and “The Future of Higher Education” White Paper (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a knowledge / information based economy </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Widening participation </li></ul><ul><li>A more diverse student cohort </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration within and between institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Social inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Employability, Work Experience and Key Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Development Plans / Lifelong Learning </li></ul>National Issues 2
  8. 8. Institutional Issues 1 “ Higher Education cannot become more productive or hold costs down unless colleges and universities embrace technological tools for teaching and learning . ” ( Massy and Zemsky, 1995 ) “ New ways of learning … require new forms of institutional management ” (Elton, 1999)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needed to allow for organic and adaptive growth, progression and change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support in equipment availability and facilities . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>particularly in how to use technology effectively in teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for work using it in developing new materials and involvement in ICT initiatives is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needed to train, develop new materials and implement technologies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needed to sustain and maintain growth. </li></ul></ul>Institutional Issues 2
  10. 10. <ul><li>Flexibility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>offers students and staff some support with flexible and widening access to materials and resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency / Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with increased student numbers, there is a need to improve the efficiency and management of the administrative elements of teaching and learning . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Markets / Opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with to increase student numbers, exploring new markets through distance learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhancing Learning and Teaching: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as student numbers grow, the resources to support them have not grown proportionately; new models and methods needed to support and sustain the quality of learning and teaching. </li></ul></ul>Institutional Issues 3
  11. 11. <ul><li>Until recently the design and development of courses &quot;has predominantly been the role of the academic or lecturer&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between the learning technologist and other members of the curriculum development team is key and time is required to build up and maintain these working relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of current research and practice in the use of learning technologies is vital if the learning technologist is to provide the appropriate advice and guidance to curriculum design teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing an appropriate learning approach – e.g. instructivist / constructivist. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing the appropriate instructional design model – e.g. ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation & Evaluation) </li></ul>Curriculum Development Issues 1
  12. 12. <ul><li>Issues of accessibility – Does it meet the DDA 1995, SENDA 2001 and EU legislation? </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns the copyright and Intellectual Property Rights of the materials? Avoid exposing Institution to greater risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance standards - Increased access to Internet provides greater opportunity for plagiarism – Use of plagiarism detection software </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting interoperability and reusability standards, such as SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) – Thus learning objects can be reused by different people / institutions, for different learning materials across different delivery platforms. </li></ul>Curriculum Development Issues 2
  13. 13. Design and Delivery Issues 1 “… people remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say and write, and 90% of what they say and perform at a task. ” ( Dale's &quot;Cone of Experience&quot; adapted from Wiman & Meirhenry, 1960 ) “ I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand. ” (Confucius)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Widening student access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with on and off campus access to resources and facilities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>issues of equality; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disability legislation and accessibility to online materials also need to be considered; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can become a &quot;dumping ground&quot; for materials not designed to be delivered online; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) of materials need to be considered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support large groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reuse of materials over time and across courses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring and assessing students online; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent and timely feedback through online formative assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>however, initial cost of setting up effective learning and assessment materials is high and requires considerable skill (and staff development), and/or a multi-skilled team approach. </li></ul></ul>Design and Delivery Issues 2
  15. 15. <ul><li>More opportunities for social interaction and peer support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depersonalising effects (more analytical/judgmental) - because there is an absence of body language/tone etc; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>levels of discourse may be at odds - students will need clear guidelines for what type of dialogue is expected to avoid inappropriate use e.g. social dialogue in a space that was intended for more academic discourse or vice-versa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no immediacy - students may have to wait for responses which might result in frustration or loss of motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of interactive and compelling materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>however, development of courseware is expensive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so, reuse of existing materials can be more economic and effective. </li></ul></ul>Design and Delivery Issues 3
  16. 16. <ul><li>Potential for active & independent learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individualised, self-paced instruction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of multiple media and methods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-directed learning; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more opportunities for collaborative working. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>however, independent learning still needs to be guided and supported; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and appropriate training and ongoing support is still needed for both students and staff. </li></ul></ul>Design and Delivery Issues 4
  17. 17. <ul><li>Timetabling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a shift towards a technology based learning means an increase in flexibility, resulting in an increased flexibility in timetabling and staff teaching hours. How can it be managed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will it be used to supplement other forms of teaching? Or will it lead to a different way of teaching? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAA is likely to be am important feature in University’s ICT strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student Expectations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High expectation of the quality of the delivery and the access to the appropriate resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT Infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you put in today will be out of date tomorrow. Is existing technology being used to it’s full potential? </li></ul></ul>ICT Issues 1
  18. 18. <ul><li>Licensing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a conflict between an open, study anywhere, anytime and the realities of resourcing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for staff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they have access to the appropriate resources? Have they been sufficiently trained to use them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support for students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they have access to the appropriate resources? Are they sufficiently competent to use them? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent to and the way in which ICT is used will have an impact on the spaces which are used for teaching and the way in which they are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased usage of ICT will lead to increase demand placed on students to use ICT and hence an increased demand on IT equipment within the University. </li></ul></ul>ICT Issues 2
  19. 19. <ul><li>Cultural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are comfortable with LT methods, as they are similar to the forms of information search and communications methods they use in other parts of their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive technology offers a new mode of engagement with ideas via both material and social interactivity online. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the reduction in social difference afforded by LT fits with the idea that students should take greater responsibility for their own learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LT offers the ability to manage quality at scale, and share resources across networks; its greater flexibility of provision in time and place makes it good for widening participation </li></ul></ul>Impacts upon Learning 1
  20. 20. <ul><li>Financial: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LT and access to online / offline materials offer an alternative to place-based education which reduces the requirement for expensive buildings, and the costs of delivery of distance learning materials. However, learners still need people support, so the expected financial gains are usually overwhelmed by the investment costs of a new system and the cost of learning how to do it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Laurillard, 2005) </li></ul>Impacts upon Learning 2
  21. 21. Q & A Please feel free to ask me any questions you may have regarding this presentation. Thank You.

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