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Gameshows aqa

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AQA slides with VALS

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Gameshows aqa

  1. 1. Autumn – Spring 2016-17 Television Game Shows
  2. 2. • They are a staple ingredient of television programming and schedules. • Often set in TV studios in front of a live audience, they have the element of competition at their core. • There are several sub genres, all of which are appropriate for Unit 1 purposes • According to Wikipedia sub genres include: activity oriented, dating, panel games, puzzle oriented and quiz shows. • Students should engage with a range of programmes across sub-genres. • Reality television shows, although having many similar conventions (and often a ‘game element’ to them), differ as they usually have a focus on ‘talent’ or real-life/work scenarios and therefore should not be used in the study of Television Game Shows. Television Game Shows: Mapping out the territory
  3. 3. • Audience • Institutions • Language • Representation The Four Concepts
  4. 4. 1. Audience • Who are the target audience for game shows? • Why do we watch gameshows? Audience
  5. 5. • Anyone can be part of a studio audience. Tickets are free, but limited. • www.aplausestore.com • www.lostintv.com • www.sroaudiences.com Audience
  6. 6. • Many Game shows are targeted towards a broad, mainstream audience • Game shows seek primarily to entertain their audience but they can offer gratifications such as providing information and social interaction • Mainstream television programming seeks to entertain old and young audiences, males as well as females and members of all economic/ social classes • Some game shows have a more clearly defined niche targets. Audience
  7. 7. • Many Game shows rely on audiences playing along with the game at home • Quiz shows and puzzle shows encourage audience engagement • Some quiz and puzzle shows offer competitions to generate more audience interaction • Action game shows encourage audiences to support a specific contestant or team and so the audience become invested in the result of the game • Dating game shows allow audiences to judge the contestants and make ‘selections’ for themselves or critique the selections made by contestants. Audience
  8. 8. • According to Bulmer and Katz Uses and Gratification Theory audiences make media selections based on the type of gratification they seek (other U&G theorists are available) • The primary gratifications Bulmer and Katz identified are: -Diversion - Escapism, Passing time, release of tension -Personal Relationship -Using the media to fulfil the need for companionship -Using the media to form social/para-social relationships -Surveillance/ Cognitive Needs -To view others’ experiences -to acquire information, knowledge or understanding Audience
  9. 9. • In more recent studies looking at entertainment media a range of gratifications were identified including: - Mood Management - Sensation seeking - Vicarious experiences - Downward social comparison Audience
  10. 10. • It is worth noting that different people may get different gratifications from media products • The inclusion of new media based elements can add to the type of gratification available • Audiences could use the more interactive elements of game shows and use them as a basis of socialisation e.g. two-screen viewing • Audiences may seek self-identification and/or status in the more participatory aspects of game shows Audience Activity 2 • Choose two of the game shows you identified in the starter activity – choose examples from different sub-genres • What types of gratifications do they offer – and how?
  11. 11. • Some game shows target very specific audiences • The audiences may be identified by basic demographics such as: - Age - Gender - Social/ Economic class • Can you think of specific examples of game shows that target very specific audience? Audience
  12. 12. • Most game shows, however, tend not to differentiate the audience in these ways • Different types of game shows will appeal to audiences through their personal interests and the personality types of the audience • Values and Lifestyles audience categories can be useful when considering the types of person the game show is targeting – and this can be generalised in terms of the sub-genres of game show Audience
  13. 13. • Innovator. These consumers are on the leading edge of change, have the highest incomes, and such high self-esteem and abundant resources that they can indulge in any or all self-orientations. They are located above the rectangle. Image is important to them as an expression of taste, independence, and character. Their consumer choices are directed toward the "finer things in life." • Thinkers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are mature, responsible, well-educated professionals. Their leisure activities centre on their homes, but they are well informed about what goes on in the world and are open to new ideas and social change. They have high incomes but are practical consumers and rational decision makers. • Believers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are conservative and predictable consumers who favour local products and established brands. Their lives are centred on family, community, and the nation. They have modest incomes. • Achievers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by achievement. They are successful work-oriented people who get their satisfaction from their jobs and families. They are politically conservative and respect authority and the status quo. They favour established products and services that show off their success to their peers. • Strivers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by achievements. They have values very similar to achievers but have fewer economic, social, and psychological resources. Style is extremely important to them as they strive to emulate people they admire. • Experiencers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by self- expression. They are the youngest of all the segments, with a median age of 25. They have a lot of energy, which they pour into physical exercise and social activities. They are avid consumers, spending heavily on clothing, fast-foods, music, and other youthful favourites, with particular emphasis on new products and services. • Makers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by self- expression. They are practical people who value self-sufficiency. They are focused on the familiar - family, work, and physical recreation - and have little interest in the broader world. As consumers, they appreciate practical and functional products. • Survivors. These consumers have the lowest incomes. They have too few resources to be included in any consumer self-orientation and are thus located below the rectangle. They are the oldest of all the segments, with a median age of 61. Within their limited means, they tend to be brand-loyal consumers. Audience – Values and Lifestyles (VALS)
  14. 14. • There are lots of lifestyles identified but at first it may be more straightforward to just consider four difference audience types: - Thinkers - Makers - Experiencers - Achievers Audience Thinkers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are mature, responsible, well-educated professionals. Their leisure activities centre on their homes, but they are well informed about what goes on in the world and are open to new ideas and social change. They have high incomes but are practical consumers and rational decision makers. Makers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are practical people who value self-sufficiency. They are focused on the familiar - family, work, and physical recreation - and have little interest in the broader world. As consumers, they appreciate practical and functional products. Experiencers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by self- expression. They are the youngest of all the segments, with a median age of 25. They have a lot of energy, which they pour into physical exercise and social activities. They are avid consumers, spending heavily on clothing, fast-foods, music, and other youthful favourites, with particular emphasis on new products and services. Achievers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by achievement. They are successful work-oriented people who get their satisfaction from their jobs and families. They are politically conservative and respect authority and the status quo. They favour established products and services that show off their success to their peers.
  15. 15. Activity 3 • Using the VALs categories, which type of audience member is most likely to find the following of interest? • Activity Oriented Game Shows • Dating Game Shows • Panel Game Shows • Puzzle Oriented Game shows • Quiz Shows Audience
  16. 16. • Contemporary audiences do not always watch television game shows on television • It is common for game shows to be made available for streaming after the initial broadcast as well as on YouTube and other online sites • Online sites can provide additional content – behind the scenes footage, interviews, previously unseen footage Audience
  17. 17. • Additional audience appeal can be created by: • The choice of presenter • Use of the ‘red button’ • Break bumpers • Competitions • Twitter • Other ideas? Audience
  18. 18. Audience Production Activity – A • You are a media producer who wishes to create a new game show • Select an audience, a sub-genre and a presenter for your game show • What techniques will you use to encourage audience interaction?
  19. 19. • Institutions like game shows as they are relatively cheap to produce • Sets and props are reused • Members of the public do not charge a fee • Crew costs are relatively small • Multiple episodes of studio based game shows can be films back-to-back in front of the same audience • Gameshows often attract large audiences Institutions
  20. 20. • Some channels specialise in game shows – for example Dave; Challenge TV • Game Shows’ repeated format create their own brand • They can create more interest and appeal by offering different approaches to the brand. This could include: • Celebrity Specials • Seasonal Specials • Hybrids and Spin Offs – something for you to consider for your own show Institution • www.dave.uktv.co.uk/tv-guide • www.challenge.co.uk/tv-guide
  21. 21. • Successful gameshow formats are sold all over the world • This can create an important income stream for the creators of the format • The globalised nature of some gameshow formats seems to indicate that audiences all over the world find game shows appealing and they share similar tastes • Presenters will change as will some of the set-design etc. But the format of the game will stay the same Institution • Different broadcasters have different target audiences • The scheduling of gameshows also relates to the target audience • The gameshows each channel broadcasts reflects the demographics they usually appeal to
  22. 22. • The ‘The Chase’ case study • What genre of game shows does The Chase fall into? • Who is the programme’s target audience? • How does The Chase make use of narrative devices? To what effect? • What gives the shows a broad appeal? • How important is the host of the show? Institution
  23. 23. • Production Activity – B • Going back to your original idea… • Devise a mechanism for your game? • How would you sell your gameshow? • What channel would be most likely to broadcast your gameshow? • What time of day/ day of the week will it shown? Institution
  24. 24. Activity First thoughts What conventions would you expect to find used in a TV Game Show, using the following heading: Mise-en-scene: Costume Lighting Actors/ Actions Make-up, Hair Props Set Sound Camera Shots Camera movements Editing techniques Media Language
  25. 25. Media Language How is a narrative created? The mechanic of some shows is set up like a quest: the contestant must overcome a number of ordeals before winning the prize – or going through to the next round Exposition – sets up the game Conflict and build up – playing Jeopardy and Resolution – winning/losing/reduction of chances/competition
  26. 26. Media Language Links given below are to full episodes • The Cube – www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebvK31OIWio • The Chase – www.youtube.com/watch?v=UeoVMo0C2OM • All Star Family Fortunes – www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5LHR2WYckY • Total Wipeout – www.youtube.com/watch?v=NURsQrY-cFg • A Question of Sport - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ms9n7w3MBcM
  27. 27. Media Language Openings to TV Game Shows, including the opening titles. What are the common conventions used in all all of these opening sequences? What conventions are generally used in the opening titles? In each case: • What are you shown / introduced to? • What has not been introduced so far? • From this part of the show alone, what do you understand the show to contain? • What media language have the producers used to try to hook the audience?
  28. 28. Media Language Introductions Consider: • Hosts • Contestants • Celebrities • Panels • Audiences • Self-representation (how the contestants ‘create’ a persona) How is media language used in the introductions of the host and the contestants? How are they being represented during this phase of the show?
  29. 29. Media Language Playing the game: In this phase of the show, how are each of these represented? The host • Where is the host placed? What is their role? How do they interact with the contestants, the studio audience, the TV audience, and any other people within the show? The contestants • Where are the contestants placed? What is their role? How much guidance do they appear to have had? Look at the use of studio lighting, camera shots, and editing, and listen to the music and dialogue, to see how these representations have been created
  30. 30. Media Language The climax or final round of the game: How does this sections of the show use media language to create tension? How is as sense of jeopardy created? How is this different to the earlier rounds? Consider especially the use of lighting, camera, sound and pacing.
  31. 31. Media Language Production Activity C – Returning to your own TV Game Show: • Formalise the mechanic for your show, thinking about creating tension, engaging the audience and creating entertainment • Decide on a title to convey this to your target audience • Select colours, sets and props • Decide on how you will choose your contestants, and how you want them to be represented • What will the relationship between host and contestants, and host and audience, be like?
  32. 32. Representation: Social Groups Within the shows’ hosts, contestants and audiences, how are the following represented? • Women • Ethnic minorities • Different social classes • Celebrities vs the public
  33. 33. Representation: Game shows in other media How are the game shows, their hosts and their contestants represented in other media? Tabloids Local newspapers, print and online (e.g. the Manchester Evening News covering ninja Warrior UK) www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/whats-on/film-news/watch-ninja- warrior-uk-hosts-8989073
  34. 34. Pitching an idea Production Activity E You have been devising a television game show, which you are now to pitch to your chosen TV channel prior to production. Include in your pitch: • Title and USP for the game show • Mechanic – how it works • Target audience • Suggested host • How to select contestants • Prizes • Why this will appeal to its target audience • An outline of your potential marketing campaign
  35. 35. Before the pre-release students should be able to: • Analyse and explain the appeal of a range of television game shows • Analyse and dissect a brief • Focus a response on the precise needs of a given task • Write a pitch • Use their knowledge of a variety of production skills • Be able to write succinctly, using terminology • Be able to respond in role • Be able to offer a rationale or evaluation, explaining the appeal to audiences • Write within the time constraints of the examination
  36. 36. Task One, 2016 • As ever, Task One is essentially testing knowledge and understanding of the topic area. In this case, science fiction film • Candidates must refer to two examples in their response. AO1 mark is limited to Band 3 (3 or 4 marks) if only one example is given. • Candidates who give more than two examples are sometimes self- penalising, as it is the depth of knowledge rather than breadth of knowledge which will warrant a mark in the higher bands. However, some candidates used two examples per bullet point, which worked well. • Coverage of all bullet points in important. • The key differentiator is often the extent to which candidates exemplify their knowledge of the topic are through the bullet points in the question

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