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Logistics of famine relief


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This is a presentation I created after a short study of Famine Relief Logistics.

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Logistics of famine relief

  1. 1. Chapter 15<br />Logistics of Famine Relief<br />
  2. 2. In Famine Relief Efforts, First and Third world logistics meet. What happens when advanced techniques are forced to operate in less than optimum conditions? In these situations the not-for-profit international logistics effort can be seen in action as well. <br />Introduction<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Famine Relief Logistics<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Locations of Major Relief in past years<br />Kosovo and Pakistan<br />Somalia and Ethiopia<br />Present Locations for relief (at time of printing)<br />Afghanistan and North Korea (Predictions of a million in each loc.)<br />Combined Logistics efforts and an understanding of Political, Social and economic structure allow success to take place. <br />Famine Relief LogisticsLocations of Major Relief<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Causes of Famine<br />Not because there is too little food, it is not WHERE it needs to be. <br />Logistics is the essence of famine relief; it gets the food to those that need it. <br />Occurs in less developed regions<br />Consumer is not the customer or the supplier<br />Politics plays a pivotal role in the operation<br />Famine Relief LogisticsCauses of Famine<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Relief is the foreign intervention into a society with the intention of helping local citizens<br />Can help or hurt a society<br />Distribution of “free” food can disrupt existing local agriculture and logistics networks by delaying their development and postponing self-reliance<br />Relief Agencies<br />Over 100 major organizations world-wide<br />Billions of dollars in food annually<br />Almost all governments are involved as a donor, recipient or participant. <br />In 2001 , the UN World Food Program had an operating budget of just under 2 B<br />Famine Relief LogisticsRelief<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Environmental – Caused by natural phenomena (Drought)<br />Precipitation Drought – Lack of rainfall<br />Runoff Drought – low levels of river flow<br />Aquifer Drought – lack of groundwater<br />Logistics Challenge – Drill for water or bring water in?<br />Political Famine – More complex, usually an Environmental famine is exacerbated by war. <br />Armed conflicts so bad, citizens are prevented from producing food<br />Refugees flea the war, no support network once away<br />Logistics Challenge – Move the people or the food?<br />Famine Relief LogisticsTypes of Famines<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Operation Lifeline Sudan (1989-1990) Led by UN International Children’s fund (UNICEF) - Sudan<br />Operation Provide Comfort – Led by US Army 353rd Civil Affairs Command – Kurdish in Iraq/Turkey<br />Operation Angel – Led by US military – Bangladesh (Typhoon disrupted food distribution in country)<br />3 Major Relief OperationsReferenced Later<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />8<br />
  9. 9. The UN – United Nation’s World Food Program<br />Deals with Famine and Refugees<br />Food pledges from governments are used in distribution of relief<br />Sustained presence and relief worldwide<br />PVO – Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO’s) Come and Go<br />International Red Cross and Catholic Red Cross<br />Americare – Large plane full of volunteers is in country in hours. No needs assessment, just there.<br />Compete for resources to complete tasks, rental trucks for instance<br />US Agency for International Development (AID)<br />Acquires food from the Department of Agriculture’s Public Law 480 (PL480) program<br />Subdivisions – Organizations within (AID) <br />Governments provide food for Diplomatic Efforts and to dispose of excess food from Subsidized farming<br />Command and ControlTypes of Organizations<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Some famine can be forecasted – Satellite Photos for example. Unusual trends in country with markets and infrastructure.<br />Allows for preparation <br />Information Management is the single greatest determinant of success.<br />Challenge – Distance from those in need, unfamiliarity with situation and differences among relief workers<br />Demand Forecasting<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Popularity of the disaster affects how much relief resource is available<br />1983 – International Red Cross (IRC) appealed separately for Poland and Brazil (4X) and (2.4%)<br />Food should be acquired as close to the disaster as possible. (Spoil in transit)<br />Some food is not fit for relief<br />Accepted food is on a list, unacceptable foods perish.<br />Myriad of non-food items such as Tools, Fuel, Shelters, Sanitation equipment and Medical Supplies<br />Sourcing<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Survivability of supplies<br />Ease of handling<br />Transportation requirement<br />Laws affect all these things in different countries<br />Packaging<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Shrinkage is much greater in famine relief due to the environment of war and disaster<br />In Somalia food was flooded into the country to lose its value. No reason to attach aid workers<br />Nonfood items are even more targeted due to value of tools and parts etc…<br />Managing Inventories<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Based on Political and or Security concerns<br />Food for Oil Program – Embargoed Oil sold from Iraq raised money for food. <br />Brought in by Sea and distributed in 3 cities in Northern Iraq ( 2,000 TEU’s , 6 Mo’s)<br />Local Knowledge should be heard and considered by sources inside the areas of conflict<br />Food is distributed at facilities and people coming to get it can become refugees or die in the process. (Kosovo)<br />Site or Route Selection<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Ocean transport is most common due to capacity and cost<br />Port selection is based on inland access, Water Depth, Cargo Handling and Storage nearby, and Customs and Government services.<br />Air is used for remote areas that lack infrastructure between Ocean ports and disaster zones.<br />Air-Cargo Drops, a military technique, used when relief is immediately needed. E.G. CDS in C-130’s<br />Land Transportation is the most costly in relief operations<br />Transportation<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Relief efforts require the same paper work as commercial shipments<br />Freight Forwarders are often used to fulfill documentation requirements and arrange for transportation<br />Waybills are used as packing slips of sorts. Fulfilling organizational accountability requirements. <br />Documentation<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Vehicles and Shelters used in relief should be marked identifying them as non-combatants, Geneva-Convention<br />Supply Chain for parts and garages to maintain relief vehicles is very complex and dangerous<br />Mercedes was chosen in Ethiopia since Mercedes dealerships were all over the Nation<br />Parts and Service Support<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />17<br />
  18. 18. In Humanitarian relief – the Sponsor is the constituent and the victim is a third party, no voice in the process<br />Workers first answer to the Sponsor before the Victim<br />Advertising is used by competing relief organizations until one wins a region then others are encouraged to stop <br />Starving children raise more money on TV than farm improvement<br />Advertising increases popularity of the crisis and increases support<br />In developed nations, networks are customer driver, in relief they are not and confusion arises<br />Customer Service<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />18<br />
  19. 19. What are some of the causes of famines?<br />Which famines are predictable?<br />In famine relief efforts, in which ways do first and third world logistics practices meet?<br />What are advantage and disadvantages of moving refugees into centralized camps where they can be more easily fed?<br />What are some of the hazards in handling relief shipments of food that one does not normally associate with moving food in developed economies?<br />Chapter Questions1-5<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />19<br />
  20. 20. What items, in addition to feed, are moved by relief agencies? Do they have special handling requirements?<br />What are some of the challenges associated with the transport of relief supplies in third-world countries?<br />What types of agencies are involved in providing relief to areas suffering from famine?<br />Who is the customer that is being served by these famine relief efforts?<br />In what ways if any, would the charters of an ideal logistics manager for a famine relief agency differ from the characteristics of an ideal logistics manage of a firm that built automobile mufflers?<br />Chapter Questions6-10<br />Prepared and Presented by Matt Herring, 2011<br />20<br />