Broiler diets to maximize carcass yield and quality

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Poultry research with different levels of protein and energy to maximize carcass yield and quality

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Broiler diets to maximize carcass yield and quality

  1. 1. Broiler Diets to Maximize Carcass Yield and Quality <ul><li>F. I. L. Hernandez 1 , M. J. Zuidhof, D. R. Korver 2 , R. A. Renema 2 , Valerie Carney 1 </li></ul>1 Alberta Agriculture and Food, Agriculture Research Division 2 Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta
  2. 3. Dietary Energy Density Dietary Protein Density
  3. 4. Take Home Message <ul><li>Optimal nutrient densities to optimize performance and to maximize profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good early start pays dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Drop the Energy:Protein ratio during grower and finisher phases </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Quality in the meat sector </li></ul><ul><li>… has many dimensions (leanness, color, functional properties) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize value (yield, quality, or profitability)… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… usually means compromise between multiple competing objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling applications were explored for using nutrition to optimize broiler production </li></ul><ul><li> … and explore the impact of nutrition with the aim of improving lean meat yield </li></ul>Background
  5. 6. Cobb Sex-separate HighPS LowPS 3,335 kcal/kg 22.80 CP 3,245 kcal/kg 21.80 CP PRE-STARTER 1 – 11 d
  6. 7. TREATMENTS *Cobb-Vantress recommendations for maximized growth rate and feed efficiency 97 % energy 100% energy 94 % energy 92.5 % protein 85 % protein 100 % protein 107.5 % protein 115 % protein
  7. 8. ME Treatment TREATMENTS DIETS D BDD BD BBD B Rec CD ABCCDD ABCD AABBCD AB Mod C ACC AC AAC A Low VHigh High Rec Low VLow DBP Treatment
  8. 9. A B C D CORNER DIETS (Analyzed) 3,009 (kcal/kg) 20.70 CP Starter 11 – 20 d 3,169 (kcal/kg) 19.80 CP 3,014 (kcal/kg) 27.80 CP 3,094 (kcal/kg) 27.80 CP 2,909 (kcal/kg) 16.39 CP Grower 20 – 31 d 3,119 (kcal/kg) 17.41 CP 2,842 (kcal/kg) 23.41 CP 3,008 (kcal/kg) 22.31 CP 3,022 (kcal/kg) 16.09 CP Finisher 31 – 56 d 3,137 (kcal/kg) 16.78 CP 2,972 (kcal/kg) 20.76 CP 3,171 (kcal/kg) 21.52 CP
  9. 10. ME Treatment TREATMENTS DIETS D BDD BD BBD B Rec CD ABCCDD ABCD AABBCD AB Mod C ACC AC AAC A Low VHigh High Rec Low VLow DBP Treatment
  10. 12. Techniques <ul><li>BW (Live body weight) </li></ul><ul><li>Carcass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eviscerated (feet, head and neck removed) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Breast (p. major + p. minor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Abdominal fatpad (including fat on gizzard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Legs (drum + thigh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Wings </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>- Equations are useful to discover optimal ages or management strategies for lean chicken production </li></ul><ul><li>Allometric analysis was conducted using Huxley’s equation </li></ul><ul><li>Where y is the weight of the carcass part (g); </li></ul><ul><li>x is the weight of the eviscerated carcass (g); </li></ul><ul><li>a and b are coefficients, estimated using the NLIN procedure of SAS. </li></ul>Techniques
  12. 14. Effect of Prestarter on BW PS Level P<0.0001 P<0.0001
  13. 15. Effect of Prestarter on Breast Yield at 42 d ( 2,135 g EBW) Breast (g) P<0.037
  14. 16. Prestarter Effects (HighPS) Summary <ul><li>Improved BW at 42 d (2.73 vs 2.66 kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Breast Yield at 42 d (670 vs 668 g) </li></ul>
  15. 17. Effect of Sex on BW at 42 d P<0.0001 2.48 2.92 P<0.0001
  16. 18. Fatpad (g) Effect of Sex on Fat Pad at 42 d P<0.0001
  17. 19. P<0.0001 Breast (g) Effect of DBP on Breast Yield at 42 d P<0.0001
  18. 20. Effect of DBP on Fat Pad at 42 d Fatpad (g) P<0.0001
  19. 21. Economic Analysis <ul><li>Live cost of production (Supply Chain Model) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed intake & FCR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- $1.94/kg (whole bird scenario) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- $2.13/kg (cutup scenario) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carcass Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(CA wholesale / US relative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole bird scenario ($3.48 < 2.3 kg < $4.15/kg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutup scenario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breast ( x 1.78) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legs ( x 0.86) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other ( x 0.62) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sources: AAFC, USDA
  20. 22. A B C D FEED PRICES OF CORNER DIETS HighPS LowPS $315.26 Starter $348.95 $333.70 $367.31 $324.68 Grower $360.31 $344.01 $379.72 $319.66 Finisher $354.10 $334.20 $369.42 $354.20/t $317.24/t PRE-STARTER
  21. 23. Relative Feed Prices
  22. 24. <ul><li>More Profitable: </li></ul><ul><li>High PS </li></ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul>Females Males
  23. 25. Optimum: 97% ME @102% rec DBP
  24. 26. Optimum Formulation* *% of Cobb-Vantress recommendations for maximized growth and feed efficiency 99 97 101 97 56 101 97 101 97 49 101 97 102 97 42 101 97 102 97 36 98 97 102 97 28 DBP ME DBP ME Age Whole Cutup
  25. 27. OPTIMAL DIETS (cut up scenario) 97% ME 102% DBP 3,011 (kcal/kg) 23.55 CP 2,911 (kcal/kg) 19.49 CP 3,015 (kcal/kg) 18.42 CP STARTER HighPS GROWER FINISHER 3,335 kcal/kg 22.80 CP
  26. 28. Optimal Energy:Protein ratios Cutup Market Optimal Cal:P ratio is lower than recommended for grower and finisher phases Whole Market Optimal Cal:P ratio is slightly higher for the starter and grower phases than for the cutup market ——————————— kcal ME / g CP ——————————— 16.1 16.0 15.8 15.7 17.1 Finisher 14.7 14.6 14.6 14.2 16.0 Grower 14.9 14.8 14.8 14.2 14.0 Starter Whole Cutup Whole Cutup Recommended Honourable mentions Optimal
  27. 29. Final Considerations <ul><li>Early nutrition has a strong economic impact </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritionists working with the end product in mind have the potential to improve value through improving lean yield, reducing carcass fatness </li></ul>
  28. 30. Take Home Message <ul><li>Optimal nutrient densities to optimize performance and to maximize profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good early start pays dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Drop the Energy:Protein ratio during grower and finisher phases </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Acknowledgements Poultry Industry Council for Research and Education
  30. 32. Thanks!
  31. 33. Prestarter Diets % 15.0 10.5 Wheat Grain 22.0 32.3 Soybean Meal 19.4 - Wheat Bran 2.3 - Corn Gluten Meal 5.6 5.8 Others (AA, Min, Vit, Binder) 0.006 0.6 Canola Oil 35.6 50.8 Corn Grain LowPS HighPS Ingredients
  32. 34. Corner Starter Diets % 5.8 3.0 - 19.7 21.5 10.0 40.0 StartB 5.7 0.3 - 25.0 22.0 - 47.0 StartA - - Corn Grain 41.0 38.3 Wheat Grain 32.6 31.6 Soybean Meal 17.8 24.0 Wheat Bran 5.8 5.8 Others (AA, Min, Vit, Binder) 2.8 0.3 Canola Oil - - Corn Gluten StartD StartC
  33. 35. Corner Grower Diets % 5.8 4.4 - 25.0 15.4 10.0 39.4 GrowB 5.7 1.1 - 25.0 16.2 2.0 50.0 GrowA - 10.0 Corn Grain 40.0 32.9 Wheat Grain 24.5 25.1 Soybean Meal 25.2 25.0 Wheat Bran 5.8 5.8 Others (AA, Min, Vit, Binder) 4.5 1.2 Canola Oil - - Corn Gluten GrowD GrowC
  34. 36. Corner Finisher Diets % 5.4 4.4 - 18.3 14.8 10.0 47.1 FinishB 5.3 1.8 - 25.0 15.1 - 52.8 FinishA 6.9 9.8 Corn Grain 38.9 35.3 Wheat Grain 23.2 22.6 Soybean Meal 20.8 25.0 Wheat Bran 5.5 5.4 Others (AA, Min, Vit, Binder) 4.7 1.9 Canola Oil - - Corn Gluten FinishD FinishC

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