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Efterpolering Af Spildevand For Mikroforureningsstoffer

IdaMiljø møde 4. maj 2010 om "Fremtidens Spildevandsbehandling".

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Efterpolering Af Spildevand For Mikroforureningsstoffer

  1. 1. Efterpolering af spildevand for mikroforureningsstoffer Henrik Andersen
  2. 2. Efterpolering af spildevand for mikroforureningsstoffer <ul><li>Organiske mikroforureningsstoffer </li></ul><ul><li>Aktivt kul </li></ul><ul><li>Kemisk oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Bliver det til noget og hvad koster det? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Organiske mikroforureningsstoffer
  4. 4. Kemikalier i spildevand p-Nonylphenol Lægemidler Parabens Sunscreens Steroid estrogens Bisphenol A
  5. 5. Steroid østrogener påviker fisks reproduktion Vitellogenin syntese Kønsdifferentiering   17  -estradiol Institute of Environment & Resources Technical University of Denmark
  6. 6. Eksempler på problemstoffer <ul><li> Spildevand vs. Økotox </li></ul><ul><li>P-pille Ethinylestradiol (4 ng/L vs. 0,03 ng/L) </li></ul><ul><li>Ibuprofen Ibuprofen (10 µg/L vs. 10 ng/L) </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaren Dichlofenak (1 µg/L vs. 10 ng/L?) </li></ul>ibuprofen diclofenac Ethinylestradiol
  7. 7. Lægemiddelfjernelse på renseanlæg med aktivt slam og kvælstoffjernelse Compound (n=X1:X2) Number of WWTPs with at least one pair of samples Number of WWTPs with at least one pair of samples and at least one influent concentration that exceeds the limit of quantification
  8. 8. Activat slam med kvælstoffjernelse sammenligned med rislefiltre
  9. 9. Ide bag mistrapharma projektet Lægemidler som kan være miljøskadelige Alle lægemidler Sorberes til slam Bionedbrydes i Rislefilter renseanlæg med delvis nitrifikation Bionedbrydes i fuldt udbygget Bio-de-nitro renseanlæg Fjernes med 5 g/m 3 ozon Sorberes med 50 g/m 3 aktivt kul pulver ©Henrik Andersen Ethinylestradiol Dichlofenak Ibuprofen
  10. 10. Aktivt kul
  11. 11. Pulverkul PAC – Mistrapharma koncept Preliminary Treatment Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Air Chemicals Feed Receiving water Dewatering Sludge digester Sludge Treatment Incineration/ Land application 20 – 200 g PAC/m 3 ~ 0.07 – 0.7 €/m 3
  12. 12. Percentage residual concentrations of APIs after treatment with different PAC doses. Sorptiont til PAC i behandlet spildevand
  13. 13. Start dosing Start dosing Stop dosing Stop dosing Langtidsforsøg med biologisk behandling og PAC (0.01g/l) De to andre lægemidler er fuldstændigt fjernet
  14. 14. Sandfilter med kemidosering Filtration Filter skylning Aktivt kul Sand Udviklingsprojekt MILTEK
  15. 15. Actiflo ® Carb Tertiært spildevand Nyt aktivt kul Aktivt kul og slam recirkulering Brugt aktivt kul og slam Udviklingsprojekt MILTEK
  16. 16. Ozonering
  17. 17. O 3 Ozonerings anlæg 2-15 g O 3 /m 3 ~ 0.05 – 0.3 €/m 3 Figure from ITT/WEDECO sales material
  18. 18. ozon system Figure from ITT/WEDECO sales material with permission by Achim Reid ozone generator energy (400 V) cooling water 5 - 32 °C feed gas O 3 grounded air / O 2 electrodes 5,5 kV offgas reaction tank
  19. 19. Ozon behandling <ul><li>De tre modellægemidler er typisk fjernet med 2-4 g ozon/m 3 . </li></ul>2-15 g O 3 /m 3 ~ 0.05 – 0.3 €/m 3
  20. 20. Klordioxid (ClO 2 ) 2-4 g ClO 2 /m 3 ~ 0.01 – 0.03 €/m 3 Patent WO2010023311
  21. 21. ClO 2 generator fra Alldos (Grundfos)
  22. 22. Omsætningshastighed >4 mg/L forbrugt på < 2 min
  23. 23. Oxidation med klordioxid Residual concentrations of lægemidler I nitrificeret (top) og ikke-nitrificeret (nederst) effluenter
  24. 24. Konklusion <ul><li>Ibuprofen fjernes godt med biologi. Ozon og kul kan anvendes, men klordioxid er uden virkning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dichlofenak fjernes effektivt af ozon og klordioxid og mindre effektivt med kul. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethinylestradiol: Fjernes næsten med biologisk rensning, men aldrig fuldstændigt. Alle tre efterbehandlinger er effektive. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bliver det til noget og hvad koster det?
  26. 26. Kommer vi nogensinde til at lave det …. <ul><li>EEP Newsletter No. 169: Micro-pollutants: a hundred sewage plants (STEP) to be modified </li></ul><ul><li>About 100 Swiss sewage plants are to be equipped with systems for eliminating micro-pollutants, according to an announcement by the Federal Office for the Environment (BAFU) at the beginning of October. This is because currently micro-pollutants (biocides, medicaments, cosmetics, and cleaning products) are not eliminated adequately. They have a polluting effect on plants and aquatic animals (feminisation of male fish) and are a threat to drinking water resources. So action is necessary. Equipping the STEPs requires specific actions according to the measures tested as part of the MicroPoll Strategy. The ozone method tested at the Regensdorf sewage plant gave good results. Other pilot projects will be launched in Lausanne, and at the Federal Water Research Institute (EAWAG). </li></ul><ul><li>The problem of micropollutants affects Swiss regions to varying degrees. The most affected are large sewage plants, those on water courses where there is insufficient dilution of the treated water in the flow, and sewage plants on reservoirs destined for drinking water. </li></ul><ul><li>These STEPs, says BAFU, should be equipped with appropriate systems. The Federal Office estimates that according to these criteria about a hundred out of 700 Swiss sewage stations need modifications. Apart from the country's largest sewage plants, there are about 90 medium plants which require changes. In the medium term, the investment required for these 100 sewage plants is estimated at about 1.2 billion Swiss francs (over 650 million euros). The total annual cost would be approximately 130 million francs (85 million euros). </li></ul><ul><li>The modifications needed could be carried out during normal renovation of STEPs in the near future, says the BAFU. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// = </li></ul>
  27. 27. Det er (måske) for dyrt! Smitstoffer > 90 % Tungmetaller ~ 0 0.25 kr/m 3 Klordioxid (4 mg/L) 0.1 – 1 kr/m 3 0.20 kr/m 3 Pris Tungmetaller > 90 % Smitstoffer ~ 0 <ul><li>Aktivt kul </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAC </li></ul></ul>Smitstoffer > 90 % Tungmetaller ~ 0 Ozon (8 mg/L) Effekt Metode Institute of Environment & Resources Technical University of Denmark