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13 hja 01 motive power mst


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13 hja 01 motive power mst

  1. 1. Perpetual Mobility and Sustainment on Water Net Zero Energy Cost - No Longer a Panacea Montreal, Canada 1 September 2014 New Technology for Hybrid Solar Wind in: Packaged Power Systems Executive Summary - Business Plan
  2. 2. What Do I Do?
  3. 3. INTRO: Selecting Fossil Fuel Instead of Electricity as Power Source at the Turn of the 20th Century Was Perhaps Mankind’s Most Costly Mistake 60 -70% of oil today is destined for Transportation Fuels
  4. 4. INTRO: Fossil Fuel Price Growing in Leaps and Bounds
  5. 5. Current Ideas on How to Beat the Cost of Mobility at Sea
  6. 6. The First Solar Powered Only Circumnavigation of the Planet Was Completed between 2009/9 and 2012/2
  7. 7. Emergence of Solar Power for Ocean Passages 2007 Sun21 Travel 7,000 nm Crossing the Atlantic Seville – Florida – New York 2009/9- 2012/2 Planet Solar Circumnavigated the planet - 21,638 nm in 566 days
  8. 8. Planet Solar’s Mission Design and Mobility Solutions • To voyage at reasonable speeds, • Prove that perpetual travel on Solar Power alone is possible • Test the wave-piercing hulls ability to penetrate water to reduce resistance under all condition as required to optimize electric propulsion The multihull gave Planet Solar the beam required to place 5,780 SF of Solar Panels topside which provided sufficient power for mobility and Sustainment (Hotel Load) for a global circumnavigation with current technology. CPV technology will allow much reduction in seize of vessels.
  9. 9. Solar CPV Panels Central Energy Mgmt. System Energy Storage System Wind Turbines Electric Motors Hybrid Solar - Wind Yacht Conceptual - Integrated Energy System Electric/ Alternator Motor* Electric/ Alternator Motor* Emergency/ Battery Charging Genset Energy Preserving Towing Kite Taffrail Water Generators (small yachts) Regeneration Systems Airborne Generating: Rotating Kite * Areas with dotted lines denotes optional technology
  10. 10. Solar C-Si vs. CPV Efficiency by Field Size Nearly all Silicon based 2015 NRLE CPV Target of 56% Efficiency* All Thin Film Showing the 2009 SP C-Si at 100% for comparison of Current and Near Future Energy Field by Comparison Using CPV 1-Axis Tracking will Increase Efficiency additionally by 20% Using CPV 2-Axis Tracking will Increase Efficiency additionally to 30% 2014 50.1% Efficiency* vs. Size * CPV Efficiency is including 2-Axis Tracking SP C-Si 100% Size High Efficiency Silicon
  11. 11. Benefits of CPV: Concentrated Photovoltaic Highest Current Cell Output for CPV 43.7%, with 30% increase from 2-Axis Tracking: • Sustainable, Reliable Power with very low Maintenance requirement,, • Clean power no smell from fuel internally or fuel spillage externally, • Cost-efficient Life Cycle Cost when size of field is match to consumption, • Challenge: Price, Integration and Energy Storage
  12. 12. CPV Power Generating Installation CPV Makes Energy Independence Possible Top side tub Each unit 177SF Sample Bank of 10 units of CPV 1,770 SF 1st Axis swivels +/- 15° 2nd Axis swivels +/- 15°
  13. 13. Proof of Principle Model The project choice was the current world record holder Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) with 43.7% cell efficiency which will provide over 3x the efficiency of the SP 2009 c-Si panels. It will allow for reduction in the solar field size by more than 70% of PV and allow for corresponding reduction in vessel size, or more than double the energy generation for a vessel of equivalent size to Planet Solar – or a lesser size vessel with greatly improve speed. The application of CPV is no longer an issue of cell output, but rather an engineering challenge, one that can more easily be solved than developing new solar power cells with higher output. By adding an off-the-shelf 2-Axis hydraulic tracker, it will give a further increase in power by an additional improvement of 30%. Development work now underway promises 2-Axis tracking with35% improvement by 2015.
  14. 14. Improved Output from Solar Fields Shrink the Size of the Sun Catchment Area Improved solar field output will Impact the deck size for power generation for all new solar yacht designs. • CPV Tracking Announced 5% Improvement over 2012 results Type/Efficiency Cell (DC) Module (DC) System (AC) Tracking 1-Axis Tracking 2-Axis Cerc 1996- 12.0% 10.8% 8.3% ~ ~ SP PV - 2009 23.4% 19.0% 16.0% ~ ~ CPV - 2009 36.0% 33.1% 31.3% 37.6% 40.7% CPV - 2010 39.0% 35.9% 33.9% 40.7% 44.1% CPV - 2011-12 43.7% 40.2% 38.0% 45.6% 49.4% CPV - 2012-13 47.2% 43.4% 41.1% 49.3% 53.4% CPV - 2014 DC Grid 47.2% 43.4% ~ 52.1% 56.5% NREL - 2015 (35% tracking) 50.0% 46.0% ~ 55.2% 62.1%
  15. 15. Heat Pipe/Heat Pump Reuse of CPV Generated Heat The HSY CPV solar field when using a Fresnel lens at 1000x magnification of sunlight focused on CPV cells will generate substantial amounts of heat that can be pumped out of the CPV casement units and into a short heat pipe. The only practical limit to the rate of heat transfer is the speed with which the heat pipe gas can be condensed to a liquid at the cold end. The advantages of heat pipes over many other heat-dissipation mechanisms are their great efficiency in transferring heat. A pipe one inch in diameter and two feet long can transfer 12,500 BTU (3.7 kW) per hour at 1,800 °F (980°C) with only 18 degrees temperature drop from end to end, in conjunction with a heat pump it will generate all the heat and cooling for the HSY.
  16. 16. Elements Studied for Achieving Total Independence s o u r s e SP Solar PV Solar CPV Future (NREL)* Solar CPV Lithium Ion Batteries Large Storage Type System 93.5 kWp Solar PV output 500-600 kWh/d 23.4% Cell 16% System Efficient (Used Planet Solar) 50.kWp Solar CPV 43.7% cell with 2-Axis Tracking 50.1% System (Used HSY) 60 kWp 2015 Solar CPV 50% cell with 2-Axis tracking 56% System Efficiency Li-Ion in Series Replaced by improved LiFePO4 batteries 40-100 kW Energy Storage Suitable for large yachts, will be soon be replaced by Fuel Cell storage Current Status 2009 Best PV Technology Best CPV 2014 Proven Laboratory Cell Proven Operational Today Operational Today Tech 2015 PV C-Si since reach its limit Advanced High output designs The ultimate In solar cell design Increase capacity and 43% reduced price over last 5 years Improvement In Fuel Cell efficiency by 2015
  17. 17. Energy Density Wh/Kg 10000 1000 100 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 SpecificEnergy(Wh/Kg) Volumetric Energy Density (Wh/L) High-pressure Hydrogen (35 Mpa) CNG 20 Mpa) Hydrogen sourced Energy Ethanol Gasoline Bio-diesel Diesel Lithium-ion Nickel metal hydride Lead Source: Toyota Gaseous fuels Liquid fuels Batteries LMB ThB 500Wh/Kg. LMB: Liquid Metal Battery –still under investigation ThB: Thorium (Plasma) Battery - still under investigation 200Wh/Kg
  18. 18. CPV Solar Electricity Generating Hydrogen to Drive a Fuel Cell Producing Power Directly for Electric Motor(s) The solar field provides electricity to an air-compressor which removes hydrogen from ordinary water (H2O) by a process of electrolysis. The resulting hydrogen goes to a storage tank and is released on demand to a fuel cell which convert H2 directly to electricity. This process is not to be mistaken for hydrogen fuel. The hydrogen is transform directly to electricity when recombined with oxygen (O). No energy is lost, in fact a fossil fuel fed generators with 38% efficiency using fuel cell increases efficiency to 65% - a 41.5% performance improvement. The only by-product is recyclable water. In this cycle process hydrogen is an energy carrier that allows storage of solar energy in large amounts for distribution when required. The CPV – Fuel cell system is operational at Masdar City in the UAE. distributed HJA Solutions’ PowerPack with fuel cell(s) will feed special DC variable speed electric motors that when used as main power source already consume 20% less fuel or less electricity when used in HSY integration in “new build” yachts of all sizes between 60-200 feet eliminating all fossil fuel need and for 200-500 feet Mega Yachts it will reduce generator power for the electric drive system by a 20%. The hydrogen fuel cell storage system as shown will allow for “plug and play” for upgrade in any yacht with an electric drive systems.
  19. 19. Wind Power Added
  20. 20. Wind Power for Battery Charging During Cloudy Days The ducted rotor consists of a turbine inside a duct which flares outwards at the back, referred to as Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines (i.e. DAWT).The main advantage of the ducted rotor is that it can operate in a wide range of winds and generate a higher power per unit of rotor area. The ducted rotor advantage is its fixed magnets and high rotation rate, so it doesn't require a bulky noisy gearbox allowing the mechanical portion of the unit to be smaller, lighter and quieter - 35dB at10 feet. Current development of vertical turbines have emerged with interesting result – easier to place higher outputs and even less noise.
  21. 21. Mag-Wind Vertical Axis Turbine Magnetically-Levitated Axial Flux Alternator specifications claims:  Productivity: 1100 kWh/month in average wind (12 m/s),  Cut-In Speed: Less than 4 km/h (1 m/s).  Top Speed: Greater than 100 mph.  Economics: Fully burdened cost over 5 years is 7 cents per kW,  ROI: Based bill is $300 per ($0.20kWh) - ROI 2 years or less,  Maintenance & Operation Costs: Minimal,  Small size 4 feet high and 4 feet diameter,  Virtually inaudible.  Currently in Production. Magnetically-Levitated Axial Flux Alternator solves 11 different problems that previously limited the development of vertical-axis wind turbines for generation of electricity. The center hub floats on a magnet, and the coils that generate the power are at the outer ring, with magnets at the tips of the blades flying over them at high speed. It is only 4 feet high, and it is virtually inaudible. Estimated output 40+kWh per day, sufficient for a 60 footer, two Turbines will adequately provide Hotel Load for vessels up to 200 feet.
  22. 22. SkySails – Towing Kite Proven Fuel Saving Transit System in use with Commercial Vessels and Yachts – the Towing Kites for yachts are fully automatic (photo right): 40m² (431 SF). The Skysails economics indicate a two year repayment period. The 2014 estimated average underway fuel savings is $1,800/daily (based on $4 gal) reflecting a 35% fuel saving . Best routes for sustained wind can show up to 50% fuel savings.
  23. 23. Wind Systems Studied for Power Augmentation s o u r s e Ducted Wind Auxiliary Wind Mag Wind Vertical Axis Towing Kite Thermal Textiles/ Solar Cell Films Type Power 5 m/s 10kWh/d 7.5 m/s 15kWh/d Used during Transit Suitable for large yachts only 3.5 m/s :7.6 kWh/d 7.5 m/s 9.7kWh/d for Hotel Load or Battery Charging during Transit 4`x 4` Mag levitating Wind Turbine 40kWh/d at 12m/s wind SkySails Provides 35% Fuel Saving during Transit (only large yachts) The Sail boat Textiles or Films for Solar Power Harvesting Current Status Prototype Available for Test Operational Today Operational Today Operational Today Solid Wing Sail Is Being Tested Tech- nology 2015 Advanced Design Larger Yachts Improvements and Expanded Use Needs integration Developed Improvement In Automatic Operations DARPA Dye- sensitive Solar Cell Films for Dacron Sails
  24. 24. New DC Micro Grid and Electric Motor Technology The newly developed DC micro-grid and variable speed DC electric motor system now being introduced on a 4,000 gt Platform Supply Vessel (PSV). The micro-grid combines the onboard DC current for improved operation with less use of electric power. In addition to saving electric energy it also reduces cost of running an emergency generator, if and when the electric system for any reason cannot feed electricity from solar production or batteries in order to run the electric motors. In this situation a generator will kick-in bypassing the batteries until the solar or wind power system can be restored. Such emergency use of a generator provides an economical back-up for the HSY using 20% less fuel and/or electricity which is in and by itself a great first step in the introduction of the PowerPack for today’s fossil fuel dependent vessels. This electric drive system is developed by ABB as a “plug and play” solution as a first step of the PowerPack system in order to in the end eliminate the use of fossil fuels. The PSV vessel now under construction in Norway will be the first ship to mount the DC micro-grid with variable speed DC motors using 20% less fuel with an electrical system weighing 25% less. .
  25. 25. Candidates for PowerPacks
  26. 26. Hybrid Solar-Wind Yacht High Level Design Features Life Cycle Cost Implications Target Items Conventional Today Solar Yacht -Tomorrow Impact Notes Power Plant/ Propulsion Diesel/ Diesel-electric Variable Speed DC Electric Motors/Generator back-up Diesel GenSet providing backup emergency energy for batteries Energy Storage/ Batteries Lead Acid, Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) Nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) LiFePO4 Batteries, or Ph 2: Create Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Energy Storage Weight reduction , energy output and overall cost reduction most critical to achieved future results Design Features Traditional Hull Shapes Catamaran, Trimaran or RamForm Hulls for Deck Size Ph 2: Free form PV Graphene New CPV PowerPack, Surface piercing , coated Propellers, Wave Cutting Hull Shapes Construction/ Material Composite and Wood Composite/Carbon Fiber/ Titanium/Aluminium Alloys Use Space Age Materials ensures weight saving and strength Operational Systems – Power Integration Electronic Controls (manual) Computerized Controls - Energy Management Ph 2: Performance Mgmt Controlling Energy Budget improves utilization and conserves stored energy Infrastructure/ Lighting Battery Lighting, Gas Appliances Halogen LED, Low Power Convection Appliances Ph 2:: DC Onboard Grid Apply new technology to reduce Energy consumption onboard, use Wind Turbines for Hotel Load Weight Budget Diesel Engines/ Genset/ Batteries Lighter Electric Motors/new Energy Storage Systems Ph 2:Lighter Solar Systems Trade-off in Storage , power systems on Life Cycle Cost basis (over 20 year)
  27. 27. Hybrid Solar/Wind – 80’ x 20’ PowerPack Prototype distribu ted Distributed In development 2014
  28. 28. Phase III Development  Graphene is pure carbon in the form of a very thin (1 athom thick), nearly transparent sheet. It is remarkably strong for its very low weight (100 times stronger than steel[1] ) and it conducts heat and electricity with great efficiency.[2] While scientists had theorized about graphene for decades, it was first produced in the lab in 2004.  Technically, graphene is a crystalline allotrope of carbon with 2-dimensional properties. In graphene, carbon atoms are densely packed in a regular sp2 - bonded atomic-scale chicken wire (hexagonal) pattern. Graphene can be described as a one-atom thick layer of graphite. It is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  Graphene research has expanded quickly. Research was informed by theoretical descriptions of graphene's composition, structure and properties, which had all been calculated decades earlier. High- quality graphene also proved to be surprisingly easy to isolate, making more research possible. Work in the future should see graphene a material used in Solar panels which will in every way consiveable revolutionize electric powered vessels, cars and possibly aircraft.
  29. 29. Flexible Graphene will Revolutionize Renewable Energy DesignsFlexible Graphene will Revolutionize Renewable Energy Designs
  30. 30. Flexible PV Facilitates Future Renewable Energy Designs
  31. 31. Hybrid Solar Power/Diesel Electric Yacht Diesel Fuel Tank Solar Field* GenSet Batteries Lithium- Ion Charge Control Unit DC Dist. Appliances AC Inverter 1 or2 Electric Motors 1 or 2 Propeller Drives DC fridge, stove, TV, and LED lighting All Other Appliances DC Motors Plug-in Shore Power * Red Denotes Packaged Power System, Blue Existing or standard generator Simplest Solution, providing partial solar electric power for vessels 60-200’ Total Solar Energy Approx. 3,000 SF PV, or 1,500SF CPV . Li ion batteries can in the future be exchanged for an Electrolyze unit, Hydrogen Fuel Tank and a Fuel Cell Stack . Required Power Pack system and equipment: 1)CPV Solar energy field/power control, will provide total energy for yachts of 60’ -200’, 2)Lithium Ion Batteries 144 3V cells, adequate but expensive, replaceable by fuel cell stack, 3)Two (or one) brushless DC Motors and DC grid, 4)DC used key appliances increase energy by approx. 17%, 5)DC Appliances: fridge, stove, TV, and LED lighting (LCC for continuous use accounts for 75%), 6)New systems Installations and wiring.
  32. 32. Hybrid Solar/Wind Turbine Power Yacht Diesel Fuel Tank Solar Field* GenSet Batteries Lithium- Ion Split/Charge Control Unit DC Appliances AC Inverter 1 or2 Electric Motors 1 or 2 Propeller Drives DC fridge, stove, TV, and LED lighting All Other Appliances DC Motors Plug-in Shore Power * Red Denotes Packaged Power System, Blue Existing or standard generator Future Solution, provides total solar electric power, and higher speed than current solar power systems - could retain Gen-set for emergences. Total Solar energy requires 1,250 to 2,500 SF CPV, Wind Turbine provides Hotel Load and emergency charging of batteries for unbroken travel. Required Solar and Wind Power Pack system and equipment: 1)Diesel Gen-set augmented by. 2)CPV Solar energy field and power control suitable size 60’-200’ yachts , 3)Lithium Ion Batteries 144 3V cells, adequate but expensive, replaceable by fuel cell stack, 4)Two (or one) brushless DC Motors and DC grid, 5)DC Appliances fridge, stove, TV, LED lighting (LCC for continuous use accounts for 75%), 6)New systems Installations and wiring. Wind Turbine(s) 1 or 2
  33. 33. Design/Operational Model kWp Solar efficiency Sys. 50 CPV Percent A. Energy Name Plate: 75 SF SM 16 PV Percent CPV Solar Field 1,500 139 PV Solar Field 4,688 435 B. Solar Energy Generated:CPV 1 Day 1 month 1 Year PS PV: AC 1 Day 1 month 1 Year Sun Power hrs 6 450 13,680 164,250 6 450 13,680 164,250 Derated Total (DC) 0.92 414 12,586 151,110 0.77 347 10,534 126,473 Efficiencies 0.45 145 145 145 0.00 0 0 0 Total Solar kWh 559 12,731 151,255 347 10,534 126,473 C. Wind Energy Generated: Number of units 2 72 2,201 26,426 0 0 0 0 Derated Total 0.50 36 1,100 13,213 0.00 0 0 0 D. Sustainment Consumption Hotel load -30 -30 -912 -10,950 -30 -30 -912 -10,950 Efficiencies 8 228 2,738 0 0 0 Total Load -23 -684 -8,213 -30 -912 -10,950 Nert for Mobility: CPV 1 Day 1 month 1 Year PS PV: 1 Day 1 month 1 Year Net Generation kWh 573 13,147 156,255 317 9,622 115,523 Consumption by hr(s) 1 12 24 Speed 1 12 24 E. 2x 20HP Elec Motor(s) 40 480 960 12 kn 40 480 960 74 889 1,778 22 km/h 74 889 1,778 46 552 1,105 14 mph 46 552 1,105 Endurance Cruise hrs Endurance hrs CPV 14 PS PV 8 Distance 1d (24Hrs) in nm: in nm in km in miles in nm in km in miles CPV 573 1,060 659 PS PV 317 586 364 Endurance Batteries hrs travel kWh hrs Travel kWh Batery Bank LiFePO4 battery 36 1,449 24 965 Total Travel Available 51 2,022 75 32 1,282 Fossil Fuel Comparative CPV Equiv PV Equiv Select Vessel 26 26 Repayment Capital Equivalent to Solar/Wind travel 14 8 Invested: 850,000 Month: 372 206 CPV Days 504 17 US Diesel 8/1/2014 4.53 4.53 PV Days 912 30 1,686 932 Note: SkySail for ocean passages reduces load by an additional 35-45% dpending on route Total Li-ion Batteries Gal/hr Travel hrs Gal /day $ Gal HJA Solutions Efficiency Model Shows a sample Solar field and Wind power generation at the system level with de-rates and applied efficiencies . The CPV is benchmarked against PV by the hour at 12kn Cruise Speed in terms of kWh of consumption and adjusted by the 30kWh of estimated daily use for Hotel Load. The Model also reflects Battery reserves for additions 36 hours of continues operations afforded by stored energy designed for extended travel. The energy generation and vessel power consumption is converted into hours of endurance and distance travelled in km, nm and miles for mobility usable kWh.. Finally, performance is compared between a similar size vessel using fossil fuel and the notional vessel in terms of cost savings - displayed by the number of hours of passage required to amortize the CPV versus a. PV powered vessel.
  34. 34. Way Ahead 2012 Onwards The Renewable Energy Market is Fractured and Power Systems are Nascent • Completed Research of All Possible Power- and Storage Solutions, • Completed Computer Model for Scalable Motive Power & Hotel Load, • Completed a Number of Turnkey PowerPack Specifications projects, • Promote PowerPack® to the Yachting Industry (in progress), • Build a Proof-of-principle prototype with PowerPack® (100kWp), • Offer Power Packages to Yacht Owners/Designers/Builders Worldwide, • Along with Power Option Solutions and Consulting Services.
  35. 35. Market Size – High Level Primary Market: The Mega/Super Yacht new built (100 feet and up) worldwide Market is 25 yachts annually: Currently scheduled for delivery in 2013 is 25 Mega/Super Yachts - laid end-to-end this represents approx 4,388 feet at a total estimated built cost of approx $1.5 billion*. Average size of current yachts is 176 feet at an average Cost of approx $59 million. Market is unaffected by the ups-and-downs in the economy (2011 Market was equal to 2012 delivery schedule). The total Packed Power Requirement represents between 20-25% of the build- cost equal to $10-20 million per Yacht depending on size, retrofit at lesser cost. Secondary Market: 2,500 yachts in the 60 -500 feet are listed in Lloyd’s Registry (including Mega/Super Yacht) as operating worldwide, all can benefit from a retrofit Packaged Power System. In the 40-60 foot size category there are no reliable figures, but its likely to be over 100,000 – all of which can benefit from Packaged Power in order to reduce the energy cost required for cruising operation – including both Motive Power and Hotel Load. More and more Yacht Builders are installing a variety of Power Systems in order to reduce the energy requirement, but activities is lacking an overall strategy to maximize the Energy Savings. This is a fractured and untapped Market! * Base line estimated cost $300,000 per running foot
  36. 36. Marketing Strategy For Mega/Super Yachts Establish Direct Contact with the Following Builders: Feadship, Lurssen, Peri Yachts. Delta, Amels, Mondo Marine, Fincantieri Yachts, Oceanco, Trinity, Palmer Johnson, Benedetti, CRN, Heesen, Christensen, Icon, Azimut, Aneking & Rasmussen, Cheoy Lee, Codecasa, Nobiskrug, Nothern Marine, Jade Yachts, Arcadia Yachts, ADM Shipyard, Mega/Super Technica, RMK Yachts. And the following Designers: Reichel & Pugh, Van Geest Design, Phillippe Briand, Hot Lab Design, Espen Oino, Tim Heywood Design, Ron Holland Design, Diana Yacht Design, DeVoogt Naval Architects, Azure Naval Architects, Laurent Giles Naval Architects, Vripack, Mulder Design, Claydon Reeves, C3 Design, Moore yacht Design, Ken Freivokh yacht Design, Dixon Yacht Design, Marco Casali-Too Design, Barracuda Yacht Design and Misha Merzliakov Design. New and Upgrade Package Power Systems for Yachts in the 40-100ft: The Marketing focus will be on Yacht Builders known to already have added Electric Drives to their most current designs (Off-line Diesel Engines with GenSet and Battery Storage), or various other Energy Saving devices such as limited use of Solar Panels (160-200 Wp) or Taffrail Generators (6 kts for up to 100 W per panel), for partial electric power. This fleet of yachts is very large as is the number of boat builders worldwide (in the 1000s). Interest in a well thought out Packaged Power System is high today. These Boat Builder can best be reached at Boat Shows (local and International), by demonstrating performance with the planned land based Demo Unit.
  37. 37. This in the End of the Presentation If you are interested in more Specific information on Project Designs in this Presentation detailed explanation and Case Studies can be provided by contacting : Henning Jacobsen HJA Solutions