10th ASHRM International Conference & Exhibition HR is Business 29-31 March 2010“How do Qatari Females Make it to the Top? An examination of the Organizational Constraints to their Advancement” Hend Al Muftah QU, Qatar
AgendaIntroductionQF at Labor ForceMethodologyFindings & ResultsConclusionWhat’s next?Q & A
To start with……….“Women without her man is nothing” Use the right punctuations? Males wrote…Women, without her man, is nothing Females wrote…Women: without her, man is nothing
1. Introduction For many decades, women worked in a Relatively low-paying (vertically segregation as admin & clerical jobs) Predominantly female jobs (horizontally segregation as teaching & nursing jobs) Women who chose non-traditional jobs faced some obstacles at their workplaces as isolation, limited access to training opportunities & promotion
1. Introduction…cont. Analyses of the gender pay gap & occupational segregation focused on: Gender-specific … family commitments Gender-differences … qualifications or labor market treatment of similarly qualified individuals Glass Ceiling 1%-5% ILO, 2004
1. Introduction…cont.Arabian world 5% in Lebanon & Qatar 7% in KSA 11% in Kuwait Glass 12% in Oman Ceiling
At the Western countries…Gender-specific & gender-differences have failed to explain the poor progression of women in management Failure was due to organizational factors as: preference for male candidates in recruitment/promotion/assignments pay differences limited training/promotion opportunities
2. QF at labor Force QF attained soaring levels of education QF 18% of total workforce in 2007 83% in education & 72% in health 5% of QF are at managerial positions Contributing factors were mainly Social & cultural aspects “gender-specifics & gender-differences” BUT NOT Organizational factors!!!
Why Not??Equal opportunity … constitutionLeadership supportChanging role of women at Qatari society
3. Methodology…HypothesisH1 QF have good representation at the investigated organizations at all managerial levels.H2 Selection and recruitment for managerial positions is based on equal opportunities and criteria for both males & females.H3 Organizational polices of working hours, compensation, training, engagement in critical projects and promotion do not differentiate between females and males.
4. Findings & Results 74% of respondents are males 61% recruits currently ONLY between 1-10 QF at managerial positions…13% not all 85% lower management, 55% supervisory management
3. Findings & Results…Selection Criteria: equal opportunities … QFs’ managerial & leadership skills & competencies (52%) QFs’ right for the position advancement (52%). Barriers to recruiting QF Interviewed Females …Stereotyping & negative preconceptions of women’s role & abilities (89%) Interviewed Male ...Commitment to personal & family responsibilities (91%)
3. Findings & Results…selection In terms of position’s type Admin/Technical, 52% does not differentiate between F/M 44% preferred admin positions 4% preferred technical positions !!! 58% of engineering students are females…% is 37% preferred F candidates for managerial positions: more productive (59%), more committed (57%) more creative and innovative (50%) more educated and knowledgeable (39%) more strict to policies and procedures (30%)
3. Findings & Results…Selection 63% preferred M candidates: mix-gender environment (100%) more committed to working hours (80%) more committed to work responsibilities (40%) more educated and knowledgeable (20%) wiser in making work-related decisions (20%)
3. Findings & Results…policies… 69.5% active participation of QF in Developmental Projects in their organizations Equal working hours & compensation policy Differences in allowances due to government policies: Housing/national allowance Training: 73% managerial & 80% technical
3. Findings & Results… Promotion Over the last 3 years, 57% promoted less than 5 QF & 14% promoted more than 20 QF 64% of QF at were promoted to head section 45% promoted to unit head 23% to department director 18% to general manager.
NO SINGLE QF PROMOTED FOR CEO POSITION“This position is not a real challenge to the QF taking into account her astonishingeducational attainment and amazing talents and competencies. However, such position require some kind of scarifying from herfamily side and more commitments in termsof longer working hours and many business trips”
NO SINGLE QF PROMOTED FOR CEO POSITION “Women work fewer hours and experienced more careerinterruptions, mostly due to familydemands and maternity leave, and both factors worked against womens progression in the past and in the present”.
3. Findings & Results…Barriers 78% No barriers 22% have barriers as follow: long working hours (80%) business meeting off the workplace (80%) abroad business trips (60%) interacting with males (60%) non-English proficiency (20%)
4. Conclusion QF are well represented in the medium & lower levels of management, however, they are still lagging behind the QM in reaching the senior management levels. Absence of any discrimination in selecting/recruiting QF candidates for the managerial positions. Absence of any discrimination in terms of policies, compensation, & training Slow rate of QF promotion
5. What’s Next ?Gender-specific & gender differences NOTorganizational factors are the major factors that hinder QF from their career advancement …
So,,,, Education…Vocational and lifelong learning opportunities for QF through their organizations. Supportive infrastructure, gender- sensitive, HR strategies, that will facilitate female’s participation in the senior management positions. Review of labor laws & regulations as family-friendly policies (flexible working hours, child care facilities, etc.)