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COSMETICS :
BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS
PRESENTED BY
HEMANT SAINI
M.PHARMACY (P’CEUTICS)
D50217008
PDM UNIVERSITY
CONTENTS
• Hair & its structure
• Hair growth cycle
• Common problems related to oral cavity
• Cleansing and care needed for following
Face
Eyelid
Lips
Nails
Scalp
• References
What is hair ?
 Hair is a simple structure that is made up of Protein filaments called Keratin.
 Hair acts as a barrier to foreign particles.
 It's an important part of appearance and creates gender identity.
 Hair is the only body structure that can completely renew itself without scarring.
 Hair is made up of two separate structures
 The hair follicle: which exists below the skin.
 The hair shaft: which is the hair that we see.
Before hair growth can begin, a hair follicle must first be created:
 The germinating layer of the epidermis starts growing down into the dermis, and forms the outside
of each hair follicle.
 The dermis then grows upwards into the base of the follicle to form the dermal papilla. This
allows capillaries (blood vessels) to enter the papilla and provide nutrients for the hair shaft to
grow.
 The bottom part of the follicle enlarges into an area of actively growing cells. This is called the hair
bulb.
 At the base of the hair bulb, the germinating layer merges into the outer root sheath (which forms
the inner wall of the follicle).
 The outer root sheath then forms the germinal matrix (hair root)which surrounds the dermal
papilla.
 The germinal matrix grows the inner root sheath (this is the white bit at the end of a hair if it's
pulled out).
 The germinal matrix also contains stem cells - these grow the hair shaft through constant cell
 Hair shaft cells are similar at first. But as they move up through the follicle, they begin to change
shape, and a protein called keratin develops inside the cells.
 Three different types of hair cell then form. By the time these cells are a third of the way up the
follicle, they have died and fully hardened (keratinised).
 A sebaceous gland lies within each follicle. This produces an oily substance called sebum from a
duct that opens up into the hair follicle about halfway down from the skin surface.
 The follicle also has a bulge directly below the sebaceous gland in the outer root sheath at the
attachment point of the arrector pili muscle. The bulge produces stem cells that regenerate the
follicle during the next hair growth cycle. When the arrector pili muscles contract, they make your
hair stand on end (this is what causes goosebumps).
 In the basic hair structure diagram , you can see that the shaft has three
layers: the cuticle (outer layer), cortex (middle layer) and medulla (inner
layer).
 The medulla is a honeycomb keratin structure with air spaces inside.
 The cortex gives flexibility and tensile (stretching) strength to hair and
contains melanin granules, which give hair its color. The cortex is made from
tiny fibers of keratin running parallel to each other along the length of the
hair shaft.
 The cuticle is made from 6 to 11 layers of overlapping semi-transparent
keratin scales (which make the hair waterproof and allow it to be stretched).
Someone with thick, course hair will have more overlapping layers of cuticles
than someone with fine hair.
Hair Growth Cycle
 Once the hair growth cycle starts, it should keep going and never stop.
 And, for certain types of hair in certain regions of the body, that’s exactly what happens.
Pubic hair and body hair for example, will continuously keep on growing throughout life.
 Hair growth cycle completed in following steps:
1. Anagen
2. Catagen
3. Telogen
Anagen
 Anagen is the hair growing phase. It usually lasts 3 to 5 years. Hair growth rate is about 3 mm per
week.
 Although hair grows throughout the anagen phase, at some point, the hair follicle starts preparing
for the next hair growth cycle.
 In the diagram below, you can see that stem cells from the bulge area migrate down and along
the outer root sheath towards the dermal papilla (as indicated by the blue arrow).
Catagen
 During catagen, the hair follicle breaks down – active hair
growth stops and certain cells in the follicle die, causing it
to shorten. But, as it does so, part of the outer root
sheath stays attached to the dermal papilla ready for the
next hair growth cycle to begin.
 In the diagram, you can see that the hair shaft detaches
from the germinal matrix. But, some hair cells left inside
the germinal matrix attach to the end of the hair shaft as a
small lump of keratin. The hair shaft is then called a club
hair.
 A club hair will often wedge into the follicle until it gets
brushed or washed out. But, sometimes the club hair stays
put until the follicle restarts the growth cycle and a new hair
shaft pushes it out.
 Catagen lasts just 2 or 3 weeks. And only about 1% of your
scalp hair follicles will be in catagen at any one time.
Telogen
 Telogen is a period of rest for the hair follicle. During
this time, the follicle stays shortened, and the outer
root sheath stays attached to the dermal papilla (as
shown in diagram).
 Then, when telogen ends, hair germ cells start
growing a new hair follicle from the dermal papilla
and the next hair growth cycle starts again.
 Telogen lasts 3 to 4 months. About 10% of your hair
follicles are in telogen at any one time.
Common Problems of Oral Cavity
 The excessive consumption of fried, spicy food, alcohol, smoking and drugs may lead to oral
problems. Many people suffer from oral health problems that make them unable to sit with
people. When the conditions become worse, they start avoiding interaction with people and feel
disappointed. Although regular brushing and flossing reduce down these problems but sometimes
serious problems take place. Following are the common oral health problems suffered by
people:
1. Bad Breath
This is a humiliating problem that most people suffer from.
According to a research, it is revealed that nearly 85% of person
suffers from persistent bad breath.
Cause: Main reasons for bad breath are dry mouth, cavities, bacteria
accumulation, oral cancer, consumption of food that contains ginger
and onion. Bad breath may be the sign of a medical disorder, such as
a local infection in the respiratory tract, chronic sinusitis, postnasal
drip, chronic bronchitis, diabetes, gastrointestinal disturbance, liver
or kidney ailment.
Treatment
2. Gum Problems
Gum disease is an inflammation of the gum line that can progress to affect the bone that surrounds
and supports your teeth. The three stages of gum disease — from least to most severe — are
gingivitis, periodontitis and advanced periodontitis.
Cause
Bacteria in plaque, a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth, cause gum disease. If
plaque is not removed it can harden and turn into tartar (calculus). Additionally, dental plaque will
continue to form on the tartar. Brushing or flossing cannot remove tartar; a dental professional will need
to conduct a dental cleaning to remove it.
Treatment
A professional cleaning by your dentist or dental hygienist is the
only way to remove plaque that has built up and hardened into
tartar. If gum disease is more advanced, scaling and root
planning can be performed to treat diseased periodontal
pockets and gum infection. A dental hygienist uses an ultrasonic
scaling device to remove plaque, tartar and food debris above
and below the gum line.
3. Tooth Decay
The attack of cavities in our teeth is known as tooth decay. Tooth decay starts when food particulates
remain stuck in the teeth. The food particulates combine with sugar present in saliva, start producing
acid in the teeth. This acid production harms the teeth enamel and weakens the roots.
Causes
When decay-causing bacteria come into contact with sugars and starches from foods and drinks, they
form an acid. This acid can attack the tooth’s enamel causing it to lose minerals. This can happen if
you eat or drink often, especially foods and drinks containing sugar and starches. The repeated cycles
of these “acid attacks” will cause the enamel to continue to lose minerals. Over time, the enamel is
weakened and then destroyed, forming a cavity.
Treatment
Dentists commonly treat cavities by filling them. A dentist
will remove the decayed tooth tissue and then restore the
tooth by filling it with a filling material.
4. Oral Cancer
Thousands of people suffer from this disease annually. Oral cancer affects mouth, lips and throat. Regular
oral checkups and proper care may reduce down the symptoms of oral cancer. Oral cancer appears as a
growth in the mouth that does not go away. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue,
cheeks, floor of the mouth, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life threatening if
not diagnosed and treated early.
Cause
• Smoking : Cigarette, cigar, or pipe smokers are six times
more likely than nonsmokers to develop oral cancers.
• Smokeless tobacco users: Users of dip, snuff, or chewing
tobacco products are 50 times more likely to develop cancers
of the cheek, gums, and lining of the lips.
• Excessive consumption of alcohol: Oral cancers are about
six times more common in drinkers than in nondrinkers.
• Family history of cancer.
• Excessive sun exposure, especially at a young age.
Treatment
Oral cancer is treated the same way
many other cancers are treated with
surgery to remove the cancerous
growth, followed by radiation
therapy and/or chemotherapy (drug
treatments) to destroy any remaining
cancer cells.
5. Leukoplakia
Leukoplakia is a condition in which thick, white patches form on your tongue and the lining of your
mouth. Smoking is the most common cause. But other irritants can result in this condition as well.
Mild leukoplakia is usually harmless and often goes away on its own. More serious cases may be
linked to oral cancer. These must be treated promptly.
Cause
The exact cause of leukoplakia is unknown. It’s
primarily linked to tobacco use. Smoking is the
most common cause. But chewing tobacco can
also cause leukoplakia.
Other causes include:
• injury to the inside of your cheek, such as
from biting
• rough, uneven teeth
• dentures, especially if improperly fitted
• inflammatory conditions of the body
Treatment
• Small patches can be removed by a more
extensive biopsy using laser therapy or a
scalpel. Large leukoplakia patches require
oral surgery.
• Hairy leukoplakia may not require removal.
Your dentist or doctor might prescribe
antiviral medications to help stop the patches
from growing. Topical ointments containing
retinoic acid can also be used to reduce patch
size.
6 Tooth sensitivity
It is known as dentin hypersensitivity — affects the tooth or exposed root surfaces. This occurs when
the enamel that protects our teeth gets thinner, or when gum recession occurs, exposing the
underlying surface, the dentin, thus, reducing the protection the enamel and gums provide to the
tooth and root.
Cause
There are many causes of tooth sensitivity, including:
• Worn tooth enamel from using a hard toothbrush or brushing too
aggressively
• Tooth erosion due to highly acidic foods and beverages
• Tooth erosion due to bulimia or gastro-esophageal reflux disease
(GERD)
• Gum recession that leaves your root surface exposed
Treatment
In addition to recommending toothpaste without high levels of abrasives, your dentist may prescribe an at-
home, brush-on fluoride gel or a fluoride rinse, or high fluoride level toothpaste specially formulated to
make your teeth less sensitive and provide extra protection against decay. Other treatments — such as
fluoride varnishes — can be painted onto the teeth to provide added protection.
Cleansing and care needs for Face, Eye Lids, Lips, Nail, and Scalp
1. For Face
Oily Face
• Oily face, thick and shiny skin appearance, especially on the forehead, nose, and chin (the T-
zone)
• Pores are large and visible except around the eye and neck area
• Prone to pimples, whiteheads, and blackheads
• Oily film on face is present after sleeping
• Make-up foundation only lasts a couple of hours
• Flakiness around the nose area may exist due to dried excess oils
• Oily skin is slow to develop discolorations such as freckles, fine lines, and wrinkles as the skin
ages
• The skin tans easily
Dry Skin
• Redness, dry skin patches.
• Flaking of the skin is common.
• Scaly skin, dry face or dry skin on the face.
• Fine lines and wrinkles are evident.
• Skin generally has fine pores.
Combination Skin
• Typically has dry skin around the eyes and cheeks, while the areas across the forehead and down
toward the nose and chin are oily (t-zone).
• The skin may be oily along the chin, jaw line, and temples, but may be dry or have dry skin patches
elsewhere.
• Scaly skin, dry face and skin irritation change with the seasons.
• Skin pores are medium in size.
• Overall the skin appears normal and healthy, not including those small affected areas that are too oily
or dry.
Sensitive Skin
• Skin is fine-textured and thin
• Frequent skin irritation
• Dry skin on face and red blotchy patches may develop with
exposure to sun, wind, or temperature changes
• Sensitivity to cosmetics (especially if heavily scented)
BEAUTY CARE SEGMENT
Face wash/Cleanser
Moisturizer cream or
Lotion
Fairness cream
Face Wash
• Face wash is a facial care cosmetic used to
cleanse the skin
• Helps improve skin complexion
• Helps Rejuvenates the skin
• Helps controls excessive oil
• Helps nourish the skin to make it bright and
radiant
Types of face wash
Cleanser
A cleanser is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up,
dead skin cells, oil, dirt, and other types of pollutants from the skin of
the face(having charcoal). This helps to unclog pores and prevent skin
conditions such as acne.
A cleanser can be used as part of a skin care regimen together with a
toner and moisturizer.
Moisturizer
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold
water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the
skin) e.g.; Aloe Vera moisturizer, honey Almond moisturiser.
Fairness Cream
Fairness creams or skin lightening cosmetic products are also
known as whiteners or skin brighteners, or skin lighteners creams.
They work by reducing a pigment called melanin in the skin. This
is the most common technique to naturally lighten darkened skin.
Helps visibly lighten the hyper pigmentation in the skin, nourishes
skin to bright.
Eyelid Care
Eyelid Cleanser are used for dry eye and blepharitis. Lid hygiene with a good quality eyelid care
product is very important when suffering from dry eyes.
Several patients show signs of inflammation of the meibomian glands which are located in the
eyelids. This inflammation is called “blepharitis”.
Good eyelids hygiene with a product specifically designed to wash away the oily debris that are
produced by these glands, which can irritate the ocular surface, is very important. Over time, if the
lid hygiene is not performed regularly, debris and bacteria colonize the lash region and contribute to
eye irritation. Eyelid care products such as Ocusoft or Lidhygenix is recommended after applying a
hot compress on the eyes.
Care needed for lips
The skin on our lips is much thinner than the skin on the other parts of our body. This makes it easier
for them to crack and chap and makes it much more important for us to take extra care of.
Our lips have a lesser amount of oil glands and no ability to create the sun-filtering natural melanin.
This means that they have virtually no protection of their own.
Following are the common problems related to lips:
1. Chapping
2. Splitting
3. Lipstick Bleeding
4. Cold Sores
Following are the Simple and Effective Lip Care Tips:
1. Do not Touch or Lick your Lips
2. Follow Healthy Diet Plan
3.Stay Hydrated By Drinking Lot of Water
4. Remove Makeup and Keep Your Lips Hydrated Overnight
5. Scrub Your Lips
6. Always Carry a Lip Balm
Care needed for nails
Nails composed of laminated layers of a protein called keratin — grow from the area at the base of
the nail under cuticle. Healthy fingernails are smooth, without pits or grooves. They're uniform in color
and consistency and free of spots or discoloration.
Sometimes fingernails develop harmless vertical ridges that run from the cuticle to the tip of the nail.
Vertical ridges tend to become more prominent with age. Fingernails can also develop white lines or
spots due to injury, but these eventually grow out with the nail.
Following steps are required to follow for the good health of nails:
1. Stop peeling off your gel mani.
2. Stop cutting your cuticles.
3. Never use your other nails as chisels to chip off your nail polish.
4. Don’t use water-based manicures.
5. Don’t use nail polish remover in your lacquer to thin it out.
6. Stop biting your nails.
7. Stop painting over oily nails.
8. Stop using cotton balls to remove your polish.
Care needed for scalp
Everyone wants shiny, healthy hair, and it’s easy to spend a lot of time and money in pursuit of that
goal. Unfortunately, even the best styling products or the most expensive hairdryer won’t be able to
help your hair if you’re neglecting your scalp.
Healthy hair relies on a healthy scalp. If you’re guilty of neglecting your scalp, you may have noticed
issues such as dandruff, greasy hair, an itchy scalp, and even scalp pain.
Steps to get healthy scalp:
1. Don’t skip shampooing The popular trend co-washing, where you just use a conditioner instead of
shampooing to refresh your hair, can lead to build-up that causes serious scalp disorders and even
hair loss. Some issues that can cause scalp problems and hair loss are psoriasis, ringworm, and
protein, iron, and other dietary deficiencies. Some require a prescription from your dermatologist,
but many issues can be solved with dietary or hygienic adjustments.
2. Use products that are gentle on your scalp
The eco-system of the scalp and hair is fragile and can be disrupted very easily with excessive use
of products that strip and coat. In order to balance the scalp your first line of defense is to
select shampoos with gentle cleansing agents and products that leave no heavy residue on the
scalp or hair.
3. Massage your scalp daily
Science suggests regular scalp massages for an easy, natural treatment that you can do at home:
“Massage aids in increasing blood flow to the scalp thereby promoting circulation and stimulation to
the area–all very helpful at promoting a healthy scalp and optimal hair growth.
References
1. https://www.hairgrowthsos.com/hair-loss-articles.html
2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26586222_Cosmeti
cs_and_skin_care_in_acne
3. https://www.slideshare.net/directsolutiom/face-care-part-
1?qid=5894ef76-7d91-4d99-81e6-
3202dac44bf7&v=&b=&from_search=15
4. https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/beauty/nails/a34645/hea
lthy-nail-care-tips/
5. https://www.rodalesorganiclife.com/wellbeing/scalp-care-for-
healthy-hair
Structure of hair & hair growth cycle, dental problems

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Structure of hair & hair growth cycle, dental problems

  • 1. COSMETICS : BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS PRESENTED BY HEMANT SAINI M.PHARMACY (P’CEUTICS) D50217008 PDM UNIVERSITY
  • 2. CONTENTS • Hair & its structure • Hair growth cycle • Common problems related to oral cavity • Cleansing and care needed for following Face Eyelid Lips Nails Scalp • References
  • 3. What is hair ?  Hair is a simple structure that is made up of Protein filaments called Keratin.  Hair acts as a barrier to foreign particles.  It's an important part of appearance and creates gender identity.  Hair is the only body structure that can completely renew itself without scarring.  Hair is made up of two separate structures  The hair follicle: which exists below the skin.  The hair shaft: which is the hair that we see.
  • 4. Before hair growth can begin, a hair follicle must first be created:  The germinating layer of the epidermis starts growing down into the dermis, and forms the outside of each hair follicle.  The dermis then grows upwards into the base of the follicle to form the dermal papilla. This allows capillaries (blood vessels) to enter the papilla and provide nutrients for the hair shaft to grow.  The bottom part of the follicle enlarges into an area of actively growing cells. This is called the hair bulb.  At the base of the hair bulb, the germinating layer merges into the outer root sheath (which forms the inner wall of the follicle).  The outer root sheath then forms the germinal matrix (hair root)which surrounds the dermal papilla.  The germinal matrix grows the inner root sheath (this is the white bit at the end of a hair if it's pulled out).  The germinal matrix also contains stem cells - these grow the hair shaft through constant cell
  • 5.  Hair shaft cells are similar at first. But as they move up through the follicle, they begin to change shape, and a protein called keratin develops inside the cells.  Three different types of hair cell then form. By the time these cells are a third of the way up the follicle, they have died and fully hardened (keratinised).  A sebaceous gland lies within each follicle. This produces an oily substance called sebum from a duct that opens up into the hair follicle about halfway down from the skin surface.  The follicle also has a bulge directly below the sebaceous gland in the outer root sheath at the attachment point of the arrector pili muscle. The bulge produces stem cells that regenerate the follicle during the next hair growth cycle. When the arrector pili muscles contract, they make your hair stand on end (this is what causes goosebumps).
  • 6.
  • 7.  In the basic hair structure diagram , you can see that the shaft has three layers: the cuticle (outer layer), cortex (middle layer) and medulla (inner layer).  The medulla is a honeycomb keratin structure with air spaces inside.  The cortex gives flexibility and tensile (stretching) strength to hair and contains melanin granules, which give hair its color. The cortex is made from tiny fibers of keratin running parallel to each other along the length of the hair shaft.  The cuticle is made from 6 to 11 layers of overlapping semi-transparent keratin scales (which make the hair waterproof and allow it to be stretched). Someone with thick, course hair will have more overlapping layers of cuticles than someone with fine hair.
  • 8. Hair Growth Cycle  Once the hair growth cycle starts, it should keep going and never stop.  And, for certain types of hair in certain regions of the body, that’s exactly what happens. Pubic hair and body hair for example, will continuously keep on growing throughout life.  Hair growth cycle completed in following steps: 1. Anagen 2. Catagen 3. Telogen
  • 9. Anagen  Anagen is the hair growing phase. It usually lasts 3 to 5 years. Hair growth rate is about 3 mm per week.  Although hair grows throughout the anagen phase, at some point, the hair follicle starts preparing for the next hair growth cycle.  In the diagram below, you can see that stem cells from the bulge area migrate down and along the outer root sheath towards the dermal papilla (as indicated by the blue arrow).
  • 10. Catagen  During catagen, the hair follicle breaks down – active hair growth stops and certain cells in the follicle die, causing it to shorten. But, as it does so, part of the outer root sheath stays attached to the dermal papilla ready for the next hair growth cycle to begin.  In the diagram, you can see that the hair shaft detaches from the germinal matrix. But, some hair cells left inside the germinal matrix attach to the end of the hair shaft as a small lump of keratin. The hair shaft is then called a club hair.  A club hair will often wedge into the follicle until it gets brushed or washed out. But, sometimes the club hair stays put until the follicle restarts the growth cycle and a new hair shaft pushes it out.  Catagen lasts just 2 or 3 weeks. And only about 1% of your scalp hair follicles will be in catagen at any one time.
  • 11. Telogen  Telogen is a period of rest for the hair follicle. During this time, the follicle stays shortened, and the outer root sheath stays attached to the dermal papilla (as shown in diagram).  Then, when telogen ends, hair germ cells start growing a new hair follicle from the dermal papilla and the next hair growth cycle starts again.  Telogen lasts 3 to 4 months. About 10% of your hair follicles are in telogen at any one time.
  • 12. Common Problems of Oral Cavity  The excessive consumption of fried, spicy food, alcohol, smoking and drugs may lead to oral problems. Many people suffer from oral health problems that make them unable to sit with people. When the conditions become worse, they start avoiding interaction with people and feel disappointed. Although regular brushing and flossing reduce down these problems but sometimes serious problems take place. Following are the common oral health problems suffered by people: 1. Bad Breath This is a humiliating problem that most people suffer from. According to a research, it is revealed that nearly 85% of person suffers from persistent bad breath. Cause: Main reasons for bad breath are dry mouth, cavities, bacteria accumulation, oral cancer, consumption of food that contains ginger and onion. Bad breath may be the sign of a medical disorder, such as a local infection in the respiratory tract, chronic sinusitis, postnasal drip, chronic bronchitis, diabetes, gastrointestinal disturbance, liver or kidney ailment.
  • 14. 2. Gum Problems Gum disease is an inflammation of the gum line that can progress to affect the bone that surrounds and supports your teeth. The three stages of gum disease — from least to most severe — are gingivitis, periodontitis and advanced periodontitis. Cause Bacteria in plaque, a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth, cause gum disease. If plaque is not removed it can harden and turn into tartar (calculus). Additionally, dental plaque will continue to form on the tartar. Brushing or flossing cannot remove tartar; a dental professional will need to conduct a dental cleaning to remove it. Treatment A professional cleaning by your dentist or dental hygienist is the only way to remove plaque that has built up and hardened into tartar. If gum disease is more advanced, scaling and root planning can be performed to treat diseased periodontal pockets and gum infection. A dental hygienist uses an ultrasonic scaling device to remove plaque, tartar and food debris above and below the gum line.
  • 15. 3. Tooth Decay The attack of cavities in our teeth is known as tooth decay. Tooth decay starts when food particulates remain stuck in the teeth. The food particulates combine with sugar present in saliva, start producing acid in the teeth. This acid production harms the teeth enamel and weakens the roots. Causes When decay-causing bacteria come into contact with sugars and starches from foods and drinks, they form an acid. This acid can attack the tooth’s enamel causing it to lose minerals. This can happen if you eat or drink often, especially foods and drinks containing sugar and starches. The repeated cycles of these “acid attacks” will cause the enamel to continue to lose minerals. Over time, the enamel is weakened and then destroyed, forming a cavity. Treatment Dentists commonly treat cavities by filling them. A dentist will remove the decayed tooth tissue and then restore the tooth by filling it with a filling material.
  • 16. 4. Oral Cancer Thousands of people suffer from this disease annually. Oral cancer affects mouth, lips and throat. Regular oral checkups and proper care may reduce down the symptoms of oral cancer. Oral cancer appears as a growth in the mouth that does not go away. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, floor of the mouth, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Cause • Smoking : Cigarette, cigar, or pipe smokers are six times more likely than nonsmokers to develop oral cancers. • Smokeless tobacco users: Users of dip, snuff, or chewing tobacco products are 50 times more likely to develop cancers of the cheek, gums, and lining of the lips. • Excessive consumption of alcohol: Oral cancers are about six times more common in drinkers than in nondrinkers. • Family history of cancer. • Excessive sun exposure, especially at a young age. Treatment Oral cancer is treated the same way many other cancers are treated with surgery to remove the cancerous growth, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy (drug treatments) to destroy any remaining cancer cells.
  • 17. 5. Leukoplakia Leukoplakia is a condition in which thick, white patches form on your tongue and the lining of your mouth. Smoking is the most common cause. But other irritants can result in this condition as well. Mild leukoplakia is usually harmless and often goes away on its own. More serious cases may be linked to oral cancer. These must be treated promptly. Cause The exact cause of leukoplakia is unknown. It’s primarily linked to tobacco use. Smoking is the most common cause. But chewing tobacco can also cause leukoplakia. Other causes include: • injury to the inside of your cheek, such as from biting • rough, uneven teeth • dentures, especially if improperly fitted • inflammatory conditions of the body Treatment • Small patches can be removed by a more extensive biopsy using laser therapy or a scalpel. Large leukoplakia patches require oral surgery. • Hairy leukoplakia may not require removal. Your dentist or doctor might prescribe antiviral medications to help stop the patches from growing. Topical ointments containing retinoic acid can also be used to reduce patch size.
  • 18. 6 Tooth sensitivity It is known as dentin hypersensitivity — affects the tooth or exposed root surfaces. This occurs when the enamel that protects our teeth gets thinner, or when gum recession occurs, exposing the underlying surface, the dentin, thus, reducing the protection the enamel and gums provide to the tooth and root. Cause There are many causes of tooth sensitivity, including: • Worn tooth enamel from using a hard toothbrush or brushing too aggressively • Tooth erosion due to highly acidic foods and beverages • Tooth erosion due to bulimia or gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) • Gum recession that leaves your root surface exposed Treatment In addition to recommending toothpaste without high levels of abrasives, your dentist may prescribe an at- home, brush-on fluoride gel or a fluoride rinse, or high fluoride level toothpaste specially formulated to make your teeth less sensitive and provide extra protection against decay. Other treatments — such as fluoride varnishes — can be painted onto the teeth to provide added protection.
  • 19. Cleansing and care needs for Face, Eye Lids, Lips, Nail, and Scalp 1. For Face
  • 20. Oily Face • Oily face, thick and shiny skin appearance, especially on the forehead, nose, and chin (the T- zone) • Pores are large and visible except around the eye and neck area • Prone to pimples, whiteheads, and blackheads • Oily film on face is present after sleeping • Make-up foundation only lasts a couple of hours • Flakiness around the nose area may exist due to dried excess oils • Oily skin is slow to develop discolorations such as freckles, fine lines, and wrinkles as the skin ages • The skin tans easily
  • 21. Dry Skin • Redness, dry skin patches. • Flaking of the skin is common. • Scaly skin, dry face or dry skin on the face. • Fine lines and wrinkles are evident. • Skin generally has fine pores. Combination Skin • Typically has dry skin around the eyes and cheeks, while the areas across the forehead and down toward the nose and chin are oily (t-zone). • The skin may be oily along the chin, jaw line, and temples, but may be dry or have dry skin patches elsewhere. • Scaly skin, dry face and skin irritation change with the seasons. • Skin pores are medium in size. • Overall the skin appears normal and healthy, not including those small affected areas that are too oily or dry.
  • 22. Sensitive Skin • Skin is fine-textured and thin • Frequent skin irritation • Dry skin on face and red blotchy patches may develop with exposure to sun, wind, or temperature changes • Sensitivity to cosmetics (especially if heavily scented)
  • 23. BEAUTY CARE SEGMENT Face wash/Cleanser Moisturizer cream or Lotion Fairness cream
  • 24. Face Wash • Face wash is a facial care cosmetic used to cleanse the skin • Helps improve skin complexion • Helps Rejuvenates the skin • Helps controls excessive oil • Helps nourish the skin to make it bright and radiant Types of face wash Cleanser A cleanser is a facial care product that is used to remove make-up, dead skin cells, oil, dirt, and other types of pollutants from the skin of the face(having charcoal). This helps to unclog pores and prevent skin conditions such as acne. A cleanser can be used as part of a skin care regimen together with a toner and moisturizer.
  • 25. Moisturizer Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin) e.g.; Aloe Vera moisturizer, honey Almond moisturiser. Fairness Cream Fairness creams or skin lightening cosmetic products are also known as whiteners or skin brighteners, or skin lighteners creams. They work by reducing a pigment called melanin in the skin. This is the most common technique to naturally lighten darkened skin. Helps visibly lighten the hyper pigmentation in the skin, nourishes skin to bright.
  • 26. Eyelid Care Eyelid Cleanser are used for dry eye and blepharitis. Lid hygiene with a good quality eyelid care product is very important when suffering from dry eyes. Several patients show signs of inflammation of the meibomian glands which are located in the eyelids. This inflammation is called “blepharitis”. Good eyelids hygiene with a product specifically designed to wash away the oily debris that are produced by these glands, which can irritate the ocular surface, is very important. Over time, if the lid hygiene is not performed regularly, debris and bacteria colonize the lash region and contribute to eye irritation. Eyelid care products such as Ocusoft or Lidhygenix is recommended after applying a hot compress on the eyes.
  • 27. Care needed for lips The skin on our lips is much thinner than the skin on the other parts of our body. This makes it easier for them to crack and chap and makes it much more important for us to take extra care of. Our lips have a lesser amount of oil glands and no ability to create the sun-filtering natural melanin. This means that they have virtually no protection of their own. Following are the common problems related to lips: 1. Chapping 2. Splitting 3. Lipstick Bleeding 4. Cold Sores Following are the Simple and Effective Lip Care Tips: 1. Do not Touch or Lick your Lips 2. Follow Healthy Diet Plan 3.Stay Hydrated By Drinking Lot of Water 4. Remove Makeup and Keep Your Lips Hydrated Overnight 5. Scrub Your Lips 6. Always Carry a Lip Balm
  • 28. Care needed for nails Nails composed of laminated layers of a protein called keratin — grow from the area at the base of the nail under cuticle. Healthy fingernails are smooth, without pits or grooves. They're uniform in color and consistency and free of spots or discoloration. Sometimes fingernails develop harmless vertical ridges that run from the cuticle to the tip of the nail. Vertical ridges tend to become more prominent with age. Fingernails can also develop white lines or spots due to injury, but these eventually grow out with the nail. Following steps are required to follow for the good health of nails: 1. Stop peeling off your gel mani. 2. Stop cutting your cuticles. 3. Never use your other nails as chisels to chip off your nail polish. 4. Don’t use water-based manicures. 5. Don’t use nail polish remover in your lacquer to thin it out. 6. Stop biting your nails. 7. Stop painting over oily nails. 8. Stop using cotton balls to remove your polish.
  • 29. Care needed for scalp Everyone wants shiny, healthy hair, and it’s easy to spend a lot of time and money in pursuit of that goal. Unfortunately, even the best styling products or the most expensive hairdryer won’t be able to help your hair if you’re neglecting your scalp. Healthy hair relies on a healthy scalp. If you’re guilty of neglecting your scalp, you may have noticed issues such as dandruff, greasy hair, an itchy scalp, and even scalp pain. Steps to get healthy scalp: 1. Don’t skip shampooing The popular trend co-washing, where you just use a conditioner instead of shampooing to refresh your hair, can lead to build-up that causes serious scalp disorders and even hair loss. Some issues that can cause scalp problems and hair loss are psoriasis, ringworm, and protein, iron, and other dietary deficiencies. Some require a prescription from your dermatologist, but many issues can be solved with dietary or hygienic adjustments.
  • 30. 2. Use products that are gentle on your scalp The eco-system of the scalp and hair is fragile and can be disrupted very easily with excessive use of products that strip and coat. In order to balance the scalp your first line of defense is to select shampoos with gentle cleansing agents and products that leave no heavy residue on the scalp or hair. 3. Massage your scalp daily Science suggests regular scalp massages for an easy, natural treatment that you can do at home: “Massage aids in increasing blood flow to the scalp thereby promoting circulation and stimulation to the area–all very helpful at promoting a healthy scalp and optimal hair growth.
  • 31. References 1. https://www.hairgrowthsos.com/hair-loss-articles.html 2. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26586222_Cosmeti cs_and_skin_care_in_acne 3. https://www.slideshare.net/directsolutiom/face-care-part- 1?qid=5894ef76-7d91-4d99-81e6- 3202dac44bf7&v=&b=&from_search=15 4. https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/beauty/nails/a34645/hea lthy-nail-care-tips/ 5. https://www.rodalesorganiclife.com/wellbeing/scalp-care-for- healthy-hair