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Intra Nasal Drug Delivery System
Prepared By:-
Hemant Saini
D50217008
M.Pharmacy, II Semester
Dept of Pharmaceutics
PDM University
1
CONTENT
1. INTRODUCTION
2. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE
3. MERITS & DEMERITS
4. MACHANISM OF ABSORPSION
5. BARRIARS OF NASAL ABSORPSION
6. FACTOR AFFECTIONING NASAL ABSORPSION
7. DRUG DISTRUBUTION
8. STRATERGIES TO IMPROVE NASAL ABSORPSION
9. PENETRATION ENHANCERS
10. FORMULATION
11. DELIVERY SYSTEM
12. APPLICATION
13. CONCLUSION
14. REFERENCE
2
INTRODUCTION:
Nasal drug delivery is receiving much
attention from the pharmaceutical
industry.
About 2% of the overall drug delivery is
administered via the nasal route.
Topical decongestants or anti-
inflammatory drugs used to treat a
rhinitis or allergy related indications
are well-known drug products.
The nasal route is an attractive
alternative to invasive administrations,
and provides a direct access to the
systemic circulation.
3
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE
4
5
• The nasal cavity is run from the nasal vestibule to the
nasopharynx which has depth of approximately 12-14cm.
• The nasal vestibule, the respiratory region and the olfactory
region are the three main regions of the nasal cavity.
• The submucosal zone of the nasal mucosa directly connects
to the systemic circulation, thus avoids first pass metabolism.
• The lateral walls of the nasal cavity includes a folded
structure which enlarges the surface area in the nose to
about 150cm2 .
• This folded structure includes three turbinates: the superior,
the median and the inferior.
• These turbinates increases the area of absorption.
• Nasal cavity is about 60mm in length.
• The nasal cavity is covered with a mucous membrane which
can be divided into nonolfactory and olfactory epithelium
areas. The nonolfactory area includes the nasal vestibule and
respiratory region.
6• Nasal blood flow external & internal carotid
arteries.
• Nasal secretions (1500-2000ml/day):- Goblet cell,
nasal glands, lacrimal glands
• Composition:- 95% water, 1-2% salt, 2-3% mucin. In
trace amount Na, K, Ca, Albumin also present.
• Nasal enzymes:- Monooxygenase, lactate
dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, phosphates ,
hydrolases, esterases, etc.
• Nasal pH:- 5.5-6.5(adults)
5.0-6.7(infants & child)
MERITS
Avoids ‘‘first-
pass’’
metabolism.
Avoids parentral
administration
Rapid absorption,
peaking generally
within 15–30
minutes
Apparent
permeability to
some peptides
Ease of self-
administration/g
ood patient
compliance
lower doses and
less side effects
Quicker onset of
pharmacological
activity .
Rate of
absorption
comparable to IV
medication.
User-friendly,
painless, needle-
free
administration
mode.
Useful for both
local & systemic
drug delivery.
For CNS drugs,
better site for
rapid onset of
action
Ex. Inhalation
anesthesia,
Morphine etc.
The nose is a
very easy access
point for
medication
delivery - even
Easier to access
than IM or IV
sites .
7
DEMERITS
Environmental conditions, infection, and inter-subject
variability can lead to inconsistent absorption.
Short time span is available for absorption due to rapid
clearance.
Local metabolism in the nose and instability of
compound (especially for peptide drugs) occur.
Once administered, removal of the therapeutic agent
from the site of absorption is difficult.
The histological toxicity of absorption enhancers used in
nasal drug delivery system is not yet clearly established.
Relatively inconvenient to patients when compared to
oral delivery systems since there is a possibility of nasal
irritation.
Nasal cavity provides smaller absorption surface area
when compared to GIT.
There is a risk of local side effects and irreversible
damage of the cilia on the nasal mucosa, both from the
substance and from constituents added to the dosage
form.
Certain surfactants used as chemical enhancers may
disrupt and even dissolve membrane in high
concentration.
There could be a mechanical loss of the
dosage form into the other parts of the
respiratory tract like lungs because of the
improper technique of administration.
8
MECHANISM OF ABSORPTION
• Majority of Drugs are absorbed by passive diffusion.
• Some may be by active transport, such as amino acids.
• Literature shows that upto 1000dalton drug get easily absorbed
without help of penetration enhancers.
• Two mechanisms are found:
9
Transcellular process:
Transport of lipophillic drugs
through cell membrane by
active transport or transport
through opening of tight
junction.
Example: Levodopa,Carbidopa
Paracellular process:
It involves aqueous route of
transport. It is slow and
passive. Water soluble drugs
which have molecular weight
greater than 1000 dalton shows
poor bioavailability.
Example: Insulin,MSH,ACTH
PATHWAY OF ABSORPTION
10
BARRIERS TO NASAL ABSORPTION
Low
Bioavailability
It is due to Low
membrane
permeability
(limiting factor
for high
mol.weight polar
drugs like protein
and peptides )
Low Membrane
Transport
Rapid clearance
of administered
formulation due
to MCC. Ex:
Liquid and
powder
formulation
shows rapid
clearance
Enzymatic
Degradation
Degradation of
protein and
peptides by
Exopeptidase and
Endopeptidase
11
FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG
ABSORPTION
Chemical
Form
Polymorphism
Molecular
Weight
Particle Size
Solubility and
Dissolution
Rate
Nasal pH
12
Strategies
To Improve
Nasal
Absorption
1.Nasal Enzymes Inhibitors
2.Formulation Design
3. Modifying drug structure
4.Prodrug approach
5.Particulate drug delivery
6.Absorption Enhancers
13
Mechanism of Penetration
Enhancers:
Inhibit
enzymatic
activity
1
Reduce
mucus
viscosity
2
Reduce MCC
3
Open tight
junctions
4
Solubilize the
drug
5
14
15
Ideal
Properties
It should
increase in
the
absorption of
the drug. It should not
cause
permanent
damage or
alteration to
the tissue.
It should be
non irritant
and nontoxic.
It should be
effective in
small
quantity.
The
enhancing
effect should
occur when
absorption is
required.
It should be
compatible
with other
excipients.
The effect
should be
temporary
and
reversible.
Classification of Penetration
Enhancers 16
Type Examples
Surfactants Sodium dodecyl sulphate,
Polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether,
Saponin
Complexing and chelating agents EDTA, Salicylates
Cyclodextrins and derivatives α-, β-, γ-cyclodextrin, DMβ-
cyclodextrin, HPβ-cyclodextrin
Bile salts Sodium taurocholate
Sodium glycocholate
Sodium deoxycholat
Fusidic acid derivatives
Fatty acid salts Oleic acid, Caprylate (C8),
Caprate (C10), Laurate (C12)
Dry microspheres Degradable starch microsphere
Dextran microsphere
FORMULATION CONSIDERATION
• pH of the formulation
• It is important as..
• To avoid irritation of nasal mucosa.
• To allow drug to be available in unionised form for
absorption.
• To prevent growth of the bacteria in nasal passage.
• To sustain normal physiological ciliary moments.
• Humectants
• To prevent dehydration adequate intranasal
moisture is required and therefore humectants are
added.
• Prevent nasal irritation.
• The commonly used humectants are
Glycerin, Sorbitol, Mannitol
17
18
• Osmotic Agent
• The osmolarity of the dosage form affect the nasal
absorption of the drug.
• The higher concentration of drug not only causes increased
bioavailability but also leads to the toxicity to the nasal
epithelium.
• The commonly used osmotic agents are-
Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Acid Phosphate
• Solubilizers
• Aqueous solubility of drug is always a limitation for nasal
drug delivery of dosage form.
• Commonly used solubilizers are glycols, surfactants, etc.
• Gelling/Viscosifying Agents/Gel Forming Carrier
• Increasing solution viscosity may provide means of
prolonging the therapeutic effect of nasal preparations.
• Highly viscous formulations interfere with the normal
functions like ciliary beating or mucociliary clearance and
thus alter the permeability of drug.
• Commonly used gelling agents are…
Carbopol, Cellulose agents, Starch, Dextran, Chitosan,
etc.
19
• ABSORPTION ENHANCERS
• Unlike the most small drug molecules, some drugs and
peptides do no cross the nasal membrane efficiently.
• The nasal mucosa is almost impermeable to molecular size
greater than 1000 Dalton.
• The low nasal membrane permeability is due to Molecular
Size, Lack Of Lipophilicity & Enzymatic Degradation.
• ANTIOXIDANT
• Usually antioxidants do not affect drug absorption or cause
nasal irritation.
• Chemical / Physical interaction of antioxidant with drug and
excipients should be considered during formulation
development
• Commonly used antioxidants are Sodium Metabisulfite, Sodium
Bisulfite, Butylated Hydroxytoluene.
• PRESERVATIVE
• Commonly Used Preservatives are Parabens, Benzolkonium
Chloride, Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol, Benzoyl alcohol.
DELIVERY
SYSTEM
Liquid drop
Liquid spray/nebulizers
Aerosol
Suspension spray/nebulizers
Gel
Sustained release
20
APPLICATION OF NASAL DRUG
DELIVERY SYSTEMS
1. Delivery of non-peptide pharmaceuticals
Eg. Progesterone, estradiol, propranolol, nitroglycerin,
sodium chromoglyate, etc.
2. Delivery of peptide-based pharmaceuticals
Eg. Insulin, Calcitonin, Pituitary hormones etc.
3. Delivery of Diagnostic Drugs
Phenolsulfonphthaline-For diagnosis of kidney functions
Secretin-For diagnosis of pancreatic disorders
Pentagastrin-For diagnosis of secretory functions of gastric
acid.
Cerulin-For diagnosis of Gallbladder function
Vital dyes-Trypan blue and Evans blue (it can not enter in
cranium because they can not pass through sheath)
21
22
4. Delivery of drugs to Brain:
For Treatment of Parkinson’sdisease,Alzheimer disease.
For Delivery of MSH,ACTH,Insulin to brain
5. Delivery of Vaccines :
Nasal mucosa is the first site of contacts with inhaled
pathogens
Nasal passages are rich in lymphoid tissue
Creation of both mucosal and systemic immune responses
Non injectable
Examples:
Nasal Vaccines are Prepared for Measels, pertussis,
meningitis and Influenza virus because these pathogens
enter into the body through nasal mucosa.
Nasal delivery of vaccines produces both local and
systemic immune response.
CONCLUSION
Nasal route is attractive
for the delivery of the
many drugs and
vaccines.
Studies are going on
improving the efficiency
of the nasal route.
Outcome of these
studies is that we can
utilise it for treatment
of diabetes,
osteoporosis, infertility.
Nasal drug delivery
offers such benefits as
Rapid onset of action
with lower dose &
minimal side effects
It has an advantage of
site-specific delivery
with improved
therapeutic effects.
Allowing systemic
administration without
significant degradation.
Nasal drug delivery
system offers flexibility
for multiple
formulations ranging
from nasal drop to
suspension spray
23
REFERENCES
Y.W.Chein, K.S.E. Su and S.F.Chang. “Nasal systemic
drug delivery” Dekker, 1989, 27-34,89,199.
Y.W.Chein, “ Novel drug delivery systems”, Marcel
Dekker Inc.50 (2), 1982, 229-260.
M.Alagusundaram*, B.Chengaiah, K.Gnanaprakash,
S.Ramkanth, C.Madhusudhana
Chetty, D.Dhachinamoorthi “Nasal drug delivery
system - an overview” Review Article of IJIPRS.
RAHISUDDIN*, PRAMOD K SHARMA, GARIMA GARG,
AND MOHD SALIM “REVIEW ON NASAL DRUG
DELIVERY SYSTEM WITH RECENT ADVANCEMNT”
Review Article of IJPPS.
24
25

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Intra Nasal Drug Delivery Systems

  • 1. Intra Nasal Drug Delivery System Prepared By:- Hemant Saini D50217008 M.Pharmacy, II Semester Dept of Pharmaceutics PDM University 1
  • 2. CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF NOSE 3. MERITS & DEMERITS 4. MACHANISM OF ABSORPSION 5. BARRIARS OF NASAL ABSORPSION 6. FACTOR AFFECTIONING NASAL ABSORPSION 7. DRUG DISTRUBUTION 8. STRATERGIES TO IMPROVE NASAL ABSORPSION 9. PENETRATION ENHANCERS 10. FORMULATION 11. DELIVERY SYSTEM 12. APPLICATION 13. CONCLUSION 14. REFERENCE 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION: Nasal drug delivery is receiving much attention from the pharmaceutical industry. About 2% of the overall drug delivery is administered via the nasal route. Topical decongestants or anti- inflammatory drugs used to treat a rhinitis or allergy related indications are well-known drug products. The nasal route is an attractive alternative to invasive administrations, and provides a direct access to the systemic circulation. 3
  • 5. 5 • The nasal cavity is run from the nasal vestibule to the nasopharynx which has depth of approximately 12-14cm. • The nasal vestibule, the respiratory region and the olfactory region are the three main regions of the nasal cavity. • The submucosal zone of the nasal mucosa directly connects to the systemic circulation, thus avoids first pass metabolism. • The lateral walls of the nasal cavity includes a folded structure which enlarges the surface area in the nose to about 150cm2 . • This folded structure includes three turbinates: the superior, the median and the inferior. • These turbinates increases the area of absorption. • Nasal cavity is about 60mm in length. • The nasal cavity is covered with a mucous membrane which can be divided into nonolfactory and olfactory epithelium areas. The nonolfactory area includes the nasal vestibule and respiratory region.
  • 6. 6• Nasal blood flow external & internal carotid arteries. • Nasal secretions (1500-2000ml/day):- Goblet cell, nasal glands, lacrimal glands • Composition:- 95% water, 1-2% salt, 2-3% mucin. In trace amount Na, K, Ca, Albumin also present. • Nasal enzymes:- Monooxygenase, lactate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, phosphates , hydrolases, esterases, etc. • Nasal pH:- 5.5-6.5(adults) 5.0-6.7(infants & child)
  • 7. MERITS Avoids ‘‘first- pass’’ metabolism. Avoids parentral administration Rapid absorption, peaking generally within 15–30 minutes Apparent permeability to some peptides Ease of self- administration/g ood patient compliance lower doses and less side effects Quicker onset of pharmacological activity . Rate of absorption comparable to IV medication. User-friendly, painless, needle- free administration mode. Useful for both local & systemic drug delivery. For CNS drugs, better site for rapid onset of action Ex. Inhalation anesthesia, Morphine etc. The nose is a very easy access point for medication delivery - even Easier to access than IM or IV sites . 7
  • 8. DEMERITS Environmental conditions, infection, and inter-subject variability can lead to inconsistent absorption. Short time span is available for absorption due to rapid clearance. Local metabolism in the nose and instability of compound (especially for peptide drugs) occur. Once administered, removal of the therapeutic agent from the site of absorption is difficult. The histological toxicity of absorption enhancers used in nasal drug delivery system is not yet clearly established. Relatively inconvenient to patients when compared to oral delivery systems since there is a possibility of nasal irritation. Nasal cavity provides smaller absorption surface area when compared to GIT. There is a risk of local side effects and irreversible damage of the cilia on the nasal mucosa, both from the substance and from constituents added to the dosage form. Certain surfactants used as chemical enhancers may disrupt and even dissolve membrane in high concentration. There could be a mechanical loss of the dosage form into the other parts of the respiratory tract like lungs because of the improper technique of administration. 8
  • 9. MECHANISM OF ABSORPTION • Majority of Drugs are absorbed by passive diffusion. • Some may be by active transport, such as amino acids. • Literature shows that upto 1000dalton drug get easily absorbed without help of penetration enhancers. • Two mechanisms are found: 9 Transcellular process: Transport of lipophillic drugs through cell membrane by active transport or transport through opening of tight junction. Example: Levodopa,Carbidopa Paracellular process: It involves aqueous route of transport. It is slow and passive. Water soluble drugs which have molecular weight greater than 1000 dalton shows poor bioavailability. Example: Insulin,MSH,ACTH
  • 11. BARRIERS TO NASAL ABSORPTION Low Bioavailability It is due to Low membrane permeability (limiting factor for high mol.weight polar drugs like protein and peptides ) Low Membrane Transport Rapid clearance of administered formulation due to MCC. Ex: Liquid and powder formulation shows rapid clearance Enzymatic Degradation Degradation of protein and peptides by Exopeptidase and Endopeptidase 11
  • 13. Strategies To Improve Nasal Absorption 1.Nasal Enzymes Inhibitors 2.Formulation Design 3. Modifying drug structure 4.Prodrug approach 5.Particulate drug delivery 6.Absorption Enhancers 13
  • 15. 15 Ideal Properties It should increase in the absorption of the drug. It should not cause permanent damage or alteration to the tissue. It should be non irritant and nontoxic. It should be effective in small quantity. The enhancing effect should occur when absorption is required. It should be compatible with other excipients. The effect should be temporary and reversible.
  • 16. Classification of Penetration Enhancers 16 Type Examples Surfactants Sodium dodecyl sulphate, Polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether, Saponin Complexing and chelating agents EDTA, Salicylates Cyclodextrins and derivatives α-, β-, γ-cyclodextrin, DMβ- cyclodextrin, HPβ-cyclodextrin Bile salts Sodium taurocholate Sodium glycocholate Sodium deoxycholat Fusidic acid derivatives Fatty acid salts Oleic acid, Caprylate (C8), Caprate (C10), Laurate (C12) Dry microspheres Degradable starch microsphere Dextran microsphere
  • 17. FORMULATION CONSIDERATION • pH of the formulation • It is important as.. • To avoid irritation of nasal mucosa. • To allow drug to be available in unionised form for absorption. • To prevent growth of the bacteria in nasal passage. • To sustain normal physiological ciliary moments. • Humectants • To prevent dehydration adequate intranasal moisture is required and therefore humectants are added. • Prevent nasal irritation. • The commonly used humectants are Glycerin, Sorbitol, Mannitol 17
  • 18. 18 • Osmotic Agent • The osmolarity of the dosage form affect the nasal absorption of the drug. • The higher concentration of drug not only causes increased bioavailability but also leads to the toxicity to the nasal epithelium. • The commonly used osmotic agents are- Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Acid Phosphate • Solubilizers • Aqueous solubility of drug is always a limitation for nasal drug delivery of dosage form. • Commonly used solubilizers are glycols, surfactants, etc. • Gelling/Viscosifying Agents/Gel Forming Carrier • Increasing solution viscosity may provide means of prolonging the therapeutic effect of nasal preparations. • Highly viscous formulations interfere with the normal functions like ciliary beating or mucociliary clearance and thus alter the permeability of drug. • Commonly used gelling agents are… Carbopol, Cellulose agents, Starch, Dextran, Chitosan, etc.
  • 19. 19 • ABSORPTION ENHANCERS • Unlike the most small drug molecules, some drugs and peptides do no cross the nasal membrane efficiently. • The nasal mucosa is almost impermeable to molecular size greater than 1000 Dalton. • The low nasal membrane permeability is due to Molecular Size, Lack Of Lipophilicity & Enzymatic Degradation. • ANTIOXIDANT • Usually antioxidants do not affect drug absorption or cause nasal irritation. • Chemical / Physical interaction of antioxidant with drug and excipients should be considered during formulation development • Commonly used antioxidants are Sodium Metabisulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Butylated Hydroxytoluene. • PRESERVATIVE • Commonly Used Preservatives are Parabens, Benzolkonium Chloride, Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol, Benzoyl alcohol.
  • 21. APPLICATION OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS 1. Delivery of non-peptide pharmaceuticals Eg. Progesterone, estradiol, propranolol, nitroglycerin, sodium chromoglyate, etc. 2. Delivery of peptide-based pharmaceuticals Eg. Insulin, Calcitonin, Pituitary hormones etc. 3. Delivery of Diagnostic Drugs Phenolsulfonphthaline-For diagnosis of kidney functions Secretin-For diagnosis of pancreatic disorders Pentagastrin-For diagnosis of secretory functions of gastric acid. Cerulin-For diagnosis of Gallbladder function Vital dyes-Trypan blue and Evans blue (it can not enter in cranium because they can not pass through sheath) 21
  • 22. 22 4. Delivery of drugs to Brain: For Treatment of Parkinson’sdisease,Alzheimer disease. For Delivery of MSH,ACTH,Insulin to brain 5. Delivery of Vaccines : Nasal mucosa is the first site of contacts with inhaled pathogens Nasal passages are rich in lymphoid tissue Creation of both mucosal and systemic immune responses Non injectable Examples: Nasal Vaccines are Prepared for Measels, pertussis, meningitis and Influenza virus because these pathogens enter into the body through nasal mucosa. Nasal delivery of vaccines produces both local and systemic immune response.
  • 23. CONCLUSION Nasal route is attractive for the delivery of the many drugs and vaccines. Studies are going on improving the efficiency of the nasal route. Outcome of these studies is that we can utilise it for treatment of diabetes, osteoporosis, infertility. Nasal drug delivery offers such benefits as Rapid onset of action with lower dose & minimal side effects It has an advantage of site-specific delivery with improved therapeutic effects. Allowing systemic administration without significant degradation. Nasal drug delivery system offers flexibility for multiple formulations ranging from nasal drop to suspension spray 23
  • 24. REFERENCES Y.W.Chein, K.S.E. Su and S.F.Chang. “Nasal systemic drug delivery” Dekker, 1989, 27-34,89,199. Y.W.Chein, “ Novel drug delivery systems”, Marcel Dekker Inc.50 (2), 1982, 229-260. M.Alagusundaram*, B.Chengaiah, K.Gnanaprakash, S.Ramkanth, C.Madhusudhana Chetty, D.Dhachinamoorthi “Nasal drug delivery system - an overview” Review Article of IJIPRS. RAHISUDDIN*, PRAMOD K SHARMA, GARIMA GARG, AND MOHD SALIM “REVIEW ON NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM WITH RECENT ADVANCEMNT” Review Article of IJPPS. 24
  • 25. 25