SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 28
Download to read offline
Historical Research
Miss Hemangi Narvekar
Clinical Psychologist
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Purpose
 Hypothesis
 Characteristics
 Steps
 Sources Of Data
 Problems and Weaknesses
 Writing Historical Report
 Strengths & Criticisms
 Conclusion
 References
Introduction
 History -
It usually refers simply to an account of the past of human societies. It
is the study of what “can be known…(to the historian)… through the
surviving record.”
It is a meaningful record of human achievement.
It is used to understand the past and to try to understand the present in
light of past events and developments.
 Research-
The systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in
order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge.
Historical Research
 Historical research -
Defined as the systematic and objective evaluation and synthesis of
evidence in order to establish facts and draw conclusions about past events.
 Wiersma (1986) defines historical research as a process of critical inquiry
into past events, in order to produce an accurate description and
interpretation of those events.
 Historical research problems are identified in the same way as problems of
other types of researches. It is much better to study in-depth a well-defined
problem with one or more specific well stated questions or hypotheses, than
to investigate either too broadly stated problems or a problem for which
insufficient data are available (Gay,1997).
Purpose
• Historical research involves studying, understanding and
interpreting past events.
• The purpose of historical research is to reach insights or
conclusions about past persons or occurrences.
• Historical research entails more than simply compiling and
presenting factual information; it also requires interpretation of
the information.
• Typically, histories focuses on particular individuals, social issues and
links between the old and the new.
• Some historical research is aimed at reinterpreting prior historical
works by revising existing understandings and replacing them with
new, often politically charged ones.
• The main emphasis in historical research is on interpretation of
documents, diaries and the like. Historical data are categorized into
primary or secondary sources.
• To make people aware of what has happened in the past in order to:-
• Learn from past failures & successes
• Apply them to present-day problems
• Make predictions
• Test hypothesis concerning relationship
• Understand present educational practices & policies more fully.
Hypothesis
 Hypotheses are relational propositions. (Kerlinger, 1956)
 Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of
facts and can be tested by further investigation.
 Although hypothesis are not always explicitly stated in
historical investigation, they are usually implied.
 The historian gathers evidence and carefully evaluates its
trustworthiness.
 If the evidence is compatible with the consequences of
hypothesis , it is confirmed and vice-versa.
Characteristics
1. It is not a mere accumulation of facts and data or even a portrayal of
past events.
2. It is a flowing, vibrant report of past events which involves an
analysis and explanation of these occurrences with the objective of
recapturing the nuances, personalities and ideas that influenced these
events.
3. Conducting historical research involves the process of collecting and
reading the research material collected and writing the manuscript
from the data collected. The researcher often goes back-and-forth
between collecting, reading, and writing. i.e. the process of data
collection and analysis are done simultaneously are not two distinct
phases of research.
4. It deals with discovery of data that already exists and does not
involve creation of data using structured tools.
5. It is analytical in that it uses logical induction.
6. It has a variety of foci such as issues, events, movements and
concepts.
7. It records and evaluates the accomplishments of individuals,
agencies or institutions.
Steps in Historical Research
1. Identifying a topic/subject and defining the
problems/questions to be investigated.
2. Searching for sources of data.
3. Evaluating the historical sources.
4. Analyze, synthesize and summarize interpreting
the data / information.
5. Writing the research report.
Sources of Data
• One of the principle differences between historical research and
other forms of research is that historical research must deal with
data that already exist.
• Sources of data in historical research may be classified into two
main categories:
1. Primary Sources - which are the life-blood of historical
research
2. Secondary Sources - which may be used in the absence of
or to supplement, primary data
Primary Sources
 Primary sources are eyewitness accounts. They are reported
by an actual observer or participant in an event.
 In other words, primary sources are tangible materials that
provide a description of an historical event and were produced
shortly after the event happened.
 They have a direct physical relationship to the event being
studied.
(i) The remains or relics
The remains or relics are objects associated with a person, group
or period.
These could include photographs, coins, skeletons, fossils, tools,
weapons, utensils, furniture, buildings
and pieces of art and culture . Though
these were not originally meant for
transmitting information to future
generations they could prove very useful
sources in providing reliable and sound evidence
about the past. Most of these relics provide
non-verbal information.
(ii) Documents
Documents are the records kept and written by actual
participants in, and witnesses of, an event.
 Constitutions
 Charters
 Laws
 Court decisions
 Official minutes or records
 Autobiographies
 Letters
 Diaries
 Genealogies
 Census information
 Contracts
 Deeds
 Wills
 Permits
 Licenses
 Affidavits
 Depositions
 Declarations
 Proclamations
 Catalogs
 Films
 Pictures
 Certificates
 Handbills
 Bills
 Receipts
 Advertisements
 Maps
 Diagrams
 Books
 Pamphlets
 Inscriptions
 Recordings
 Paintings
 Transcriptions
 Research reports
(iii) Oral Testimony
Oral testimony is the spoken account of a witness of, or
participant in, an event.
This evident is obtained in a personal interview and may be
recorded or transcribed as the witness relates his or her
experiences.
Secondary Sources
 Secondary sources are accounts of an event not actually
witnessed by the reporter.
 The reporter may have talked with an actual observer or read
an account by an observer. In short, it is the second hand
information.
 These sources are those that do not bear a direct physical
relationship to the event being studied.
 They include the data which are not original.
Examples of secondary sources are-
 Textbooks
 Encyclopedias
 Reference books
 Newspapers
 Periodicals
 Replicas of art objects or paintings
Best (1970) points out that secondary sources of data are
usually of limited worth because of the errors that result when
information is passed on from one person to another.
Problems & Weaknesses to be avoided
in Historical Research
 The problem of research should not be too broad.
 It should be selected after ensuring that sources of data are existent,
accessible and in a language known to the researcher.
 Excessive use of easy-to-find secondary sources of data should be avoided.
Though locating primary sources of data time-consuming and requires
efforts, they are usually more trustworthy.
 Adequate internal and external criticism of sources of historical data is
very essential for establishing the authenticity and validity of the data.
 The researcher needs to be aware of his/her own personal values, interests
and biases.
 She/he should avoid unwarranted causal inferences arising on
account of (i) oversimplification (causes of historical event may be multiple,
complex and interactive),
(ii) Faulty interpretation of meanings of words,
(iii) inability to distinguish between facts, opinions and situations,
(iv) inability to identify and discard irrelevant or unimportant
facts and
(v) Faulty generalization based on inadequate evidence, faulty
logic and reasoning in the analysis of data, use of wrong
analogy and faulty comparison of events in un similar cultures.
 The researcher needs to synthesize facts into meaningful chronological patterns.
 The report should be written in a logical and scientific manner.
 The researcher should avoid projecting current problems onto historical events
as this is likely to create distortions.
Writing Historical Report
It is an extremely difficult task to take pieces of
information and synthesize them into meaningful whole.
In a historical research, data collection is flexible.
Research reports should be written in dignified and
objective style.
The historian is permitted a little more freedom in
reporting.
There are several board ways of reporting historical
investigation as follows :
i) The researcher can report the historical facts as answers
to different research questions. Answer to each question
could be reported in a separate chapter.
ii) He / she can present the facts in a chronological order with each chapter
pertaining to a specific historical period chronologically.
iii) Report can also written in a thematic manner where each chapter deals with
a specific theme / topic.
iv) Chapter could also pertain to specific historical persons separately
v) The researcher can also combine different approaches while writing the
research report.
• In addition, the report should contain a chapter each on
introduction, methodology, review of related literature, findings, the
researcher’s interpretations and reflections on the interpretative
process.
• Historical research is difficult and demanding.
Strengths
 The historical method is unobtrusive.
 It enables solutions to contemporary problems to be sought in the past.
 It throws light on present and future trends.
 It stresses the relative importance and the effects of the various
interactions that are to be found within all cultures.
 It allows for the revaluation of data in relation to selected hypotheses,
theories and generalizations that are presently held about the past.
 Many current educational practices, theories and issues can be better
understood in the light of past experiences.
Limitations
 Bias in interpreting historical sources
 Interpreting sources is very time consuming.
 Sources of historical materials may be problematic.
 Lack of control over external variables.
 Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way
to manipulate it. Studying the grades of older students, for example,
and younger students may provide some insight into the differences
between these two groups, but manipulating the work experience is
impossible.
 Historical research cannot collect data by administering instruments.
 It is limited to whatever data are available.
Conclusion
 Historical research involves analyses of events that occurred
in the remote or recent past.
 Historical research is necessary to define the situations of the
past and its meaning in the light of the present problem.
 It can provide a perspective for decision making about
educational problems, and it assists in understanding why things
are as they are.
 Issues are often better understood and probably better dealt
with-if the historical perspective is known.
ReferencesBook References
 Best, J.W.,& Kahn, J.V. (2006). Research in Education (10th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education,
Inc.
 Elmes, D., Kantowitz, B. H., & Roediger, H. L. III.(2006). Research Methods in Psychology.
Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth Learning.
Web References
 Historical research, retrieved from
http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/historicalresearch/
On December 29, 2014 at 12.09 pm
 Historical research, retrieved from
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/historical-research-design-definition-advantages-
limitations.html
On December 29, 2014 at 11.44 am
 Historical research, retrieved from
http://www.angelfire.com/theforce/shu_cohort_viii/images/Historical-research-2005_1_.pdf
On December 31,2014 at 4.21 pm
Acknowledgments
Author acknowledges Ribea, Vibha, Akshaya, Avina for
her valuable inputs.

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Presentation on the characteristic of scientific research 1
Presentation on the characteristic of scientific research 1Presentation on the characteristic of scientific research 1
Presentation on the characteristic of scientific research 1
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
HISTORICAL RESEARCHHISTORICAL RESEARCH
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
 
Historical research
Historical researchHistorical research
Historical research
 
Research
ResearchResearch
Research
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Introduction and Tools of Research
Introduction and Tools of ResearchIntroduction and Tools of Research
Introduction and Tools of Research
 
Observation In Research
Observation In ResearchObservation In Research
Observation In Research
 
TOOLS IN RESEARCH
TOOLS IN RESEARCHTOOLS IN RESEARCH
TOOLS IN RESEARCH
 
Case study method
Case study methodCase study method
Case study method
 
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCHPHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH
 
The Case Study in Research Methods
The Case Study  in Research MethodsThe Case Study  in Research Methods
The Case Study in Research Methods
 
Research problem
Research problemResearch problem
Research problem
 
Methods of research -Historical research
Methods of research -Historical researchMethods of research -Historical research
Methods of research -Historical research
 
Case study research 14 aug2013
Case study research 14 aug2013Case study research 14 aug2013
Case study research 14 aug2013
 
Purposes of research
Purposes of researchPurposes of research
Purposes of research
 
Variables in research
Variables in researchVariables in research
Variables in research
 
Case study
Case studyCase study
Case study
 
Qualitative research and its types
Qualitative research and its typesQualitative research and its types
Qualitative research and its types
 
Qualitative research design
Qualitative research designQualitative research design
Qualitative research design
 

Similar to Historical Research

Ethnography and Historical Research Presentation
Ethnography and Historical Research PresentationEthnography and Historical Research Presentation
Ethnography and Historical Research PresentationMuhammad Nur Fadzly Basar
 
Historical method (written report)
Historical method (written report)Historical method (written report)
Historical method (written report)Chine Mari
 
dravya research.pptx
dravya research.pptxdravya research.pptx
dravya research.pptxDevarajuBn
 
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's types
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's typesQUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's types
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's typespoonambiswas4
 
Historical research design
Historical research designHistorical research design
Historical research designeducation4227
 
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)Nordalilah Wahab
 
Historical Methodology
Historical MethodologyHistorical Methodology
Historical MethodologyDivya Behl
 
Historical method in Research
Historical method in ResearchHistorical method in Research
Historical method in ResearchManu K M
 

Similar to Historical Research (20)

Ethnography and Historical Research
Ethnography and Historical ResearchEthnography and Historical Research
Ethnography and Historical Research
 
Ethnography and Historical Research Presentation
Ethnography and Historical Research PresentationEthnography and Historical Research Presentation
Ethnography and Historical Research Presentation
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Historical research
Historical researchHistorical research
Historical research
 
historica research
historica researchhistorica research
historica research
 
Historical method (written report)
Historical method (written report)Historical method (written report)
Historical method (written report)
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
dravya research.pptx
dravya research.pptxdravya research.pptx
dravya research.pptx
 
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's types
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's typesQUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's types
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD & it's types
 
HISTORICAL DESIGN_RM.pptx
HISTORICAL DESIGN_RM.pptxHISTORICAL DESIGN_RM.pptx
HISTORICAL DESIGN_RM.pptx
 
Historical research design
Historical research designHistorical research design
Historical research design
 
For all
For allFor all
For all
 
For all
For all For all
For all
 
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)
Group presentation (ethnographic and historical research)
 
Historical Methodology
Historical MethodologyHistorical Methodology
Historical Methodology
 
Historical research
Historical researchHistorical research
Historical research
 
Historical method in Research
Historical method in ResearchHistorical method in Research
Historical method in Research
 
Analisis sejarah
Analisis sejarahAnalisis sejarah
Analisis sejarah
 
My presentation
My presentationMy presentation
My presentation
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifeHemangi Narvekar
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersHemangi Narvekar
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesHemangi Narvekar
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHemangi Narvekar
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenHemangi Narvekar
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkHemangi Narvekar
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyHemangi Narvekar
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Hemangi Narvekar
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)Hemangi Narvekar
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesHemangi Narvekar
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar (17)

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for Teachers
 
Psychological Assessment
Psychological AssessmentPsychological Assessment
Psychological Assessment
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive Matrices
 
Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial DevelopmentPsychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for Children
 
Preparing for Amputation
Preparing for AmputationPreparing for Amputation
Preparing for Amputation
 
Dental Anxiety
Dental AnxietyDental Anxiety
Dental Anxiety
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at Work
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
 
Disorders of Emotions
Disorders of EmotionsDisorders of Emotions
Disorders of Emotions
 
Brief Psychotherapy
Brief PsychotherapyBrief Psychotherapy
Brief Psychotherapy
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
 
Parkinson disease
Parkinson diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinson disease
 

Recently uploaded

Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...EduSkills OECD
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptxmary850239
 
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm  In Media Res Media ComponentSarah Lahm  In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptx
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptxSTRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptx
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptxkimdan468
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
Advancing Gender Equality The Crucial Role of Science and Technology 4 April ...
 
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
4.4.24 Economic Precarity and Global Economic Forces.pptx
 
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm  In Media Res Media ComponentSarah Lahm  In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media ComponentPaul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
Paul Dobryden In Media Res Media Component
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptx
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptxSTRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptx
STRAND 1 FOUNDATION OF PRETECHNICALSTUDIE.pptx
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 

Historical Research

  • 1. Historical Research Miss Hemangi Narvekar Clinical Psychologist
  • 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Purpose  Hypothesis  Characteristics  Steps  Sources Of Data  Problems and Weaknesses  Writing Historical Report  Strengths & Criticisms  Conclusion  References
  • 3. Introduction  History - It usually refers simply to an account of the past of human societies. It is the study of what “can be known…(to the historian)… through the surviving record.” It is a meaningful record of human achievement. It is used to understand the past and to try to understand the present in light of past events and developments.  Research- The systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge.
  • 4. Historical Research  Historical research - Defined as the systematic and objective evaluation and synthesis of evidence in order to establish facts and draw conclusions about past events.  Wiersma (1986) defines historical research as a process of critical inquiry into past events, in order to produce an accurate description and interpretation of those events.  Historical research problems are identified in the same way as problems of other types of researches. It is much better to study in-depth a well-defined problem with one or more specific well stated questions or hypotheses, than to investigate either too broadly stated problems or a problem for which insufficient data are available (Gay,1997).
  • 5. Purpose • Historical research involves studying, understanding and interpreting past events. • The purpose of historical research is to reach insights or conclusions about past persons or occurrences. • Historical research entails more than simply compiling and presenting factual information; it also requires interpretation of the information.
  • 6. • Typically, histories focuses on particular individuals, social issues and links between the old and the new. • Some historical research is aimed at reinterpreting prior historical works by revising existing understandings and replacing them with new, often politically charged ones. • The main emphasis in historical research is on interpretation of documents, diaries and the like. Historical data are categorized into primary or secondary sources.
  • 7. • To make people aware of what has happened in the past in order to:- • Learn from past failures & successes • Apply them to present-day problems • Make predictions • Test hypothesis concerning relationship • Understand present educational practices & policies more fully.
  • 8. Hypothesis  Hypotheses are relational propositions. (Kerlinger, 1956)  Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further investigation.  Although hypothesis are not always explicitly stated in historical investigation, they are usually implied.  The historian gathers evidence and carefully evaluates its trustworthiness.  If the evidence is compatible with the consequences of hypothesis , it is confirmed and vice-versa.
  • 9. Characteristics 1. It is not a mere accumulation of facts and data or even a portrayal of past events. 2. It is a flowing, vibrant report of past events which involves an analysis and explanation of these occurrences with the objective of recapturing the nuances, personalities and ideas that influenced these events. 3. Conducting historical research involves the process of collecting and reading the research material collected and writing the manuscript from the data collected. The researcher often goes back-and-forth between collecting, reading, and writing. i.e. the process of data collection and analysis are done simultaneously are not two distinct phases of research.
  • 10. 4. It deals with discovery of data that already exists and does not involve creation of data using structured tools. 5. It is analytical in that it uses logical induction. 6. It has a variety of foci such as issues, events, movements and concepts. 7. It records and evaluates the accomplishments of individuals, agencies or institutions.
  • 11. Steps in Historical Research 1. Identifying a topic/subject and defining the problems/questions to be investigated. 2. Searching for sources of data. 3. Evaluating the historical sources. 4. Analyze, synthesize and summarize interpreting the data / information. 5. Writing the research report.
  • 12. Sources of Data • One of the principle differences between historical research and other forms of research is that historical research must deal with data that already exist. • Sources of data in historical research may be classified into two main categories: 1. Primary Sources - which are the life-blood of historical research 2. Secondary Sources - which may be used in the absence of or to supplement, primary data
  • 13. Primary Sources  Primary sources are eyewitness accounts. They are reported by an actual observer or participant in an event.  In other words, primary sources are tangible materials that provide a description of an historical event and were produced shortly after the event happened.  They have a direct physical relationship to the event being studied.
  • 14. (i) The remains or relics The remains or relics are objects associated with a person, group or period. These could include photographs, coins, skeletons, fossils, tools, weapons, utensils, furniture, buildings and pieces of art and culture . Though these were not originally meant for transmitting information to future generations they could prove very useful sources in providing reliable and sound evidence about the past. Most of these relics provide non-verbal information.
  • 15. (ii) Documents Documents are the records kept and written by actual participants in, and witnesses of, an event.  Constitutions  Charters  Laws  Court decisions  Official minutes or records  Autobiographies  Letters  Diaries
  • 16.  Genealogies  Census information  Contracts  Deeds  Wills  Permits  Licenses  Affidavits  Depositions  Declarations  Proclamations  Catalogs  Films  Pictures  Certificates  Handbills  Bills  Receipts  Advertisements  Maps  Diagrams  Books  Pamphlets  Inscriptions  Recordings  Paintings  Transcriptions  Research reports
  • 17. (iii) Oral Testimony Oral testimony is the spoken account of a witness of, or participant in, an event. This evident is obtained in a personal interview and may be recorded or transcribed as the witness relates his or her experiences.
  • 18. Secondary Sources  Secondary sources are accounts of an event not actually witnessed by the reporter.  The reporter may have talked with an actual observer or read an account by an observer. In short, it is the second hand information.  These sources are those that do not bear a direct physical relationship to the event being studied.  They include the data which are not original.
  • 19. Examples of secondary sources are-  Textbooks  Encyclopedias  Reference books  Newspapers  Periodicals  Replicas of art objects or paintings Best (1970) points out that secondary sources of data are usually of limited worth because of the errors that result when information is passed on from one person to another.
  • 20. Problems & Weaknesses to be avoided in Historical Research  The problem of research should not be too broad.  It should be selected after ensuring that sources of data are existent, accessible and in a language known to the researcher.  Excessive use of easy-to-find secondary sources of data should be avoided. Though locating primary sources of data time-consuming and requires efforts, they are usually more trustworthy.  Adequate internal and external criticism of sources of historical data is very essential for establishing the authenticity and validity of the data.  The researcher needs to be aware of his/her own personal values, interests and biases.
  • 21.  She/he should avoid unwarranted causal inferences arising on account of (i) oversimplification (causes of historical event may be multiple, complex and interactive), (ii) Faulty interpretation of meanings of words, (iii) inability to distinguish between facts, opinions and situations, (iv) inability to identify and discard irrelevant or unimportant facts and (v) Faulty generalization based on inadequate evidence, faulty logic and reasoning in the analysis of data, use of wrong analogy and faulty comparison of events in un similar cultures.  The researcher needs to synthesize facts into meaningful chronological patterns.  The report should be written in a logical and scientific manner.  The researcher should avoid projecting current problems onto historical events as this is likely to create distortions.
  • 22. Writing Historical Report It is an extremely difficult task to take pieces of information and synthesize them into meaningful whole. In a historical research, data collection is flexible. Research reports should be written in dignified and objective style. The historian is permitted a little more freedom in reporting. There are several board ways of reporting historical investigation as follows : i) The researcher can report the historical facts as answers to different research questions. Answer to each question could be reported in a separate chapter.
  • 23. ii) He / she can present the facts in a chronological order with each chapter pertaining to a specific historical period chronologically. iii) Report can also written in a thematic manner where each chapter deals with a specific theme / topic. iv) Chapter could also pertain to specific historical persons separately v) The researcher can also combine different approaches while writing the research report. • In addition, the report should contain a chapter each on introduction, methodology, review of related literature, findings, the researcher’s interpretations and reflections on the interpretative process. • Historical research is difficult and demanding.
  • 24. Strengths  The historical method is unobtrusive.  It enables solutions to contemporary problems to be sought in the past.  It throws light on present and future trends.  It stresses the relative importance and the effects of the various interactions that are to be found within all cultures.  It allows for the revaluation of data in relation to selected hypotheses, theories and generalizations that are presently held about the past.  Many current educational practices, theories and issues can be better understood in the light of past experiences.
  • 25. Limitations  Bias in interpreting historical sources  Interpreting sources is very time consuming.  Sources of historical materials may be problematic.  Lack of control over external variables.  Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it. Studying the grades of older students, for example, and younger students may provide some insight into the differences between these two groups, but manipulating the work experience is impossible.  Historical research cannot collect data by administering instruments.  It is limited to whatever data are available.
  • 26. Conclusion  Historical research involves analyses of events that occurred in the remote or recent past.  Historical research is necessary to define the situations of the past and its meaning in the light of the present problem.  It can provide a perspective for decision making about educational problems, and it assists in understanding why things are as they are.  Issues are often better understood and probably better dealt with-if the historical perspective is known.
  • 27. ReferencesBook References  Best, J.W.,& Kahn, J.V. (2006). Research in Education (10th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.  Elmes, D., Kantowitz, B. H., & Roediger, H. L. III.(2006). Research Methods in Psychology. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth Learning. Web References  Historical research, retrieved from http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/historicalresearch/ On December 29, 2014 at 12.09 pm  Historical research, retrieved from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/historical-research-design-definition-advantages- limitations.html On December 29, 2014 at 11.44 am  Historical research, retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/theforce/shu_cohort_viii/images/Historical-research-2005_1_.pdf On December 31,2014 at 4.21 pm
  • 28. Acknowledgments Author acknowledges Ribea, Vibha, Akshaya, Avina for her valuable inputs.