SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 38
DISORDERS OF EMOTIONS
Ms. Hemangi Narvekar, Clinical Psychologist
National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai
Contents
 Introduction
 Emotions
 Physiology of Emotion
 Theories of Emotion
 Basic Emotions
 Factors Affecting Emotions
 Classification of Disorders of Emotion
 Disorders of Emotions
 Diagnosis & Assessments
 Treatment & Interventions
 Summary
 References
Introduction
 In everyday language, the terms affect, emotions, and feelings are often used
interchangeably.
 In the scientific literature, emotions are described as coordinated sets of responses to internal
or external events which have a particular significance for the organism (e.g., Lazarus, 1993 ).
 The subjective experience of an emotion is often called a feeling.
 Mood is a pervasive and sustained emotion that colours the person’s perception of the world.
 Affect, meaning short-lived emotion, is defined as the patient’s present emotional
responsiveness. It is what the doctor infers from the patient’s body language including facial
expression and it may or may not be congruent with mood.
Emotions
 Schelling (1960), Frank (1988) and others view emotions as important because they are
involuntary and difficult to fake; they advertise our inner states.
 Emotions are communicated non-verbally by different parts of the body. For e.g. face, gesture,
posture, tone of voice and general appearance.
 Different emotions have different specific functions:
Fear motivates escape from danger;
anger motivates attack;
joy motivates continuing on the present course or,
interest motivates exploration.
 Thus, ‘emotional’ behaviour can be highly adaptive for an animal.
Physiology of Emotion
 Biological Basis of Emotions
Right Cerebral Hemisphere plays important role in emotional functions.
Right Hemisphere is specialized for processing emotional information.
Activation of the left cerebral hemisphere is associated with positive affect.
Activation of the right cerebral hemisphere is associated with negative affect.
Activation of anterior portion of both hemisphere is associated with valence
(pleasantness/unpleasantness) of emotion.
Activation of the posterior portion of both hemisphere is associated with arousal – the intensity of
emotion.
In the human brain, emotions are housed in the limbic system surrounding the brainstem.
Within the limbic system, emotional impulses originate in the amygdala that triggers the
physiological reactions associated with emotions.
The amygdala is also responsible for imprinting emotions onto memories by releasing some of the
same neurochemicals when an event is recalled as when it occurred.
Physiology of Emotion
 Role of Nervous System
All the emotional experiences and their expressions are controlled and regulated by the
autonomic or visceral nervous system.
Parasympathetic
Nervous System
(Calming)
Sympathetic
Nervous System
(Arousing)
ANS
(Self-Regulatory)
Theories of Emotion
 James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Emotions are the result of self-awareness of physical and
bodily changes in the presence of a stimulus.
 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Felt emotion and bodily changes occur in parallel with each
other and result from activity in certain brain areas.
 Schachter and Singer’s Two-factor Theory of Emotion
Two factors: Physiological arousal and cognition
Emotion is a result of the individual’s appraising the context of a
situation.
 Lazarus’s Appraisal Theory
Emotions are extracted from our “appraisals’’
(i.e. our evaluations, interpretations and explanations) of events.
Basic Emotions
 Some theories postulate just two basic states—positive and negative; others postulate a small set of “basic”
emotions; and still others argue for a potentially infinite number.
 All theorists agree, however, that valence is a necessary quality of emotions: Emotions are about pleasure and
pain, approach and avoidance (Barrett, 2006b; Ekman, 1992b; Rolls, 2005).
 J. B. Watson proposed 3 Basic Emotions:
Anger, Love and Fear
 Ekman and Colleagues (1971)
Proposed 6 basic emotions
These can be combined to yield more complex emotions like
Sadness + Surprise = Disappointment
Basic Emotions
 Robert Plutchik (1984) identified eight
fundamental emotions.
 They are; joy, anger, sadness,
surprise, fear, acceptance, disgust
and anticipation.
 He named it as Plutchik's emotional
wheel.
Factors Affecting Emotions
Gender
Genetics
Personality
Cognition
Memory
External Stimuli
Health
Circadian Rhythm
Meditation
Classification of Disorders of Emotion
 There is no consensus on how to classify disorders of emotion.
 Cutting (1997) provided a framework wherein he classified emotional disorders based on
intensity, duration, timing, quality of experience, expression and appropriateness to the object
or social setting.
 Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology describes 5 levels of emotional reactions and expression that
have clinical relevance. Those are
1. Normal Emotional Reactions
2. Abnormal Emotional Reactions
3. Abnormal Expressions of Emotion
4. Morbid Disorders of Emotional Expression
5. Morbid Disorders of Emotion
Normal Emotional Reactions
 The term normal emotional reactions is used to describe emotional states that are the result
of events and that lie within cultural and social norms.
 Normal emotional reactions are normal responses to events or to primary morbid
psychological experiences.
 E.g. The grief reaction that follows the death of a loved one or the response of a previously
healthy person to a life-threatening diagnosis.
 E.g. The understandable distress that many patients exhibit when they experience
hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms.
 There has been little attempt to distinguish these understandable and non-morbid reactions
from those that are abnormal.
 One problem is that many of the symptoms complained of are present both in the normal
responses and in those that are abnormal.
 A further aspect of the distinction that has not been examined is functional incapacity, which
is present in abnormal states but absent or brief in the normal reactions.
Abnormal Emotional Reactions
 Abnormal emotional reactions are those that are understandable in the context of stressful
events but are associated with more prolonged impairment in functioning.
 A clear representation of the distinction between normal and abnormal emotional states is
illustrated by the Yerkes−Dodson curve (1908), which shows that up to a certain level of stress
there is no impairment but beyond a certain point functioning deteriorates.
 The point at which this happens is determined by individual attributes such as genetic and
personality predisposition and by external factors including social support and the duration
and severity of stressors.
 Diagnostically, both the ICD-10 and DSM define these abnormal emotional reactions as
adjustment disorders with disturbance of mood (to include anxiety, depression, other
emotions or disturbance of conduct).
Abnormal Emotional Reactions
 Anxiety
An unpleasant affective state and fear for no adequate reason.
Sometimes is accompanied by physical symptoms such as palpitations,
sweating, difficulty breathing, dizziness, etc.
If the physical symptoms occur suddenly, and in combination, the result is
overwhelming fear, and the term panic attack is used.
Anxious foreboding - A sense that something terrible will happen but without
the knowledge of what this will be.
Anxious foreboding is present in several disorders such as generalized anxiety,
depressive illness and panic disorder.
Abnormal Emotional Expressions
 Phobia
When the fear is restricted to one object, situation or
idea, the term phobia is used.
Phobias are associated with physical symptoms of
anxiety and with avoidance.
Most fears are learned responses, such as the person
who develops a fear of dogs after being bitten.
Some phobias are secondary to morbid states, most
commonly depressive illness, and others, such as fear
of contamination, are regarded as obsessional
symptoms.
Abnormal Emotional Expressions
 Depressed Mood
Depressed mood is one of the commonly experienced abnormal reactions.
‘Depression’ term is used to describe the appropriate sadness that is
associated with bereavement, the low mood that comes from frustration and
the profound gloom that is part of severe depressive illness.
Depression can be also a symptom secondary to another morbid process, an
understandable reaction or an illness in itself.
Reactivity of mood is the term used to describe the fluctuations in mood that
occur in parallel with change to one’s environment.
Abnormal Expressions of Emotion
 Abnormal expressions of emotion refer to emotional expressions that are very different from the average
normal reaction.
 Those with abnormal expressions of emotion are generally aware of the abnormality.
 Excessive emotional response as well as lack of emotional response may be the result of learning and of
different cultural norms.
 Dissociation of affect is said to be an unconscious defence reaction against anxiety. It is a lack of
manifestation of anxiety or fear under conditions where this would be expected.
 It may be described as a feeling of numbness.
 Dissociation of affect can be observed in depressed people as well as in depersonalization and
derealization.
Abnormal Expressions of Emotion
 The Dissociation of Effect covers a number of different forms of behavior:
Denial - A defence that may manifest as lack of emotion. This occurs when the person denies
awareness of an event even though such an event has clearly taken place.
Belle indifference - Gross symptoms and severe disabilities but is undisturbed by his suffering. This is
seen in conversion disorder.
 Dissociation of affect should not be applied to:
Apathy - Emotional indifference, often with a sense of futility.
It may manifest itself as a lack of motivation.
Perplexity - Tentative or bewildered, slightly puzzled state.
Morbid Expressions of Emotion
Morbid emotional expressions differ from abnormal expressions of emotion in that the person is unaware of the
abnormality even though it is apparent to observers.
 Parathymia
The term was given by Bleuler.
Insensitivity to the subtleties of social intercourse and is known as inadequacy or blunting of affect.
It manifests itself as social awkwardness and inappropriateness.
 Incongruity of Affect
Misdirection of emotions so that an indifferent event may produce a severe emotional outburst, while an event that
objectively seems to be emotionally charged has no effect on the patient’s emotional response.
 Stiffening of Affect
Emotional response is at first congruent but does not alter as the situation changes.
Morbid Expressions of Emotion
 Smiling Depression
Smiling with lips but not with eyes.
Unless the person is overwhelmed by their miseries they can produce this – a smile that may be trying to conceal sadness
or that may be trying to say ‘Don’t worry about me; I’m all right’.
 Compulsive (forced) Affect
The expression of emotion in the absence of any adequate cause.
 Lability of Affect
Rapid and abrupt changes in emotion largely unrelated to external stimuli. These shifts occur without warning.
This is common in Borderline Personality Disorder, Dysphoric Mania and Depression.
 Affective Incontinence
Complete loss of control over emotions.
This is particularly common in cerebral atherosclerosis and in multiple sclerosis, where spontaneous outbursts of laughter
or crying occur.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
These can be regarded as pathological states that, although sometimes triggered by stressful events, do not
spontaneously resolve with removal of the stressor, and therefore have their own independent momentum. These also
include those states that arise without any precipitant.
 Depressive Illness
Those with depressive illness use terms such as ‘a weight’, ‘a cloud’ or ‘a darkness’ to attempt to capture the exact
emotional feeling.
The morbid sadness in this illness may be associated with morbid thinking that may reach delusional intensity.
Often there is inhibition of thinking, loss of drive and decreased voluntary activity.
The physical and/or psychological slowing that occurs is known as psychomotor retardation.
There may be difficulty making decisions due either to poor concentration or to obsessional doubting, secondary to
the mood state.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Anhedonia (Ribot,1986)
Loss of the capacity to experience joy and pleasure.
An inability to enjoy anything in life or even get pleasure from everyday occurrences.
For example being hugged by one’s children, a fine spring morning, etc., are prominent.
Prominent symptom of depressive illness.
 Vital Hypochondriacal Depression (Schneider)
Here patient feels a tight band around his head and there may be a sense of oppression in the chest
associated with anxiety.
 Somatisation
There is misattribution of symptoms as due to physical illness rather than having a psychiatric cause.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Morbid depression
This also abolishes the normal reactive changes of emotion or emotional resonance.
This leads to a sense of inner emptiness or deadness, so the patient does not feel they are participating
in the world any more.
This loss of feeling for the environment gives the person with depression the impression of unreality.
This loss of emotional resonance gives rise to complaints of depersonalisation and derealisation in
morbid depression but is obviously not at all the same.
If depression is severe and psychomotor retardation is marked, depressive stupor may occur.
The apparent indifference of the person with severe depression must be differentiated from the apathy
and lack of concern of the person with schizophrenia.
Apart from depressive illness and bipolar disorder, morbid depression is also found in schizophrenia
and in acute and chronic organic states.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Morbid Anxiety
Morbid anxiety frequently occurs in association with morbid depression and can cause difficulties in
diagnosing depression.
In severe form it can present a picture of agitation.
Morbid anxiety is also found in organic states and may sometimes be secondary to terrifying visual
hallucinations.
Acute and chronic brain disease, when mild, can produce anxiety mixed with depression and irritability. This
was previously called ‘organic neurasthenia’.
Anxiety and fear are often present in psychotic states such as paranoid schizophrenia but this may not be
morbid but rather a natural reaction to delusions and hallucinations.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Irritability
Irritability may be seen in depressive illness and schizophrenia.
In mania or hypomania the patient is often cheerful and elated but there is frequently significant
irritability also.
Irritability is also prominent in mixed states in which the patient is both depressed and
manic/hypomanic simultaneously (known as dysphoric mania).
 Apathy
Extreme apathy may be a feature of severe depression, schizophrenia or damage to the frontal
lobe.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Morbid Euphoria and Elation
Morbid euphoria and elation classically occur in mania and hypomania but can also be seen in organic states and in schizophrenia, especially the
hebephrenic subtype, where the patient presents as silly and annoying.
In mania and hypomania the elation is not related to any specific event and is not modified by depressing influences.
In both there is an increased pressure of speech with prolixity, and flight of ideas or a subjective awareness of racing thoughts.
Superficial bustling activity, disinhibition, distractibility, sometimes hypersexuality and a tendency to be argumentative if thwarted are also present.
Many projects may be initiated but none completed.
Lesions of the hypothalamus may produce a clinical picture resembling mania with flight of ideas.
Euphoria also occurs in multiple sclerosis, when it is associated with a sense of well-being and is linked to the degree of organic brain change
(Benedict et al, 2004).
Euphoria and a passive attitude may also feature in the amnestic syndrome and in lesions of the frontal lobe
Frontal lobe damage with euphoria, often presenting as silliness, lack of foresight and indifference, is known as moria or Witzelsucht.
Morbid Disorders of Emotion
 Ecstacy
A sense of extreme well-being associated with a feeling of rapture, bliss and grace.
It can occur in the healthy population at times of profound religious experience or occasions of deep
emotion such as following childbirth.
Unlike elation, it is not associated with overactivity or flight of ideas.
The mind is usually occupied with a feeling of communion with God or some religious figure.
Sometimes it may be associated with grandiose delusions.
Ecstatic states may occur in schizophrenia, in those who misuse lysergic acid diethylamide, in epilepsy and
in mass hysteria associated with religious services.
Disorders of Emotions
 The term ‘Disorders of Emotions’ is not a fully accurate medical term, but is commonly used
in ordinary context to refer to those psychological disorders that appear to affect the
emotions (e.g. anxiety disorders or depressive disorders).
 Although emotions play a role in most types of psychopathology, Bipolar Disorders, Anxiety
Disorders, Personality Disorders, Schizophrenia are some of the known emotional disorders
because emotional disturbances are salient features in each of these conditions and there is a
fairly well-characterized body of theory and empirical research supporting the role of
emotional disturbances in these disorders.
Disorders of Emotions
 Bipolar and related disorders has symptoms that include an alternating
pattern of emotional highs and emotional lows or depression.
 The common feature of all of these disorders is the presence of sad,
empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive
changes that significantly affect the individual's capacity to function.
Bipolar & Related Disorders
Bipolar I
Bipolar II
Cyclothymic Disorder
Depressive Disorders
Disruptive mood
dysregulation disorder
Major depressive disorder
Persistent depressive disorder
(dysthymia)
 The anxiety disorders are a heterogenous group of
disorders that typically involve a number of negative
emotions, the most prominent being anxiety, fear, and
disgust.
ANXIETYDISORDERS
Selective Mutism
Specific Phobias
Social Anxiety Disorder
Panic Disorder
Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Disorders of Emotions
Diagnosis & Assessments
 Formal diagnosis of an emotional disorder requires that a clinician decide whether or not the
person meets the criteria for the disorder as described in classification systems.
 During the diagnostic process, the clinician typically observes and interacts with the client,
and considers reports from adults who know the client well.
 Signs or symptoms such as angry outbursts, irritability, sadness, shyness, or fearfulness are
key features of certain emotional disorders; however, they are also normal behaviors under
certain circumstances or at certain stages of development.
 In reaching diagnoses, clinicians are thus often required to make subtle distinctions, based on
their assessment of the intensity and/or developmental appropriateness of behavior.
 Cultural factors can also impact the expression and interpretation of signs and symptoms
(Westermeyer and Janca 1997).
Diagnosis & Assessments
 Emotional responses have at least three components:
 All can be measured in humans.
 Self-report techniques can be used to assess subjective feelings; observational and other physiological equipments can
assess behavioural and physiological measures.
 However, subjective experience generally cannot.
 Disorder-specific scales are available to better characterize the severity of each disorder and to capture change in
severity over time. For e.g. Beck Depression Inventory, Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale, Fear Questionaire, Hamilton
Anxiety Rating Scale, Mood Disorder Questionaire, Rating Scale for Mania, etc.
SUBJECTIVE
(e.g. the feeling of fear)
BEHAVIOURAL
(e.g. facial expression,
immobility, avoidance
behaviour)
PHYSIOLOGICAL
(e.g. heart rate, blood pressure,
respiratory rate, EEG Patterns,
Hormone secretion and skin
conductance)
Treatment & Interventions
 An evolutionary view of the emotions does not encourage one kind of treatment above
others, but it does suggest a simple framework for considering what can be changed to
relieve an emotional disorder.
 Emotions arise from situations, the appraised meaning of which, influences brain mechanisms.
 Four things can change: the objective situation, the person’s motivational structure, the
perception of the situation, and the brain.
 Emotional disorders are, thus, typically treated with psychosocial interventions and
medications, alone or in combination.
 Because there are so many specific disorders within the broad category of emotional
disorders, there are also many different approaches to treatment.
Treatment & Interventions
 Although the exact treatment approach depends on the type of disorder, one or a combination of the
following therapies may be used for most disorders:
Psychoeducation
•It helps people better understand the conditions and increase awareness
about it.Counselling
Individual, Group and Family
Social Skills Training
•This can assist the individuals to adapt and fit into their social
environment.
Interpersonal Therapy
•The techniques in IT helps in identification of emotions, expression of
emotions and dealing with issues from the past.
Brain Stimulation Therapies
Electroconvulsive Therapy and other brain stimulation techniques such as Transcranial
Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS), Deep Magnetic Stimulation
(DMS), etc helps in reducing some of the symptoms.
Medication
•Drugs that help reduce the symptoms of disorders include many
antidepressants, certain anticonvulsant medicines and low-dose
antipsychotics, and other anxiety-reducing drugs.
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
•This is a particular type of psychotherapy in which the person learns to
recognize and change thought patterns and behaviors that lead to
troublesome feelings.
Dietary and Lifestyle Changes
•Following a healthier lifestyle helps to reduce emotional disturbance as
well as to live longer.Relaxation Therapy
Methods such as progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), deep breathing techniques, imagery, and
self-hypnosis may help the individual to sequentially tense and relax the body's major muscle
groups while concentrating on contrasting sensations of tension and relaxation.
Meditation
It is an ideal tool to achieve serenity and balance between brain’s right and
left hemispheres.
Summary
 Emotions are integral part of our life for normal existence.
 Emotions are universal and this allows us to read other people’s emotions, empathize with them, and negotiate our
emotional lives together.
 The term emotional disorder is not a formal diagnosis, and thus there are no well-defined guidelines for its use.
 These kinds of disorders are characterized by feelings of intense internal and/or emotional distress that last for a
period of months or years.
 There are lots of valid and reliable assessment measures to diagnose the disorders as well as to facilitate research
on the same.
 Apart from these treatments, researchers are coming up with some new treatment models such as:
 Dialectical Behaviour Therapy which was found to be useful in altering emotion regulation and amygdala activity in
patients with BPD (Goodman, et.al.,2014).
 For normal people, the best ways to regulate emotions are reappraisals, distraction and venting out feelings.
References
Book References
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington: APA.
Casey, P., & Kelly, B. (2007). Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology: Sign and symptoms in psychiatry (3rd ed. ). London: Gaskell.
Frank, R. H. (1988). Passions within reason: the strategic role of the emotions. Norton: New York.
Gabbard, G.O. (2014). Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders (5th ed.). USA: American Psychological Association.
Morgan, C. T., King, R.A., Weisz, J.R., & Schopler, J. (1986). Introduction to Psychology (7th ed.). New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
Oyebode, F. (2011). Sim’s Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Schelling, T. C. (1960). The strategy of conflict. Harvard University Press: Cambridge.
Journal References
Benedict, R. H., Carone, D. A. & Bakshi, R. (2004) Correlating brain atrophy with cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbances, and personality disorder in
multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimaging, 14 (3), 36−45.
Kring, A.M., & Bachorowsky, J. (1999). Emotions and Psychopathology. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 575-599.
Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to emotions. Annual Review of Psychology, 44 ,1–21.
Nesse, R. (1998). Emotional disorders in evolutionary perspective. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 397-415.
Nesse, R.M., Ellsworth, P.C. (2009). Evolution, Emotions and Emotional Disorders. American Psychological Association, 64(2), 129-139.
Westermeyer, J., & Janca, A. (1997). Language, culture and psychopathology: Conceptual and methodological issues. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 291-311.
References
Web References
A Companion to Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.psyplexus.com/fish/emotion.htm at 4.22 pm
Appraisal Theory of Emotion. Retrieved on October 25, 2016 from
Emotion. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.albany.edu/faculty/cafrye/apsy601/ch10emote.html at 2.43 pm
Emotional Disorders (In Children and Adolescents). Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/PHP-c81.pdf at 2.14 pm
Emotional Disorders. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.psych2go.net/disorder-emotional/ at 3.37 pm
Emotional Disorders. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/PHP-c81.pdf at 2.13 pm
Emotions and Physiology. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.alive.com/health/emotions-and-physiology/ at 2.41 pm
How emotional is too much emotional? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.acs.edu.au/info/natural-health/mental/are-you-emotional.aspx at 3.07 pm
https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/emotion-13/theories-of-emotion-410/appraisal-theory-of-emotion-505-
16762/ at 9.49 am
Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved on October 25, 2016 from
http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php%3Femotions_i_defining_emotions_behavioral_component_cognitive_component_introduction_to_psychology%26b%3D91%
26c%3D27 at10.41 am
Mental Health: Where's The Line Between Normal, Abnormal Emotion? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from
http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/27098/20150625/mental-health-wheres-the-line-between-normal-abnormal-emotion.htm at 2.59 pm
What are basic emotions? Retrieved on October24, 2016 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201601/what-are-basic-emotions at 3.40 pm
When do normal emotions become abnormal? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://psychcentral.com/news/2015/06/27/when-do-normal-emotions-become-
abnormal/86178.html at 2.52 pm
Disorders of Emotions

More Related Content

What's hot

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic DisordersSchizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic DisordersSoumya Ranjan Parida
 
Disorders of self
Disorders of selfDisorders of self
Disorders of selfEnoch R G
 
Morbid Expressions of Emotion
Morbid Expressions of EmotionMorbid Expressions of Emotion
Morbid Expressions of EmotionPrachi Sanghvi
 
Depression assessment
Depression assessmentDepression assessment
Depression assessmentM S
 
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11 Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11 Simmi Waraich
 
Disorders in memory and consciousness
Disorders in memory and consciousnessDisorders in memory and consciousness
Disorders in memory and consciousnessSalman Kareem
 
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)Dr Wasim
 
Consultation liaison psychiatry
Consultation liaison psychiatryConsultation liaison psychiatry
Consultation liaison psychiatryPriyash Jain
 
Disorders of perception, AMU Aligarh
Disorders of perception, AMU AligarhDisorders of perception, AMU Aligarh
Disorders of perception, AMU Aligarhahsan9750
 
Disord of speech
Disord of  speechDisord of  speech
Disord of speechcorbettaRDC
 
Dissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderDissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderArun Madanan
 
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injuryNeuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injuryAzfer Ibrahim
 
Motor disorders in psychiatry
Motor disorders in psychiatryMotor disorders in psychiatry
Motor disorders in psychiatryRajeev Ranjan
 
Dissociative disorders 1
Dissociative disorders 1Dissociative disorders 1
Dissociative disorders 1sadaf89
 
Temporal lobe and its role in psychiatry
Temporal  lobe  and  its  role  in  psychiatryTemporal  lobe  and  its  role  in  psychiatry
Temporal lobe and its role in psychiatryDr Kaushik Nandy
 
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Subrata Naskar
 
Trauma and stressor related disorders
Trauma and stressor related disordersTrauma and stressor related disorders
Trauma and stressor related disordersMariaCatanese1
 

What's hot (20)

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic DisordersSchizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
 
Disorders of self
Disorders of selfDisorders of self
Disorders of self
 
Morbid Expressions of Emotion
Morbid Expressions of EmotionMorbid Expressions of Emotion
Morbid Expressions of Emotion
 
Depression assessment
Depression assessmentDepression assessment
Depression assessment
 
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11 Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11
Mood disorders DSM 5 and ICD 11
 
Delusion ppt
Delusion pptDelusion ppt
Delusion ppt
 
Disorders of memory
Disorders of memoryDisorders of memory
Disorders of memory
 
Disorders in memory and consciousness
Disorders in memory and consciousnessDisorders in memory and consciousness
Disorders in memory and consciousness
 
Disorders of thought
Disorders of thoughtDisorders of thought
Disorders of thought
 
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)
Sytematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder(step bd) (1)
 
Consultation liaison psychiatry
Consultation liaison psychiatryConsultation liaison psychiatry
Consultation liaison psychiatry
 
Disorders of perception, AMU Aligarh
Disorders of perception, AMU AligarhDisorders of perception, AMU Aligarh
Disorders of perception, AMU Aligarh
 
Disord of speech
Disord of  speechDisord of  speech
Disord of speech
 
Dissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderDissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorder
 
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injuryNeuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychiatric aspects of traumatic brain injury
 
Motor disorders in psychiatry
Motor disorders in psychiatryMotor disorders in psychiatry
Motor disorders in psychiatry
 
Dissociative disorders 1
Dissociative disorders 1Dissociative disorders 1
Dissociative disorders 1
 
Temporal lobe and its role in psychiatry
Temporal  lobe  and  its  role  in  psychiatryTemporal  lobe  and  its  role  in  psychiatry
Temporal lobe and its role in psychiatry
 
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
 
Trauma and stressor related disorders
Trauma and stressor related disordersTrauma and stressor related disorders
Trauma and stressor related disorders
 

Similar to Disorders of Emotions

Components and Competency of Emotions
Components and Competency of EmotionsComponents and Competency of Emotions
Components and Competency of Emotionscognitomeprogram
 
11. emotions 07-08
11. emotions 07-0811. emotions 07-08
11. emotions 07-08Nasir Koko
 
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawant
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawantTheory of emotions created by vinod sawant
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawantkavshal sawant
 
Psychopath MD Ain shams university.pptx
Psychopath MD Ain shams  university.pptxPsychopath MD Ain shams  university.pptx
Psychopath MD Ain shams university.pptxMostafa Elsapan
 
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdf
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdfWhat Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdf
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdfMariaAkram36
 
Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligenceEmotional intelligence
Emotional intelligenceRanjan Ghosh
 
Theories of emotion
Theories of emotionTheories of emotion
Theories of emotionEnoch R G
 
Depression and mania
Depression and maniaDepression and mania
Depression and maniaJAYANTHBM
 
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...Michael Changaris
 
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223utkarsh chauhan
 
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & HealthCh. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Healthkbolinsky
 

Similar to Disorders of Emotions (20)

Components and Competency of Emotions
Components and Competency of EmotionsComponents and Competency of Emotions
Components and Competency of Emotions
 
11. emotions 07-08
11. emotions 07-0811. emotions 07-08
11. emotions 07-08
 
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawant
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawantTheory of emotions created by vinod sawant
Theory of emotions created by vinod sawant
 
Psychopath MD Ain shams university.pptx
Psychopath MD Ain shams  university.pptxPsychopath MD Ain shams  university.pptx
Psychopath MD Ain shams university.pptx
 
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdf
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdfWhat Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdf
What Your Feelings Are Trying to Tell You”.pdf
 
Psychiatry 5th year, 1st 2 lectures (Dr. Saman Anwar)
Psychiatry 5th year, 1st 2 lectures (Dr. Saman Anwar)Psychiatry 5th year, 1st 2 lectures (Dr. Saman Anwar)
Psychiatry 5th year, 1st 2 lectures (Dr. Saman Anwar)
 
Emotions
EmotionsEmotions
Emotions
 
Idioma
IdiomaIdioma
Idioma
 
EMOTION Psychology.pdf
EMOTION Psychology.pdfEMOTION Psychology.pdf
EMOTION Psychology.pdf
 
Psycho socio-emotion
Psycho socio-emotionPsycho socio-emotion
Psycho socio-emotion
 
Emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligenceEmotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence
 
Psychology of Emotions
Psychology  of Emotions Psychology  of Emotions
Psychology of Emotions
 
Theories of emotion
Theories of emotionTheories of emotion
Theories of emotion
 
Depression and mania
Depression and maniaDepression and mania
Depression and mania
 
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...
Trauma at the End of Life: Somatic Experiencing and Other Touch Based Treatme...
 
emotion ppt.pdf
emotion ppt.pdfemotion ppt.pdf
emotion ppt.pdf
 
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223
Chapter12 150319223653-conversion-gate01 (1)11223
 
Emotions
EmotionsEmotions
Emotions
 
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & HealthCh. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health
Ch. 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health
 
Units 25 29
Units 25 29Units 25 29
Units 25 29
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifeHemangi Narvekar
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersHemangi Narvekar
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesHemangi Narvekar
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHemangi Narvekar
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenHemangi Narvekar
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkHemangi Narvekar
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyHemangi Narvekar
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Hemangi Narvekar
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)Hemangi Narvekar
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesHemangi Narvekar
 

More from Hemangi Narvekar (17)

Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' LifePsychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
Psychological and Social Aspects of Adolescents' Life
 
Stress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for TeachersStress Management for Teachers
Stress Management for Teachers
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Psychological Assessment
Psychological AssessmentPsychological Assessment
Psychological Assessment
 
Ravens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive MatricesRavens Progressive Matrices
Ravens Progressive Matrices
 
Psychosocial Development
Psychosocial DevelopmentPsychosocial Development
Psychosocial Development
 
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with DisabilitiesHow Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
How Play is affected in Children with Disabilities
 
Using Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for ChildrenUsing Play Therapy for Children
Using Play Therapy for Children
 
Preparing for Amputation
Preparing for AmputationPreparing for Amputation
Preparing for Amputation
 
Dental Anxiety
Dental AnxietyDental Anxiety
Dental Anxiety
 
Creativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at WorkCreativity & Innovation at Work
Creativity & Innovation at Work
 
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen HorneyThe Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
The Social Psychological Theory by Karen Horney
 
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
 
Brief Psychotherapy
Brief PsychotherapyBrief Psychotherapy
Brief Psychotherapy
 
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
 
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & DisadvantagesClassificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
Classificatory systems - Advantages & Disadvantages
 
Parkinson disease
Parkinson diseaseParkinson disease
Parkinson disease
 

Recently uploaded

The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptxThe Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptxDr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptxSonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptxpalsonia139
 
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas HospitalVaricose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas HospitalGokuldas Hospital
 
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in IndoreTips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in IndoreGokuldas Hospital
 
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...dhyaansingh0898#S07
 
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?bkling
 
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete Guidebook
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete GuidebookCapillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete Guidebook
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete GuidebookNanchang Kindly Meditech
 
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUELCONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUELMKARTHIKEMMANUEL
 
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing WellnessSigns It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing WellnessGokuldas Hospital
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadNephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stock
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stockSell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stock
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stocktammysayles9
 
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failureESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failuremahiavy26
 
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdfSEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdfSachin Sharma
 
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...marcuskenyatta275
 
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfDermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfniloofarbarzegari76
 
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding docx.pdf
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding  docx.pdfPost-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding  docx.pdf
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding docx.pdfAea.ltd
 
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and NightVIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Nightpatanjali9823#S07
 
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...Ayman Seddik
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptxclaviclebrown44
 
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancementsCAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancementsNaveen Gokul Dr
 

Recently uploaded (20)

The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptxThe Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
 
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptxSonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
Sonia Journal club presentation (2).pptx
 
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas HospitalVaricose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
 
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in IndoreTips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
 
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...
VVIP Hadapsar ℂall Girls 6350482085 Scorching { Pune } Excellent Girl Serviℂe...
 
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
 
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete Guidebook
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete GuidebookCapillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete Guidebook
Capillary Blood Collection Tubes: The Complete Guidebook
 
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUELCONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS  by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
CONGENITAL HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS by Dr M.KARTHIK EMMANUEL
 
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing WellnessSigns It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
 
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stock
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stockSell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stock
Sell 5cladba adbb JWH-018 5FADB in stock
 
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failureESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
 
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdfSEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
 
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
TEST BANK For Huether and McCance's Understanding Pathophysiology, Canadian 2...
 
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdfDermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
Dermatome and myotome test & pathology.pdf
 
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding docx.pdf
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding  docx.pdfPost-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding  docx.pdf
Post-Cycle Therapy (PCT) in bodybuilding docx.pdf
 
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and NightVIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
VIP Pune 7877925207 WhatsApp: Me All Time Serviℂe Available Day and Night
 
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...
 
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptxFailure to thrive in neonates and infants  + pediatric case.pptx
Failure to thrive in neonates and infants + pediatric case.pptx
 
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancementsCAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
 

Disorders of Emotions

  • 1. DISORDERS OF EMOTIONS Ms. Hemangi Narvekar, Clinical Psychologist National Institute for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities (NIEPMD), Chennai
  • 2. Contents  Introduction  Emotions  Physiology of Emotion  Theories of Emotion  Basic Emotions  Factors Affecting Emotions  Classification of Disorders of Emotion  Disorders of Emotions  Diagnosis & Assessments  Treatment & Interventions  Summary  References
  • 3. Introduction  In everyday language, the terms affect, emotions, and feelings are often used interchangeably.  In the scientific literature, emotions are described as coordinated sets of responses to internal or external events which have a particular significance for the organism (e.g., Lazarus, 1993 ).  The subjective experience of an emotion is often called a feeling.  Mood is a pervasive and sustained emotion that colours the person’s perception of the world.  Affect, meaning short-lived emotion, is defined as the patient’s present emotional responsiveness. It is what the doctor infers from the patient’s body language including facial expression and it may or may not be congruent with mood.
  • 4. Emotions  Schelling (1960), Frank (1988) and others view emotions as important because they are involuntary and difficult to fake; they advertise our inner states.  Emotions are communicated non-verbally by different parts of the body. For e.g. face, gesture, posture, tone of voice and general appearance.  Different emotions have different specific functions: Fear motivates escape from danger; anger motivates attack; joy motivates continuing on the present course or, interest motivates exploration.  Thus, ‘emotional’ behaviour can be highly adaptive for an animal.
  • 5. Physiology of Emotion  Biological Basis of Emotions Right Cerebral Hemisphere plays important role in emotional functions. Right Hemisphere is specialized for processing emotional information. Activation of the left cerebral hemisphere is associated with positive affect. Activation of the right cerebral hemisphere is associated with negative affect. Activation of anterior portion of both hemisphere is associated with valence (pleasantness/unpleasantness) of emotion. Activation of the posterior portion of both hemisphere is associated with arousal – the intensity of emotion. In the human brain, emotions are housed in the limbic system surrounding the brainstem. Within the limbic system, emotional impulses originate in the amygdala that triggers the physiological reactions associated with emotions. The amygdala is also responsible for imprinting emotions onto memories by releasing some of the same neurochemicals when an event is recalled as when it occurred.
  • 6. Physiology of Emotion  Role of Nervous System All the emotional experiences and their expressions are controlled and regulated by the autonomic or visceral nervous system. Parasympathetic Nervous System (Calming) Sympathetic Nervous System (Arousing) ANS (Self-Regulatory)
  • 7. Theories of Emotion  James-Lange Theory of Emotion Emotions are the result of self-awareness of physical and bodily changes in the presence of a stimulus.  Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion Felt emotion and bodily changes occur in parallel with each other and result from activity in certain brain areas.  Schachter and Singer’s Two-factor Theory of Emotion Two factors: Physiological arousal and cognition Emotion is a result of the individual’s appraising the context of a situation.  Lazarus’s Appraisal Theory Emotions are extracted from our “appraisals’’ (i.e. our evaluations, interpretations and explanations) of events.
  • 8. Basic Emotions  Some theories postulate just two basic states—positive and negative; others postulate a small set of “basic” emotions; and still others argue for a potentially infinite number.  All theorists agree, however, that valence is a necessary quality of emotions: Emotions are about pleasure and pain, approach and avoidance (Barrett, 2006b; Ekman, 1992b; Rolls, 2005).  J. B. Watson proposed 3 Basic Emotions: Anger, Love and Fear  Ekman and Colleagues (1971) Proposed 6 basic emotions These can be combined to yield more complex emotions like Sadness + Surprise = Disappointment
  • 9. Basic Emotions  Robert Plutchik (1984) identified eight fundamental emotions.  They are; joy, anger, sadness, surprise, fear, acceptance, disgust and anticipation.  He named it as Plutchik's emotional wheel.
  • 11. Classification of Disorders of Emotion  There is no consensus on how to classify disorders of emotion.  Cutting (1997) provided a framework wherein he classified emotional disorders based on intensity, duration, timing, quality of experience, expression and appropriateness to the object or social setting.  Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology describes 5 levels of emotional reactions and expression that have clinical relevance. Those are 1. Normal Emotional Reactions 2. Abnormal Emotional Reactions 3. Abnormal Expressions of Emotion 4. Morbid Disorders of Emotional Expression 5. Morbid Disorders of Emotion
  • 12. Normal Emotional Reactions  The term normal emotional reactions is used to describe emotional states that are the result of events and that lie within cultural and social norms.  Normal emotional reactions are normal responses to events or to primary morbid psychological experiences.  E.g. The grief reaction that follows the death of a loved one or the response of a previously healthy person to a life-threatening diagnosis.  E.g. The understandable distress that many patients exhibit when they experience hallucinations or other psychotic symptoms.  There has been little attempt to distinguish these understandable and non-morbid reactions from those that are abnormal.  One problem is that many of the symptoms complained of are present both in the normal responses and in those that are abnormal.  A further aspect of the distinction that has not been examined is functional incapacity, which is present in abnormal states but absent or brief in the normal reactions.
  • 13. Abnormal Emotional Reactions  Abnormal emotional reactions are those that are understandable in the context of stressful events but are associated with more prolonged impairment in functioning.  A clear representation of the distinction between normal and abnormal emotional states is illustrated by the Yerkes−Dodson curve (1908), which shows that up to a certain level of stress there is no impairment but beyond a certain point functioning deteriorates.  The point at which this happens is determined by individual attributes such as genetic and personality predisposition and by external factors including social support and the duration and severity of stressors.  Diagnostically, both the ICD-10 and DSM define these abnormal emotional reactions as adjustment disorders with disturbance of mood (to include anxiety, depression, other emotions or disturbance of conduct).
  • 14. Abnormal Emotional Reactions  Anxiety An unpleasant affective state and fear for no adequate reason. Sometimes is accompanied by physical symptoms such as palpitations, sweating, difficulty breathing, dizziness, etc. If the physical symptoms occur suddenly, and in combination, the result is overwhelming fear, and the term panic attack is used. Anxious foreboding - A sense that something terrible will happen but without the knowledge of what this will be. Anxious foreboding is present in several disorders such as generalized anxiety, depressive illness and panic disorder.
  • 15. Abnormal Emotional Expressions  Phobia When the fear is restricted to one object, situation or idea, the term phobia is used. Phobias are associated with physical symptoms of anxiety and with avoidance. Most fears are learned responses, such as the person who develops a fear of dogs after being bitten. Some phobias are secondary to morbid states, most commonly depressive illness, and others, such as fear of contamination, are regarded as obsessional symptoms.
  • 16. Abnormal Emotional Expressions  Depressed Mood Depressed mood is one of the commonly experienced abnormal reactions. ‘Depression’ term is used to describe the appropriate sadness that is associated with bereavement, the low mood that comes from frustration and the profound gloom that is part of severe depressive illness. Depression can be also a symptom secondary to another morbid process, an understandable reaction or an illness in itself. Reactivity of mood is the term used to describe the fluctuations in mood that occur in parallel with change to one’s environment.
  • 17. Abnormal Expressions of Emotion  Abnormal expressions of emotion refer to emotional expressions that are very different from the average normal reaction.  Those with abnormal expressions of emotion are generally aware of the abnormality.  Excessive emotional response as well as lack of emotional response may be the result of learning and of different cultural norms.  Dissociation of affect is said to be an unconscious defence reaction against anxiety. It is a lack of manifestation of anxiety or fear under conditions where this would be expected.  It may be described as a feeling of numbness.  Dissociation of affect can be observed in depressed people as well as in depersonalization and derealization.
  • 18. Abnormal Expressions of Emotion  The Dissociation of Effect covers a number of different forms of behavior: Denial - A defence that may manifest as lack of emotion. This occurs when the person denies awareness of an event even though such an event has clearly taken place. Belle indifference - Gross symptoms and severe disabilities but is undisturbed by his suffering. This is seen in conversion disorder.  Dissociation of affect should not be applied to: Apathy - Emotional indifference, often with a sense of futility. It may manifest itself as a lack of motivation. Perplexity - Tentative or bewildered, slightly puzzled state.
  • 19. Morbid Expressions of Emotion Morbid emotional expressions differ from abnormal expressions of emotion in that the person is unaware of the abnormality even though it is apparent to observers.  Parathymia The term was given by Bleuler. Insensitivity to the subtleties of social intercourse and is known as inadequacy or blunting of affect. It manifests itself as social awkwardness and inappropriateness.  Incongruity of Affect Misdirection of emotions so that an indifferent event may produce a severe emotional outburst, while an event that objectively seems to be emotionally charged has no effect on the patient’s emotional response.  Stiffening of Affect Emotional response is at first congruent but does not alter as the situation changes.
  • 20. Morbid Expressions of Emotion  Smiling Depression Smiling with lips but not with eyes. Unless the person is overwhelmed by their miseries they can produce this – a smile that may be trying to conceal sadness or that may be trying to say ‘Don’t worry about me; I’m all right’.  Compulsive (forced) Affect The expression of emotion in the absence of any adequate cause.  Lability of Affect Rapid and abrupt changes in emotion largely unrelated to external stimuli. These shifts occur without warning. This is common in Borderline Personality Disorder, Dysphoric Mania and Depression.  Affective Incontinence Complete loss of control over emotions. This is particularly common in cerebral atherosclerosis and in multiple sclerosis, where spontaneous outbursts of laughter or crying occur.
  • 21. Morbid Disorders of Emotion These can be regarded as pathological states that, although sometimes triggered by stressful events, do not spontaneously resolve with removal of the stressor, and therefore have their own independent momentum. These also include those states that arise without any precipitant.  Depressive Illness Those with depressive illness use terms such as ‘a weight’, ‘a cloud’ or ‘a darkness’ to attempt to capture the exact emotional feeling. The morbid sadness in this illness may be associated with morbid thinking that may reach delusional intensity. Often there is inhibition of thinking, loss of drive and decreased voluntary activity. The physical and/or psychological slowing that occurs is known as psychomotor retardation. There may be difficulty making decisions due either to poor concentration or to obsessional doubting, secondary to the mood state.
  • 22. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Anhedonia (Ribot,1986) Loss of the capacity to experience joy and pleasure. An inability to enjoy anything in life or even get pleasure from everyday occurrences. For example being hugged by one’s children, a fine spring morning, etc., are prominent. Prominent symptom of depressive illness.  Vital Hypochondriacal Depression (Schneider) Here patient feels a tight band around his head and there may be a sense of oppression in the chest associated with anxiety.  Somatisation There is misattribution of symptoms as due to physical illness rather than having a psychiatric cause.
  • 23. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Morbid depression This also abolishes the normal reactive changes of emotion or emotional resonance. This leads to a sense of inner emptiness or deadness, so the patient does not feel they are participating in the world any more. This loss of feeling for the environment gives the person with depression the impression of unreality. This loss of emotional resonance gives rise to complaints of depersonalisation and derealisation in morbid depression but is obviously not at all the same. If depression is severe and psychomotor retardation is marked, depressive stupor may occur. The apparent indifference of the person with severe depression must be differentiated from the apathy and lack of concern of the person with schizophrenia. Apart from depressive illness and bipolar disorder, morbid depression is also found in schizophrenia and in acute and chronic organic states.
  • 24. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Morbid Anxiety Morbid anxiety frequently occurs in association with morbid depression and can cause difficulties in diagnosing depression. In severe form it can present a picture of agitation. Morbid anxiety is also found in organic states and may sometimes be secondary to terrifying visual hallucinations. Acute and chronic brain disease, when mild, can produce anxiety mixed with depression and irritability. This was previously called ‘organic neurasthenia’. Anxiety and fear are often present in psychotic states such as paranoid schizophrenia but this may not be morbid but rather a natural reaction to delusions and hallucinations.
  • 25. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Irritability Irritability may be seen in depressive illness and schizophrenia. In mania or hypomania the patient is often cheerful and elated but there is frequently significant irritability also. Irritability is also prominent in mixed states in which the patient is both depressed and manic/hypomanic simultaneously (known as dysphoric mania).  Apathy Extreme apathy may be a feature of severe depression, schizophrenia or damage to the frontal lobe.
  • 26. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Morbid Euphoria and Elation Morbid euphoria and elation classically occur in mania and hypomania but can also be seen in organic states and in schizophrenia, especially the hebephrenic subtype, where the patient presents as silly and annoying. In mania and hypomania the elation is not related to any specific event and is not modified by depressing influences. In both there is an increased pressure of speech with prolixity, and flight of ideas or a subjective awareness of racing thoughts. Superficial bustling activity, disinhibition, distractibility, sometimes hypersexuality and a tendency to be argumentative if thwarted are also present. Many projects may be initiated but none completed. Lesions of the hypothalamus may produce a clinical picture resembling mania with flight of ideas. Euphoria also occurs in multiple sclerosis, when it is associated with a sense of well-being and is linked to the degree of organic brain change (Benedict et al, 2004). Euphoria and a passive attitude may also feature in the amnestic syndrome and in lesions of the frontal lobe Frontal lobe damage with euphoria, often presenting as silliness, lack of foresight and indifference, is known as moria or Witzelsucht.
  • 27. Morbid Disorders of Emotion  Ecstacy A sense of extreme well-being associated with a feeling of rapture, bliss and grace. It can occur in the healthy population at times of profound religious experience or occasions of deep emotion such as following childbirth. Unlike elation, it is not associated with overactivity or flight of ideas. The mind is usually occupied with a feeling of communion with God or some religious figure. Sometimes it may be associated with grandiose delusions. Ecstatic states may occur in schizophrenia, in those who misuse lysergic acid diethylamide, in epilepsy and in mass hysteria associated with religious services.
  • 28. Disorders of Emotions  The term ‘Disorders of Emotions’ is not a fully accurate medical term, but is commonly used in ordinary context to refer to those psychological disorders that appear to affect the emotions (e.g. anxiety disorders or depressive disorders).  Although emotions play a role in most types of psychopathology, Bipolar Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Personality Disorders, Schizophrenia are some of the known emotional disorders because emotional disturbances are salient features in each of these conditions and there is a fairly well-characterized body of theory and empirical research supporting the role of emotional disturbances in these disorders.
  • 29. Disorders of Emotions  Bipolar and related disorders has symptoms that include an alternating pattern of emotional highs and emotional lows or depression.  The common feature of all of these disorders is the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual's capacity to function. Bipolar & Related Disorders Bipolar I Bipolar II Cyclothymic Disorder Depressive Disorders Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder Major depressive disorder Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)  The anxiety disorders are a heterogenous group of disorders that typically involve a number of negative emotions, the most prominent being anxiety, fear, and disgust. ANXIETYDISORDERS Selective Mutism Specific Phobias Social Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Agoraphobia Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • 31. Diagnosis & Assessments  Formal diagnosis of an emotional disorder requires that a clinician decide whether or not the person meets the criteria for the disorder as described in classification systems.  During the diagnostic process, the clinician typically observes and interacts with the client, and considers reports from adults who know the client well.  Signs or symptoms such as angry outbursts, irritability, sadness, shyness, or fearfulness are key features of certain emotional disorders; however, they are also normal behaviors under certain circumstances or at certain stages of development.  In reaching diagnoses, clinicians are thus often required to make subtle distinctions, based on their assessment of the intensity and/or developmental appropriateness of behavior.  Cultural factors can also impact the expression and interpretation of signs and symptoms (Westermeyer and Janca 1997).
  • 32. Diagnosis & Assessments  Emotional responses have at least three components:  All can be measured in humans.  Self-report techniques can be used to assess subjective feelings; observational and other physiological equipments can assess behavioural and physiological measures.  However, subjective experience generally cannot.  Disorder-specific scales are available to better characterize the severity of each disorder and to capture change in severity over time. For e.g. Beck Depression Inventory, Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale, Fear Questionaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Mood Disorder Questionaire, Rating Scale for Mania, etc. SUBJECTIVE (e.g. the feeling of fear) BEHAVIOURAL (e.g. facial expression, immobility, avoidance behaviour) PHYSIOLOGICAL (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, EEG Patterns, Hormone secretion and skin conductance)
  • 33. Treatment & Interventions  An evolutionary view of the emotions does not encourage one kind of treatment above others, but it does suggest a simple framework for considering what can be changed to relieve an emotional disorder.  Emotions arise from situations, the appraised meaning of which, influences brain mechanisms.  Four things can change: the objective situation, the person’s motivational structure, the perception of the situation, and the brain.  Emotional disorders are, thus, typically treated with psychosocial interventions and medications, alone or in combination.  Because there are so many specific disorders within the broad category of emotional disorders, there are also many different approaches to treatment.
  • 34. Treatment & Interventions  Although the exact treatment approach depends on the type of disorder, one or a combination of the following therapies may be used for most disorders: Psychoeducation •It helps people better understand the conditions and increase awareness about it.Counselling Individual, Group and Family Social Skills Training •This can assist the individuals to adapt and fit into their social environment. Interpersonal Therapy •The techniques in IT helps in identification of emotions, expression of emotions and dealing with issues from the past. Brain Stimulation Therapies Electroconvulsive Therapy and other brain stimulation techniques such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS), Deep Magnetic Stimulation (DMS), etc helps in reducing some of the symptoms. Medication •Drugs that help reduce the symptoms of disorders include many antidepressants, certain anticonvulsant medicines and low-dose antipsychotics, and other anxiety-reducing drugs. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy •This is a particular type of psychotherapy in which the person learns to recognize and change thought patterns and behaviors that lead to troublesome feelings. Dietary and Lifestyle Changes •Following a healthier lifestyle helps to reduce emotional disturbance as well as to live longer.Relaxation Therapy Methods such as progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), deep breathing techniques, imagery, and self-hypnosis may help the individual to sequentially tense and relax the body's major muscle groups while concentrating on contrasting sensations of tension and relaxation. Meditation It is an ideal tool to achieve serenity and balance between brain’s right and left hemispheres.
  • 35. Summary  Emotions are integral part of our life for normal existence.  Emotions are universal and this allows us to read other people’s emotions, empathize with them, and negotiate our emotional lives together.  The term emotional disorder is not a formal diagnosis, and thus there are no well-defined guidelines for its use.  These kinds of disorders are characterized by feelings of intense internal and/or emotional distress that last for a period of months or years.  There are lots of valid and reliable assessment measures to diagnose the disorders as well as to facilitate research on the same.  Apart from these treatments, researchers are coming up with some new treatment models such as:  Dialectical Behaviour Therapy which was found to be useful in altering emotion regulation and amygdala activity in patients with BPD (Goodman, et.al.,2014).  For normal people, the best ways to regulate emotions are reappraisals, distraction and venting out feelings.
  • 36. References Book References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington: APA. Casey, P., & Kelly, B. (2007). Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology: Sign and symptoms in psychiatry (3rd ed. ). London: Gaskell. Frank, R. H. (1988). Passions within reason: the strategic role of the emotions. Norton: New York. Gabbard, G.O. (2014). Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders (5th ed.). USA: American Psychological Association. Morgan, C. T., King, R.A., Weisz, J.R., & Schopler, J. (1986). Introduction to Psychology (7th ed.). New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Oyebode, F. (2011). Sim’s Symptoms in the Mind: An Introduction to Descriptive Psychopathology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier. Schelling, T. C. (1960). The strategy of conflict. Harvard University Press: Cambridge. Journal References Benedict, R. H., Carone, D. A. & Bakshi, R. (2004) Correlating brain atrophy with cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbances, and personality disorder in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroimaging, 14 (3), 36−45. Kring, A.M., & Bachorowsky, J. (1999). Emotions and Psychopathology. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 575-599. Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to emotions. Annual Review of Psychology, 44 ,1–21. Nesse, R. (1998). Emotional disorders in evolutionary perspective. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 397-415. Nesse, R.M., Ellsworth, P.C. (2009). Evolution, Emotions and Emotional Disorders. American Psychological Association, 64(2), 129-139. Westermeyer, J., & Janca, A. (1997). Language, culture and psychopathology: Conceptual and methodological issues. Transcultural Psychiatry, 34, 291-311.
  • 37. References Web References A Companion to Fish’s Clinical Psychopathology. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.psyplexus.com/fish/emotion.htm at 4.22 pm Appraisal Theory of Emotion. Retrieved on October 25, 2016 from Emotion. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.albany.edu/faculty/cafrye/apsy601/ch10emote.html at 2.43 pm Emotional Disorders (In Children and Adolescents). Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/PHP-c81.pdf at 2.14 pm Emotional Disorders. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.psych2go.net/disorder-emotional/ at 3.37 pm Emotional Disorders. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.pacer.org/parent/php/PHP-c81.pdf at 2.13 pm Emotions and Physiology. Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.alive.com/health/emotions-and-physiology/ at 2.41 pm How emotional is too much emotional? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.acs.edu.au/info/natural-health/mental/are-you-emotional.aspx at 3.07 pm https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/emotion-13/theories-of-emotion-410/appraisal-theory-of-emotion-505- 16762/ at 9.49 am Introduction to Psychology. Retrieved on October 25, 2016 from http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php%3Femotions_i_defining_emotions_behavioral_component_cognitive_component_introduction_to_psychology%26b%3D91% 26c%3D27 at10.41 am Mental Health: Where's The Line Between Normal, Abnormal Emotion? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://www.scienceworldreport.com/articles/27098/20150625/mental-health-wheres-the-line-between-normal-abnormal-emotion.htm at 2.59 pm What are basic emotions? Retrieved on October24, 2016 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201601/what-are-basic-emotions at 3.40 pm When do normal emotions become abnormal? Retrieved on October 24, 2016 from http://psychcentral.com/news/2015/06/27/when-do-normal-emotions-become- abnormal/86178.html at 2.52 pm