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Discourse On Refugees
Although in the past human rights issues were avirtually not allowed to enter the global discourse on refugees under the erroneous assumption that the
refugee problem, as a humanitarian problem is quite distinct from a human rights problem, the current trend is towards integration of the human rights
law and humanitarian law with refugee law. The growing realisation that given the number, size and complexity of the problem of refugees the limited
approach to the problem which was devised in the context of the postsecond world war refugees and which placed greater reliance on safety and
welfare, rather than solutions to the problem and virtually relieved the refugee producing countries from their responsibilities towards their nationals
living
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Discursive Underground Summary
Acuff (2013) wrote the peer–reviewed article, "Discursive Underground: Re–transcribing the History of Art Education Using Critical Multicultural
Education". She writes to the art educational community and interested scholars about the importance of a multicultural approach to art history that is
still lacking in America's increasingly multicultural student and educator population. The article's goal is to convey the importance of cultural
inclusivity in art education to encourage artistic innovation, empowerment, knowledge, and cross–cultural equality in the arts, especially for
historically marginalized cultural and ethnic groups (Acuff, 2013, p. 227–228).
Acuff argues that educators should address the "cultural capital allocated to various...show more content...
Acuff cites a 1996 study in which only four instances of African Americans were mentioned in a standard art history textbook (Acuff, 2013, p. 224).
African and Native Americans have a long history of cultural oppression in America. Acuff believes it is the responsibility of art educators and
historians to recognize the lingering cultural inequalities in modern art history teachings and strive to teach and preserve art history in a culturally
inclusive way (Acuff, 2013, p. 224–226). She believes that cultural empathy is key to this integration process, "We need to begin to build solidarity
across our narratives, as they all impact one another. This can only happen when 'all of us learn to embrace struggles against oppression that others of
us face." (Acuff, 2013, p.
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Kazuo Ishiguro's discursive narrative style serves to construct a subtle connection between Ishiguro himself and his protagonist, Stevens. An incisive
analysis of The Remains said by, Critic Meghan Marie Hammond, which pertinently suggests that the novel in its intricacy has an elusive form.
However, it should be noted that beneath this seemingly ambiguous form, there is a precision and an underlying order, to Ishiguro's use of narrative
style in The Remains. In this world of the novel, there is a structure in the evidently arbitrary form of the novel, which provides an artistic
sophistication to the narrative style. Ishiguro seems to have an aesthetic intention when delineating his protagonist in this fashion to the modern reader.
The everlasting...show more content...
This is clearly noted when Ishiguro presents Stevens as having an awkward consternation when confronting his feelings for Ms. Kenton. His struggle
to contain his dormant feelings for Ms.Kenton is seen when he misreads her letter highlighting that" [she has] broken down and without a home" but
he admits that" [he] might have read between the lines". One should also note that his split subjectivity rather than ethical imperceptiveness is the
source of his unreliability. This is due to the fact that Stevens is the conscious source of much of the information that we gain. This split subjectivity
of Stevens is propelled by his inner turmoil. Stevens's blindness to his employer's faults glorifying him as a "noble and a loyal man" and takes up his
master's moral standing as his anchor to champion. But this view of his flawed and tainted when we later we see him distancing and denouncing
himself from Lord Darlington, like the disciple Peter who denies Christ in the New Testament Book of Mark. This is exemplified when he says"It is
hardly my fault if his lordship's life ...turned out [as] a sad waste". This encapsulates his inner struggle which forces him to evade certain truths in order
to maintain certain myths about his reality and his
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Gender And Masculinity: A Discursive Approach
This chapter first establishes the discursive approach to gender as the foundation for conceptualizing masculinities. Next, it introduces some recent
conceptualizations of masculinities and the types of masculinities propagated within the Singapore context. Following that, it explores how
advertisements produce and transfer meaning before looking at some of the masculinities present in the advertisements within men's lifestyle magazines.
2.1 Gender and Masculinity: A Discursive Approach
Traditionally, the notion of "masculinity" has been tied to physical attributes of men: conceived as biologically determined, masculinity was considered
a "fact of nature" which legitimized and perpetuated male power (Saco 1992:23; Stibbe 2004:32). However,...show more content...
Within the field of gender, masculinity is a performance closely tied to power and identity.
2.1.2 "Masculinities"
Given culture's effect on masculinity, Beynon (2001) cautions against regarding "masculinity" as "implying uniformity". Instead, he suggests
considering masculinity as a "singular–plural" like "data", comprising a range of masculinities (2001:1–2). Despite the multiple definitions and types of
masculinity, hegemonic masculinity is ever–present in various settings (Stibbe 2004:33).
2.1.2.1 Hegemonic Masculinity
With multiple masculinities, certain masculinities are valued hierarchically over others. A hegemonic form of masculinity is most valued, whereas
other masculine styles – such as the young, effeminate and homosexual – are subordinated (Hanke 1992:190; Connell 1998:5). Notably in relation to
masculinity, femininity is relegated as
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Examples Of Discursive Essay
Discursive Essay Basics
Paragraph 1: Introduction
Introduce the topic. Give some background about the situation in your country/area. Then mention the possible reasons for the situation.
Crime is one of the most important issues ...
In the last few years, crime has been going up/down.
The most common crimes are ...
The most worrying trend is the increase in ...
One of the reasons for this is possibly the fact that unemployment has risen ...
Another reason is that...
Note: if you are 'for' something, put the arguments 'against' first. If you are 'against' something, put the arguments 'for' first.
Paragraph 2: A list of arguments 'for7
Express the attitudes and reasons to support this point of view. Provide examples and facts where possible. (see Style below)...show more content...
Provide examples and facts where possible. (see Style below)
Paragraph 4: Conclusion
Finally, give your own personal opinion about the topic.
In my opinion. ... /All things considered. I believe that...
Style
In a discursive essay it is important to list the points of view of both sides of an argument as objectively as possible. Only in the conclusion can you
express your own point of view. Notice the use of report structures (e.g. feel that), passives and formal linkers (e.g. moreover, furthermore) in the
sentences below.
Listing arguments:
Many people feel that harder sentences should be brought back.
The American system of 'three strikes and out' has supporters in Britain.
Moreover, some people say that conditions in prisons are too soft.
There are arguments for the restoration of the death penalty.
The wishes of victims' family and friends possibly need to be taken into account.
There are arguments against harder sentences and capital punishment
One of the arguments against longer prison sentence is that the prisons are already full.
Other people disagree and think that prisons should reform
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Priyanca Vaishnav, Satish Poduval, Media and the Public Domain 13th February 2007 Report: Rethinking The Public Sphere by Nancy Fraser
Rethinking The Public Sphere is a response to Habermas' 1973 essay, later published in English as The Public Sphere in 1989. Habermas states his
concept of the public sphere as both historical, and normative. It is historical both in the sense of era and region– 20th century Western Europe. He
dismantles the distinctions between the public and private domain. According to Habermas, man should be autonomous from the state and the civil
society, but he feels that public–ness is degenerating due to the advent of the mass media. Mass media gives higher priority to profitability...show more
content...
Laissez–faire capitalism disturbs equilibrium and some level of state intervention and regulation on economy and redistribution essential. Privatization
hinders free discussion in public sphere. The informal discursive sphere is independent of the government or the state and functions as a thorough
critic. The separation provides the weaker publics with an opportunity to play an active part in decision making and not just presenting a position.
The bourgeois conception seems speculative of this discursive authority. She defends that the effect of public opinion is greater if it can affect
decisions made by the state. But, the notion of "We" instead of "I" does not necessarily reinforce the dominant opinion regarding a subject and
subjugate the subaltern public. It might be pertinent to use the "we" to make the shared aims prominent. It evokes a shared social identity. But she
also expresses serious doubts about whether such a separation should be carried too far, as this can cause powerlessness to the state in legislative and
administrative matters, which require its dominance even in a democratic and egalitarian social structure. Thus, Nancy Fraser stresses on a need of a
more post–bourgeois approach as against Habermas' bourgeois conception of The Public
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Tips for Writing a Discursive Essay
Discursive Essay
A discursive essay is an article that talks about a topic that is controversial in nature. This type of essay intends to present the issues both sides of the
argument. However, it is important that the writer also explain why he has chosen to side with one argument and provide the logic behind it.Writing a
discursive essay is a good way to develop the logical skills of the writer while maintaining a sound skill to anticipate the arguments of the other side
and possibly counter it with the same logical explanation.
Here are the ways to write a discursive essay: * Write the first paragraph. This one should be the introduction of the main topic that you want to serve as
the argument platform. A discursive essay is...show more content...
One of the techniques which can help you to achieve this effectively is the use of linking words. These words are usually used at the beginning of a
new paragraph but can also be used to link ideas within a paragraph.
Same line of thought
e.g. – and, firstly, secondly etc., next, furthermore, likewise, in addition, similarly, also, moreover. Conclusion/summary
e.g. – thus, therefore, consequently, accordingly, in retrospect, hence, in conclusion, in brief, as a result. Definite statement
e.g. – without question, without doubt, unquestionably, absolutely. Contrasting idea
e.g. – yet, on the other hand, nevertheless, however, although, conversely, otherwise, on the contrary.
Further examples because, for instance, since, for example, so that, despite the fact that, accordingly, although, if, though, unless.
Formal Tone in a Discursive Essay
It is important when you write a discursive essay to write in a proper formal way. You should not use an informal style to write a discursive essay. In
simple terms, this means the
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Objectivity And Fair Lens
When considering the effectiveness of an essay, it is crucial to evaluate the writing through an objective, balanced and fair lens. As the subjective
beings that humans are, it does a discursive community no good to dismiss or promote a piece of writing just because of our personal feelings
towards it. This is especially important when considering the divisive topic of free speech in college. Particularly relevant in society today, this topic
especially has been the subject of intense debate and a catalyst for violent protests throughout cities and campuses across the country. Both sides of this
debate have valid, passionate arguments. Evaluation therefore, must be grounded in objectivity and free of bias, not constrained by it and polluted by
opinion. This expectation of objectivity also extends not only to the one evaluating the paper, but to the writer as well. As an argumentative paper, it is
incumbent upon the writer to present a measured stance, one rooted with a clear unemotional objective argument. Not only must papers have
appropriate grammar and vocabulary, they must also contain a clear thesis and stay on topic. This is the only way for a paper to effectively convey its
argumentative content effectively. Unfortunately, the paper in question does not necessarily satisfy these guidelines. While a diplomatic and idealistic
paper, the duality of the thesis and plethora of punctuation errors serve to handicap this papers argument. This approach is
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Language Ideology And Power Rhetorical Analysis
Language, Ideology and Power Essay Institutions have the power to foster particular kinds of identities to suit their own purposes. With reference to
one or more institutional contexts, explain how power materialises in discourses. Introduction Language is the fundamental persuasive device. When
we speak, we do not simply speak words but we discursively produce social identities, ideologies and power relations. This idea that language
harnesses the performative power to construct ideological meanings and power structures in social contexts introduces the concept of discourse.
Discourses are particularly slippery to define; according to Structuralist theories discourse is "language above the line" (Stubbs, 1983:1), that being,
discourses...show more content...
According to Halliday's Systemic Functional Theory (Halliday, 1976), language is a resource speakers use to achieve communicative goals. Halliday
suggests the context of situation comprises of three components: the field (the purpose of the interaction), the mode (the form the discourse takes) and
tenor (the participants in the discourse and their relationships). Context has a myriad of implications for the production and comprehension of
discourse. It refers to structures of text and talk in a communicative situation, including setting, genre, participant(s) roles, social and institutional, as
well as speaker attitudes and ideologies. These elements are pertinent in interview interaction. The interviewer and the interviewee orientate their
language strategically to confer their individual communicative goals. In a political context, an interviewer's goal may be to covertly force an
interviewee to admit deficiencies in their political stance/political ideologies. Conversely, the interviewee's goal may be win the persuasion of the
viewing public – disallowing for the kind of interaction that would be detrimental to his/her career. The news interview is a decidedly asymmetrical
interaction. Characteristic of the news interview is the discursive roles that interviewer and interviewee obey and comply to. Generally speaking, we
expect
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Descriptive Essay About School Day
As an eight hour school day, filled with laughter and joy as I spent time with my friends, whizzed by, I walked towards my bus. Looking around I
could see everything from birds gliding in the wind, their feathers glistening in the sunlight, to spiders in the bushes, working tirelessly to spin their
magnificently intricate masterpiece of a web. The trees are starting to change from a vibrant green, to a light yellow, to a deep orange, and finally, to a
bloody red. The contrast of all the awe–inspiring colors will always be surreal in my eyes. Every year, I always think to myself the same question,
"Why, when such beauty exists, must it go away as quickly as it came?" I soon arrived at my bus, the chipped paint giving it a marvelous antique...show
more content...
"There's probably a universe where heads are shaped like rocks too!" Thomas proclaimed, a little smile on the corner of his mouth. I turned to
Beth, Obviously know that she was tired of hearing about infinite universes, almost as much as she was tired about hearing what color a bus is,
and said, "There are even rocks shaped like Beth's head too!" At that comment she glared at me, not with anger, but mostly with a sense of
annoyance, yet there was a hint of humor in there, and I knew I did not take it too far, this time, but there is bound to be other moments of my
idiocy that will get a little irritating. As we came up to mine and Thomas's bus stop, I could not help but notice how elegantly the branches from
nearby trees had drooped down to create shade for us as we left the bus. It did not stay like that for long, but that was fine, it was a very inviting
temperature outside, with a slight breeze that made sure you did not get uncomfortable. From my bus stop, it was about half a mile to my home, but
I do not complain about that because there are so many amazingly colored trees along the way, so many beautiful combinations of all different colors,
I can never help myself but to just be brimming with awe as I take my, almost, daily trek to my house. As I travel along the side of
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Discursive essay
Discursive essay (1): a balanced argument
Key success factors being able to construct an argument
being able to link points together in a logical sequence
using appropriate discourse markers to connect, contrast, and balance points
ANALYSING A MODEL TEXT
Text–messaging is an important ifI– advance in communication – or is it?
a You have been asked to write the following essay:
" '1
. ' "
]
. . :–".. /7.– .: ...; .:–:
";"~,:,.,...
'Just think of it as if you 're reading a long text–message:
Text–messaging is an important advance in communication – or is it?
With a partner, discuss three reasons you think text messaging represents an important advance in communication and three reasons why it...show more
content...
3 To sum up, although text messages are a cheap and useful way of communicating, they have arguably led to young people being less able to express
themselves correctly in writing. On balance, I believe that text messaging does not represent an advance in communication.
~MultiROM
WRITING
Introductions and conclusions
In an essay it is important that the introduction engages the reader 's attention. It should introduce the topic, but should not include the specific points
that you are going to mention in the body of the text.
A good introductory paragraph describes the present situation and gives supporting evidence. It should refer to the statement or question you have been
asked to discuss.
This can often be done in the form of a question to the reader which the subsequent paragraphs should answer.
The conclusion should briefly sum up the arguments you have made, and can include your personal opinion.
The opinion you express should follow logically from the arguments you have presented.
USEFUL LANGUAGE
d Complete the missing words. Some (but not all) are in the model essay.
Expressing the main points in an argument
[В±J
texting allows us to
1 The greatest b is that communicate instantly
2 First and most im '_ with other people.
EJ
3 One ""d
of texting
people to use texts as an excuse to get out of
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Oodgeroo Noonuccal Essay
How the language of 'We are going and 'Let us not be bitter' demonstrates Oodgeroo Noonuccal's perspective on Aboriginal rights.
Oodgeroo Noonuccal was an Australian poet, activist, artist and a campaigner for Aboriginal rights. Her poems 'We are going' and 'Let us not be bitter'
conveys the loss of the Indigenous culture and how much they suffered because of this. Oodgeroo Noonuccal's perspective on Aboriginal rights is
impassioned, concern and worry for the loss of her family and home. She expresses these emotions using imagery, poetic structures and poetic
techniques, such as inclusive language and symbolism, to strongly represent what she is feeling and how much the Indigenous people have suffered
through.
Oodgeroo Noonuccal uses...show more content...
In 'Let us not be bitter', this sentence shows the use of symbolism: "The future comes like dawn after the dark". Symbolism in 'We are going' helps
convey the image of the European people probably on their way to work with blank faces. This also shows that the Aboriginal people consider them
as ants due to the fact that they cant tell the difference from one European to another. This may be because the white people act like robots or
machines in the way they work and act. In 'Let us not be bitter', symbolism is used to show and represent that light was comes after the dark. It is used
to show hope for the Aboriginal people.
Oodgeroo Noonuccal is an Australian poet who wrote the poems 'We are going' and 'Let us not be bitter'. Her perspective on Aboriginal rights is
concern, passion and worry for her people and land. Using vivid imagery, poetic structure, enjambment for example, and poetic techniques such as
inclusive language and symbolism conveys these feelings to her audience clearly. Oodgeroo uses vivid imagery to show her despair and misery
towards what had happened to the treatment of the sacred land and the Aboriginal people. She uses a poetic structure called enjambment to help
convince the Indigenous people to continue to move on like the flow of her poem. An Oodgeroo Noonuccal uses poetic techniques such as inclusive
language and symbolism to explain the Aboriginal people's connection
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Objective: To know the contributions of the educational process in Palliative Care during the undergraduate level for the professional action of nurses
in the care of patients at the end of life. Methods: This is a qualitative research, with discursive thematic analysis, based on Morin's theory of
complexity. It was attended by seven newly–trained nurses and six nursing teachers from a Nursing Undergraduate Course. Results: It has found
disruptions and the development of new ways of thinking and caring for patients at the end of life, highlighting that these patients should be treated
with therapies to mitigate their signs and symptoms until death, focusing on quality of life; moreover, their psychosocial and spiritual aspects should
be appreciated.
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The Discursive View Of Identity
In alignment with one of the key points from the previous section, which denies the integral and unified account of identity, this section elaborates the
discursive view of identity. In order to understand this shift in conceptualising identity, we will revisit the simple definition of identity from Longman
dictionary (section 9.1.1). The later part of this definition, specifically, the second key phrase "different from other people" brings about the
discussion of the discursive approach to identity. Departing from the essentialist viewpoint of identity as a stable core of self, later literatures have
advocated a close relation between the processes of intersubjectivity and the crucial role of 'the others' in identity construction (Hall, 2000). As a nature
of human beings, the process of identification is seen as a universal need to belong to a group, to reflect on others, thus define themselves and others. In
other words, it is to say that identity is constructed through 'difference' and experienced by contrast (Benveniste, 2000). Specifically, "[i]n common
sense language, identification is constructed on the back of recognition of some common origin or shared characteristics with another person or group,
or with an ideal, and with the natural closure of solidarity and allegiance established on this foundation" (Hall, 2000:16). The common origin or shared
characteristics here do not adhere to the essentialist viewpoint of identity as an identical and unchangeable stage of
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Discursive Essay on Abortion
Discursive Essay on Abortion
Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy. If a woman falls pregnant and she does not wish to go through with the pregnancy then she may choose
to have an abortion. Abortion is a controversial issue, some people say it is ok to abort a baby but others are strongly against it. Sometimes people
are against it because they believe it is wrong but some are against it because of their religion, their background and their up–bringing. People who are
for abortion may have had one and therefore think it is ok or they may know someone who has had one. In this essay I will discuss the arguments for
and the arguments against abortion.
An argument in favour of abortion...show more content...
The girl also may have to leave school for a little while to take care of the baby which would make her fall behind on a lot of school work. She may
have the pregnancy terminated because she may have wanted to go to college or university to study further. I feel that she should have the chance to
live her life and be free without having any major responsibilities, like having to look after a baby.
However, even though a woman may have a perfectly good reason to have an abortion she would still be killing a human life. Some women think
they are doing the right thing at the time but when it comes to a later stage in life, many of them can regret their decisions. It would probably be at the
back of their mind– they would think about it when they got the chance to. They would probably think how their lives would be different if they had
had the baby.
Furthermore, there are many people in the world that cannot conceive for many different reasons and would do anything for a child, therefore they
would adopt. Instead of a woman having a termination because she think she is unable to cope then she could have the baby and then put it up for
adoption. Sometimes in these situations women have the baby and they often change their mind about having the baby put up for
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Examples Of Discourse Analysis Essay
2.0 Critical Discourse Analysis
There has been much written in recent years about CDA in its broadest sense. It appears to be quite difficult to define in simple terms and this is
probably due to the nature of CDA. It encompasses a number of general tenets and uses a large range of techniques. It aims primarily to identify
socio–political inequalities that exist in society. Fairclough (1995b) provides us with a useful definition that encapsulates most other definitions of CDA:
[CDA is the study of] often opaque relationships of causality and determination between (a) discursive practices, events and texts, and (b) wider social
and cultural structures, relations and processes; to investigate how such practices, events and texts arise out of...show more content...
1995. 'Grammar in discourse: attitude and deniability', in G. Cook, and
B. Seidlhofer, (eds.) Principle & Practice in Applied Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.197–213.
Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power, London: Longman
Fairclough, N. 1992. Discourse and Social Change, London: Polity Press
Fairclough, Norman (1995a). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of
Language. London: Longman
Fairclough, Norman (1995b). Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold
Langer, R. 1998. 'The concept of discourse in the analysis of complex communication events' [Online], http://www.diskurs.dk/litteratur/pdf/artikler
/Langer,%20Roy_The%20concept%20of %20discourse%20in%20the%20analysis_IKL–paper%201998.pdf (accessed 26th January 2015).
Caldas–Coulthard, C.R. and M. Coulthard, (eds.) 1996 Texts and Practices: Readings inCritical Discourse Analysis, London: Routledge.
Krishnamurthy, R. 1996. 'Ethnic, racial and tribal: the language of racism?' in C.R.
Pennycook, A. 1994. 'Incommensurable Discourses?' in Applied Linguistics, Vol.15,
No.2, pp.115–138. Oxford University Press.
Widdowson, H.G. 1995. 'Discourse analysis: a critical view.' in Language and
Literature 4,
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Attitudes are one of the main themes in social psychology. The attitudes we hold allow us to express ourselves through our values and ideologies as
well as comprehend people around us. We can make predictions about others' values from what they say and how they behave, this in turn reduces
uncertainty and enables us to adapt and alter our behaviours in a socially desirable way (McKinlay and McVittie, 2009). Research surrounding the
concept of attitudes comes from two distinct theoretical positions; the social cognition approach and the discursive approach. The mainstream
cognitive approach regards attitudes as measurable entities through schemas and models, while the discursive psychology (DP) deals with written and
spoken means of communication and has attempted to reorientate our perspective on attitude research. First, this essay will attempt to define attitudes
from both spheres of thought and outline the guiding principles of each approach. Moreover, both approaches alongside their differing methodologies
will be evaluated with reference to empirical research.
Psychologists in both the cognitive and discursive field believe that attitudes are central to our understanding of human behaviour yet they differ in
their definition of the concept. The cognitive approach builds upon a very operational understanding of attitudes, defining them as an "inner cognitive
states" whereby a person may generate favourable or unfavourable thoughts and/or feelings towards a person, idea
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Examples Of Discourse Analysis
A.Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (1989, 1995)
1.This theory is used to critically analyze relationship between language, ideologies, and society to reveal the portrayal of women in the film.
2.Fairclough (1995) clarifies that discourse is not only written and spoken language, but it also visual part that has meaning (p.54).
3.According to Fairclough (2010), in Critical Discourse Analysis, language is viewed as a social practice because it shapes and is shaped by society.
4.According to Fairclough (1989, 1995), Critical Discourse Analysis is used to analyze communicative events by analyzing the relationship between
three dimensions, including the micro dimension, the meso dimension, and the macro dimension.
a.The micro dimension...show more content...
Related previous studies
A.The first research entitled "The representation of gender roles in the media – An analysis of gender discourse in Sex and the City movies " was
constructed by Therese Ottosson and Xin Cheng in 2012.
1.The aim was to study to see how gender is portrayed in the movies, Sex and The City season 1 and 2.
2.The theories that used in the study were theories of representation and Critical Discourse Analysis.
3.The results showed that, gender roles are unequally represented in SATC1 and SATC2.
a.Men are always portrayed in a typical manner and have a superiority.
b.Women are presented as subordinate role. They must be beautiful and look young as much as possible and work for men.
B.The second research entitled "Women's representation and gender identity in "Desperate Housewives" was conducted by Eveliina Salomaa in 2010.
1.The aim was to study how women are portrayed in "Desperate Housewives" and how the modern women have similar identities as traditional
housewives.
2.The theories used for research were Critical Discourse Analysis and Gender Identity.
3.The result showed that, at the surface level, women are portrayed in "Desperate Housewives" is much different from other TV–series, however, in
deep level, women still similar to the norms and traditional
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Discourse On Refugees

  • 1. Discourse On Refugees Although in the past human rights issues were avirtually not allowed to enter the global discourse on refugees under the erroneous assumption that the refugee problem, as a humanitarian problem is quite distinct from a human rights problem, the current trend is towards integration of the human rights law and humanitarian law with refugee law. The growing realisation that given the number, size and complexity of the problem of refugees the limited approach to the problem which was devised in the context of the postsecond world war refugees and which placed greater reliance on safety and welfare, rather than solutions to the problem and virtually relieved the refugee producing countries from their responsibilities towards their nationals living Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Discursive Underground Summary Acuff (2013) wrote the peer–reviewed article, "Discursive Underground: Re–transcribing the History of Art Education Using Critical Multicultural Education". She writes to the art educational community and interested scholars about the importance of a multicultural approach to art history that is still lacking in America's increasingly multicultural student and educator population. The article's goal is to convey the importance of cultural inclusivity in art education to encourage artistic innovation, empowerment, knowledge, and cross–cultural equality in the arts, especially for historically marginalized cultural and ethnic groups (Acuff, 2013, p. 227–228). Acuff argues that educators should address the "cultural capital allocated to various...show more content... Acuff cites a 1996 study in which only four instances of African Americans were mentioned in a standard art history textbook (Acuff, 2013, p. 224). African and Native Americans have a long history of cultural oppression in America. Acuff believes it is the responsibility of art educators and historians to recognize the lingering cultural inequalities in modern art history teachings and strive to teach and preserve art history in a culturally inclusive way (Acuff, 2013, p. 224–226). She believes that cultural empathy is key to this integration process, "We need to begin to build solidarity across our narratives, as they all impact one another. This can only happen when 'all of us learn to embrace struggles against oppression that others of us face." (Acuff, 2013, p. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Kazuo Ishiguro's discursive narrative style serves to construct a subtle connection between Ishiguro himself and his protagonist, Stevens. An incisive analysis of The Remains said by, Critic Meghan Marie Hammond, which pertinently suggests that the novel in its intricacy has an elusive form. However, it should be noted that beneath this seemingly ambiguous form, there is a precision and an underlying order, to Ishiguro's use of narrative style in The Remains. In this world of the novel, there is a structure in the evidently arbitrary form of the novel, which provides an artistic sophistication to the narrative style. Ishiguro seems to have an aesthetic intention when delineating his protagonist in this fashion to the modern reader. The everlasting...show more content... This is clearly noted when Ishiguro presents Stevens as having an awkward consternation when confronting his feelings for Ms. Kenton. His struggle to contain his dormant feelings for Ms.Kenton is seen when he misreads her letter highlighting that" [she has] broken down and without a home" but he admits that" [he] might have read between the lines". One should also note that his split subjectivity rather than ethical imperceptiveness is the source of his unreliability. This is due to the fact that Stevens is the conscious source of much of the information that we gain. This split subjectivity of Stevens is propelled by his inner turmoil. Stevens's blindness to his employer's faults glorifying him as a "noble and a loyal man" and takes up his master's moral standing as his anchor to champion. But this view of his flawed and tainted when we later we see him distancing and denouncing himself from Lord Darlington, like the disciple Peter who denies Christ in the New Testament Book of Mark. This is exemplified when he says"It is hardly my fault if his lordship's life ...turned out [as] a sad waste". This encapsulates his inner struggle which forces him to evade certain truths in order to maintain certain myths about his reality and his Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Gender And Masculinity: A Discursive Approach This chapter first establishes the discursive approach to gender as the foundation for conceptualizing masculinities. Next, it introduces some recent conceptualizations of masculinities and the types of masculinities propagated within the Singapore context. Following that, it explores how advertisements produce and transfer meaning before looking at some of the masculinities present in the advertisements within men's lifestyle magazines. 2.1 Gender and Masculinity: A Discursive Approach Traditionally, the notion of "masculinity" has been tied to physical attributes of men: conceived as biologically determined, masculinity was considered a "fact of nature" which legitimized and perpetuated male power (Saco 1992:23; Stibbe 2004:32). However,...show more content... Within the field of gender, masculinity is a performance closely tied to power and identity. 2.1.2 "Masculinities" Given culture's effect on masculinity, Beynon (2001) cautions against regarding "masculinity" as "implying uniformity". Instead, he suggests considering masculinity as a "singular–plural" like "data", comprising a range of masculinities (2001:1–2). Despite the multiple definitions and types of masculinity, hegemonic masculinity is ever–present in various settings (Stibbe 2004:33). 2.1.2.1 Hegemonic Masculinity With multiple masculinities, certain masculinities are valued hierarchically over others. A hegemonic form of masculinity is most valued, whereas other masculine styles – such as the young, effeminate and homosexual – are subordinated (Hanke 1992:190; Connell 1998:5). Notably in relation to masculinity, femininity is relegated as Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Examples Of Discursive Essay Discursive Essay Basics Paragraph 1: Introduction Introduce the topic. Give some background about the situation in your country/area. Then mention the possible reasons for the situation. Crime is one of the most important issues ... In the last few years, crime has been going up/down. The most common crimes are ... The most worrying trend is the increase in ... One of the reasons for this is possibly the fact that unemployment has risen ... Another reason is that... Note: if you are 'for' something, put the arguments 'against' first. If you are 'against' something, put the arguments 'for' first. Paragraph 2: A list of arguments 'for7 Express the attitudes and reasons to support this point of view. Provide examples and facts where possible. (see Style below)...show more content... Provide examples and facts where possible. (see Style below) Paragraph 4: Conclusion Finally, give your own personal opinion about the topic. In my opinion. ... /All things considered. I believe that... Style In a discursive essay it is important to list the points of view of both sides of an argument as objectively as possible. Only in the conclusion can you express your own point of view. Notice the use of report structures (e.g. feel that), passives and formal linkers (e.g. moreover, furthermore) in the sentences below.
  • 6. Listing arguments: Many people feel that harder sentences should be brought back. The American system of 'three strikes and out' has supporters in Britain. Moreover, some people say that conditions in prisons are too soft. There are arguments for the restoration of the death penalty. The wishes of victims' family and friends possibly need to be taken into account. There are arguments against harder sentences and capital punishment One of the arguments against longer prison sentence is that the prisons are already full. Other people disagree and think that prisons should reform Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Priyanca Vaishnav, Satish Poduval, Media and the Public Domain 13th February 2007 Report: Rethinking The Public Sphere by Nancy Fraser Rethinking The Public Sphere is a response to Habermas' 1973 essay, later published in English as The Public Sphere in 1989. Habermas states his concept of the public sphere as both historical, and normative. It is historical both in the sense of era and region– 20th century Western Europe. He dismantles the distinctions between the public and private domain. According to Habermas, man should be autonomous from the state and the civil society, but he feels that public–ness is degenerating due to the advent of the mass media. Mass media gives higher priority to profitability...show more content... Laissez–faire capitalism disturbs equilibrium and some level of state intervention and regulation on economy and redistribution essential. Privatization hinders free discussion in public sphere. The informal discursive sphere is independent of the government or the state and functions as a thorough critic. The separation provides the weaker publics with an opportunity to play an active part in decision making and not just presenting a position. The bourgeois conception seems speculative of this discursive authority. She defends that the effect of public opinion is greater if it can affect decisions made by the state. But, the notion of "We" instead of "I" does not necessarily reinforce the dominant opinion regarding a subject and subjugate the subaltern public. It might be pertinent to use the "we" to make the shared aims prominent. It evokes a shared social identity. But she also expresses serious doubts about whether such a separation should be carried too far, as this can cause powerlessness to the state in legislative and administrative matters, which require its dominance even in a democratic and egalitarian social structure. Thus, Nancy Fraser stresses on a need of a more post–bourgeois approach as against Habermas' bourgeois conception of The Public Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Tips for Writing a Discursive Essay Discursive Essay A discursive essay is an article that talks about a topic that is controversial in nature. This type of essay intends to present the issues both sides of the argument. However, it is important that the writer also explain why he has chosen to side with one argument and provide the logic behind it.Writing a discursive essay is a good way to develop the logical skills of the writer while maintaining a sound skill to anticipate the arguments of the other side and possibly counter it with the same logical explanation. Here are the ways to write a discursive essay: * Write the first paragraph. This one should be the introduction of the main topic that you want to serve as the argument platform. A discursive essay is...show more content... One of the techniques which can help you to achieve this effectively is the use of linking words. These words are usually used at the beginning of a new paragraph but can also be used to link ideas within a paragraph. Same line of thought e.g. – and, firstly, secondly etc., next, furthermore, likewise, in addition, similarly, also, moreover. Conclusion/summary e.g. – thus, therefore, consequently, accordingly, in retrospect, hence, in conclusion, in brief, as a result. Definite statement e.g. – without question, without doubt, unquestionably, absolutely. Contrasting idea e.g. – yet, on the other hand, nevertheless, however, although, conversely, otherwise, on the contrary. Further examples because, for instance, since, for example, so that, despite the fact that, accordingly, although, if, though, unless. Formal Tone in a Discursive Essay It is important when you write a discursive essay to write in a proper formal way. You should not use an informal style to write a discursive essay. In simple terms, this means the
  • 9. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. Objectivity And Fair Lens When considering the effectiveness of an essay, it is crucial to evaluate the writing through an objective, balanced and fair lens. As the subjective beings that humans are, it does a discursive community no good to dismiss or promote a piece of writing just because of our personal feelings towards it. This is especially important when considering the divisive topic of free speech in college. Particularly relevant in society today, this topic especially has been the subject of intense debate and a catalyst for violent protests throughout cities and campuses across the country. Both sides of this debate have valid, passionate arguments. Evaluation therefore, must be grounded in objectivity and free of bias, not constrained by it and polluted by opinion. This expectation of objectivity also extends not only to the one evaluating the paper, but to the writer as well. As an argumentative paper, it is incumbent upon the writer to present a measured stance, one rooted with a clear unemotional objective argument. Not only must papers have appropriate grammar and vocabulary, they must also contain a clear thesis and stay on topic. This is the only way for a paper to effectively convey its argumentative content effectively. Unfortunately, the paper in question does not necessarily satisfy these guidelines. While a diplomatic and idealistic paper, the duality of the thesis and plethora of punctuation errors serve to handicap this papers argument. This approach is Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Language Ideology And Power Rhetorical Analysis Language, Ideology and Power Essay Institutions have the power to foster particular kinds of identities to suit their own purposes. With reference to one or more institutional contexts, explain how power materialises in discourses. Introduction Language is the fundamental persuasive device. When we speak, we do not simply speak words but we discursively produce social identities, ideologies and power relations. This idea that language harnesses the performative power to construct ideological meanings and power structures in social contexts introduces the concept of discourse. Discourses are particularly slippery to define; according to Structuralist theories discourse is "language above the line" (Stubbs, 1983:1), that being, discourses...show more content... According to Halliday's Systemic Functional Theory (Halliday, 1976), language is a resource speakers use to achieve communicative goals. Halliday suggests the context of situation comprises of three components: the field (the purpose of the interaction), the mode (the form the discourse takes) and tenor (the participants in the discourse and their relationships). Context has a myriad of implications for the production and comprehension of discourse. It refers to structures of text and talk in a communicative situation, including setting, genre, participant(s) roles, social and institutional, as well as speaker attitudes and ideologies. These elements are pertinent in interview interaction. The interviewer and the interviewee orientate their language strategically to confer their individual communicative goals. In a political context, an interviewer's goal may be to covertly force an interviewee to admit deficiencies in their political stance/political ideologies. Conversely, the interviewee's goal may be win the persuasion of the viewing public – disallowing for the kind of interaction that would be detrimental to his/her career. The news interview is a decidedly asymmetrical interaction. Characteristic of the news interview is the discursive roles that interviewer and interviewee obey and comply to. Generally speaking, we expect Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Descriptive Essay About School Day As an eight hour school day, filled with laughter and joy as I spent time with my friends, whizzed by, I walked towards my bus. Looking around I could see everything from birds gliding in the wind, their feathers glistening in the sunlight, to spiders in the bushes, working tirelessly to spin their magnificently intricate masterpiece of a web. The trees are starting to change from a vibrant green, to a light yellow, to a deep orange, and finally, to a bloody red. The contrast of all the awe–inspiring colors will always be surreal in my eyes. Every year, I always think to myself the same question, "Why, when such beauty exists, must it go away as quickly as it came?" I soon arrived at my bus, the chipped paint giving it a marvelous antique...show more content... "There's probably a universe where heads are shaped like rocks too!" Thomas proclaimed, a little smile on the corner of his mouth. I turned to Beth, Obviously know that she was tired of hearing about infinite universes, almost as much as she was tired about hearing what color a bus is, and said, "There are even rocks shaped like Beth's head too!" At that comment she glared at me, not with anger, but mostly with a sense of annoyance, yet there was a hint of humor in there, and I knew I did not take it too far, this time, but there is bound to be other moments of my idiocy that will get a little irritating. As we came up to mine and Thomas's bus stop, I could not help but notice how elegantly the branches from nearby trees had drooped down to create shade for us as we left the bus. It did not stay like that for long, but that was fine, it was a very inviting temperature outside, with a slight breeze that made sure you did not get uncomfortable. From my bus stop, it was about half a mile to my home, but I do not complain about that because there are so many amazingly colored trees along the way, so many beautiful combinations of all different colors, I can never help myself but to just be brimming with awe as I take my, almost, daily trek to my house. As I travel along the side of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Discursive essay Discursive essay (1): a balanced argument Key success factors being able to construct an argument being able to link points together in a logical sequence using appropriate discourse markers to connect, contrast, and balance points ANALYSING A MODEL TEXT Text–messaging is an important ifI– advance in communication – or is it? a You have been asked to write the following essay: " '1 . ' " ] . . :–".. /7.– .: ...; .:–: ";"~,:,.,... 'Just think of it as if you 're reading a long text–message: Text–messaging is an important advance in communication – or is it? With a partner, discuss three reasons you think text messaging represents an important advance in communication and three reasons why it...show more content... 3 To sum up, although text messages are a cheap and useful way of communicating, they have arguably led to young people being less able to express
  • 14. themselves correctly in writing. On balance, I believe that text messaging does not represent an advance in communication. ~MultiROM WRITING Introductions and conclusions In an essay it is important that the introduction engages the reader 's attention. It should introduce the topic, but should not include the specific points that you are going to mention in the body of the text. A good introductory paragraph describes the present situation and gives supporting evidence. It should refer to the statement or question you have been asked to discuss. This can often be done in the form of a question to the reader which the subsequent paragraphs should answer. The conclusion should briefly sum up the arguments you have made, and can include your personal opinion. The opinion you express should follow logically from the arguments you have presented. USEFUL LANGUAGE d Complete the missing words. Some (but not all) are in the model essay. Expressing the main points in an argument [В±J texting allows us to 1 The greatest b is that communicate instantly 2 First and most im '_ with other people. EJ 3 One ""d of texting people to use texts as an excuse to get out of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Oodgeroo Noonuccal Essay How the language of 'We are going and 'Let us not be bitter' demonstrates Oodgeroo Noonuccal's perspective on Aboriginal rights. Oodgeroo Noonuccal was an Australian poet, activist, artist and a campaigner for Aboriginal rights. Her poems 'We are going' and 'Let us not be bitter' conveys the loss of the Indigenous culture and how much they suffered because of this. Oodgeroo Noonuccal's perspective on Aboriginal rights is impassioned, concern and worry for the loss of her family and home. She expresses these emotions using imagery, poetic structures and poetic techniques, such as inclusive language and symbolism, to strongly represent what she is feeling and how much the Indigenous people have suffered through. Oodgeroo Noonuccal uses...show more content... In 'Let us not be bitter', this sentence shows the use of symbolism: "The future comes like dawn after the dark". Symbolism in 'We are going' helps convey the image of the European people probably on their way to work with blank faces. This also shows that the Aboriginal people consider them as ants due to the fact that they cant tell the difference from one European to another. This may be because the white people act like robots or machines in the way they work and act. In 'Let us not be bitter', symbolism is used to show and represent that light was comes after the dark. It is used to show hope for the Aboriginal people. Oodgeroo Noonuccal is an Australian poet who wrote the poems 'We are going' and 'Let us not be bitter'. Her perspective on Aboriginal rights is concern, passion and worry for her people and land. Using vivid imagery, poetic structure, enjambment for example, and poetic techniques such as inclusive language and symbolism conveys these feelings to her audience clearly. Oodgeroo uses vivid imagery to show her despair and misery towards what had happened to the treatment of the sacred land and the Aboriginal people. She uses a poetic structure called enjambment to help convince the Indigenous people to continue to move on like the flow of her poem. An Oodgeroo Noonuccal uses poetic techniques such as inclusive language and symbolism to explain the Aboriginal people's connection Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Objective: To know the contributions of the educational process in Palliative Care during the undergraduate level for the professional action of nurses in the care of patients at the end of life. Methods: This is a qualitative research, with discursive thematic analysis, based on Morin's theory of complexity. It was attended by seven newly–trained nurses and six nursing teachers from a Nursing Undergraduate Course. Results: It has found disruptions and the development of new ways of thinking and caring for patients at the end of life, highlighting that these patients should be treated with therapies to mitigate their signs and symptoms until death, focusing on quality of life; moreover, their psychosocial and spiritual aspects should be appreciated. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. The Discursive View Of Identity In alignment with one of the key points from the previous section, which denies the integral and unified account of identity, this section elaborates the discursive view of identity. In order to understand this shift in conceptualising identity, we will revisit the simple definition of identity from Longman dictionary (section 9.1.1). The later part of this definition, specifically, the second key phrase "different from other people" brings about the discussion of the discursive approach to identity. Departing from the essentialist viewpoint of identity as a stable core of self, later literatures have advocated a close relation between the processes of intersubjectivity and the crucial role of 'the others' in identity construction (Hall, 2000). As a nature of human beings, the process of identification is seen as a universal need to belong to a group, to reflect on others, thus define themselves and others. In other words, it is to say that identity is constructed through 'difference' and experienced by contrast (Benveniste, 2000). Specifically, "[i]n common sense language, identification is constructed on the back of recognition of some common origin or shared characteristics with another person or group, or with an ideal, and with the natural closure of solidarity and allegiance established on this foundation" (Hall, 2000:16). The common origin or shared characteristics here do not adhere to the essentialist viewpoint of identity as an identical and unchangeable stage of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Discursive Essay on Abortion Discursive Essay on Abortion Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy. If a woman falls pregnant and she does not wish to go through with the pregnancy then she may choose to have an abortion. Abortion is a controversial issue, some people say it is ok to abort a baby but others are strongly against it. Sometimes people are against it because they believe it is wrong but some are against it because of their religion, their background and their up–bringing. People who are for abortion may have had one and therefore think it is ok or they may know someone who has had one. In this essay I will discuss the arguments for and the arguments against abortion. An argument in favour of abortion...show more content... The girl also may have to leave school for a little while to take care of the baby which would make her fall behind on a lot of school work. She may have the pregnancy terminated because she may have wanted to go to college or university to study further. I feel that she should have the chance to live her life and be free without having any major responsibilities, like having to look after a baby. However, even though a woman may have a perfectly good reason to have an abortion she would still be killing a human life. Some women think they are doing the right thing at the time but when it comes to a later stage in life, many of them can regret their decisions. It would probably be at the back of their mind– they would think about it when they got the chance to. They would probably think how their lives would be different if they had had the baby. Furthermore, there are many people in the world that cannot conceive for many different reasons and would do anything for a child, therefore they would adopt. Instead of a woman having a termination because she think she is unable to cope then she could have the baby and then put it up for adoption. Sometimes in these situations women have the baby and they often change their mind about having the baby put up for Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 19. Examples Of Discourse Analysis Essay 2.0 Critical Discourse Analysis There has been much written in recent years about CDA in its broadest sense. It appears to be quite difficult to define in simple terms and this is probably due to the nature of CDA. It encompasses a number of general tenets and uses a large range of techniques. It aims primarily to identify socio–political inequalities that exist in society. Fairclough (1995b) provides us with a useful definition that encapsulates most other definitions of CDA: [CDA is the study of] often opaque relationships of causality and determination between (a) discursive practices, events and texts, and (b) wider social and cultural structures, relations and processes; to investigate how such practices, events and texts arise out of...show more content... 1995. 'Grammar in discourse: attitude and deniability', in G. Cook, and B. Seidlhofer, (eds.) Principle & Practice in Applied Linguistics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.197–213. Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power, London: Longman Fairclough, N. 1992. Discourse and Social Change, London: Polity Press Fairclough, Norman (1995a). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman Fairclough, Norman (1995b). Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold Langer, R. 1998. 'The concept of discourse in the analysis of complex communication events' [Online], http://www.diskurs.dk/litteratur/pdf/artikler /Langer,%20Roy_The%20concept%20of %20discourse%20in%20the%20analysis_IKL–paper%201998.pdf (accessed 26th January 2015). Caldas–Coulthard, C.R. and M. Coulthard, (eds.) 1996 Texts and Practices: Readings inCritical Discourse Analysis, London: Routledge. Krishnamurthy, R. 1996. 'Ethnic, racial and tribal: the language of racism?' in C.R. Pennycook, A. 1994. 'Incommensurable Discourses?' in Applied Linguistics, Vol.15, No.2, pp.115–138. Oxford University Press. Widdowson, H.G. 1995. 'Discourse analysis: a critical view.' in Language and
  • 20. Literature 4, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 21. Attitudes are one of the main themes in social psychology. The attitudes we hold allow us to express ourselves through our values and ideologies as well as comprehend people around us. We can make predictions about others' values from what they say and how they behave, this in turn reduces uncertainty and enables us to adapt and alter our behaviours in a socially desirable way (McKinlay and McVittie, 2009). Research surrounding the concept of attitudes comes from two distinct theoretical positions; the social cognition approach and the discursive approach. The mainstream cognitive approach regards attitudes as measurable entities through schemas and models, while the discursive psychology (DP) deals with written and spoken means of communication and has attempted to reorientate our perspective on attitude research. First, this essay will attempt to define attitudes from both spheres of thought and outline the guiding principles of each approach. Moreover, both approaches alongside their differing methodologies will be evaluated with reference to empirical research. Psychologists in both the cognitive and discursive field believe that attitudes are central to our understanding of human behaviour yet they differ in their definition of the concept. The cognitive approach builds upon a very operational understanding of attitudes, defining them as an "inner cognitive states" whereby a person may generate favourable or unfavourable thoughts and/or feelings towards a person, idea Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 22. Examples Of Discourse Analysis A.Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (1989, 1995) 1.This theory is used to critically analyze relationship between language, ideologies, and society to reveal the portrayal of women in the film. 2.Fairclough (1995) clarifies that discourse is not only written and spoken language, but it also visual part that has meaning (p.54). 3.According to Fairclough (2010), in Critical Discourse Analysis, language is viewed as a social practice because it shapes and is shaped by society. 4.According to Fairclough (1989, 1995), Critical Discourse Analysis is used to analyze communicative events by analyzing the relationship between three dimensions, including the micro dimension, the meso dimension, and the macro dimension. a.The micro dimension...show more content... Related previous studies A.The first research entitled "The representation of gender roles in the media – An analysis of gender discourse in Sex and the City movies " was constructed by Therese Ottosson and Xin Cheng in 2012. 1.The aim was to study to see how gender is portrayed in the movies, Sex and The City season 1 and 2. 2.The theories that used in the study were theories of representation and Critical Discourse Analysis. 3.The results showed that, gender roles are unequally represented in SATC1 and SATC2. a.Men are always portrayed in a typical manner and have a superiority. b.Women are presented as subordinate role. They must be beautiful and look young as much as possible and work for men. B.The second research entitled "Women's representation and gender identity in "Desperate Housewives" was conducted by Eveliina Salomaa in 2010. 1.The aim was to study how women are portrayed in "Desperate Housewives" and how the modern women have similar identities as traditional housewives. 2.The theories used for research were Critical Discourse Analysis and Gender Identity. 3.The result showed that, at the surface level, women are portrayed in "Desperate Housewives" is much different from other TV–series, however, in deep level, women still similar to the norms and traditional Get more content on HelpWriting.net