Global Governance?Global Governance?By: Cheunboran Chanborey
The world is facing with threatsand challenges that no singlecountry, no matter how powerfulit is, can deal with. Terrorists: September 11, 3000 deaths, including 19 hijackers 2002 Bali Bombings: 202 deaths, 209 injuries 2004 Madrid Bomb Attacks: 191 deaths, 2050injuries 2005 London bomb attacks: 56 deaths (including 4suicide bombers), 100 injuriesIntroduction
Proliferation of WMDs: Nuclear Weapons Biological Weapons Chemical Weapons What will happen if WMDsfall into the hands of terrorists? Environmental Degradation: Global warming Ozone layer Living atmosphere
Natural Disasters: 2004 Tsunami: 230,000 deaths and missing 2008 Cyclone Nagis: 138,366 deaths, $10bndamages 2010 Haiti earthquake: around 92,000-230,000deaths 2011 Earthquake and Tsunamiin Japan: 15,756 death, 5,927injured, and 4,460 missing
Famine in the Horn of Africa: 29,000 children may have already been perished UN said it has only $1.3 billion of the 2.4 billion itneeds 2 assist 12m people
Flooding in Southeast Asia: In Cambodia, 250 people died, 18 provinces affected with thetotal cost of $521 millions Thailand, more than 500 people died with the damage cost of$ 3.2 billions
Humanitarian Crisis in Syria: Death toll: nearly 300,00 people 200,00 internally displaced people 1.2 million registered refugees in neighboring countries
Piracy and Transnational Crimes: Arms trafficking Drug trafficking Trafficking in persons Sex slavery Cyber crimes … Pandemics: HIV/AIDS Malaria, TB 2009 A(H1N1): 16,931 deaths in more than 100countries EV71: 64 deaths in Cambodia
There is no world government to coordinate andfacilitate cooperation among all actors to deal withthreats and challenges. Therefore, global governance is especially needed. What is Global Governance?“…sum of the many ways individuals andinstitutions, public and private, manage their commonaffairs…” (Commission on Global Governance)“… collection of governance-related activities, rulesand mechanisms, formal and informal, existing at avariety of levels in the world today, also referred to asthe ‘pieces of global governance’…” (Karns and Mingst)Global Governance
1. International Law There are 5 sources of international law: treaties orconventions, customary practices, the writings of legalscholars, judicial decisions, and general principles oflaw) Much of the growth has been in treaty law (1951-1995:3,666 new multilateral treaties were concluded) What is the role of the international law?Pieces of Global Governance
2. International Norms or Soft Law Not a binding legal documents, but rather thestandards of behaviors, such as: some human rights,labor rights, framework conventions on climate changeand biodiversity.
3. International Organizations (IGOs) In 2003/04, there were around 238 IGOs. Types: Global (UN, WTO, WHO…), Regional (ASEAN,EU, AU, SAARC..), General purpose (UN, OAS),Specialized (WTO, WHO, ILO, Nato..) Functions: Informational – gather, analyze, disseminate data Forum – exchanges of views and decision-making Normative – defining standards of behavior Rule-creating – drafting treaties Rule-supervisory – monitoring compliance Operational – actions to achieve goals
4. NGOs There are over 6,500 NGOs that have an internationaldimension either in terms of membership or commitmentto conduct activities. Advocating a particular cause such as human rights,peace or environmental protection. Providing services such as disaster relief, humanitarianaid…
5. International Regimes Encompassing rules, norms and principles as well as thepractices of actors that show both how their expectationsconverge and their acceptance of and compliance withrules. E.g. IAEA, Kyoto Protocol
6. Global Conference The Summit for Children in1990 in New York Rio Earth Summit in 1992 Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995 Copenhagen Conference on Climate Change (COP15) Cancun Conference on Climate Change (COP16) COP17???
8. Private Governance Private governance is a growing, but little studiesphenomenon. Private firms are attempting to establish enforceableintellectual property rules for music, software,harmonization of labor standards, sanitation regulation…
What Actors in Global Governance? States IGOs NGOs Experts Global Policy Networks MNCs…
1. Globalization1. Globalization What is globalization? What are the consequences of the phenomenon?2. The End of the Cold War “The End of the History and the Last Man”? (YoshihiroFrancis Fukuyama) “The Clash of Civilizations” (Samuel Huntington) The emerging non-traditional threats and global issues3. Emergent Transnational Civil Society Global governance is needed to cooperate and facilitateinternational efforts to address common threats andchallenges.Why we need global governance?
Reading Materials:Chapter I, International Organization: ThePolitics and Processes of Global Governance