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Wk4 epidemocd

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Covers Ch 7 & 8: Epidemiology, Demography and Communicable Disease

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Wk4 epidemocd

  1. 1. NURS 348l Public Health Nursing Chapter 7 Epidemiology in Community Health Care H Harris, 2011
  2. 2. Historical Context <ul><ul><li>Hippocrates (460 to 375 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Ages:1348 - Plague (“Black Death”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18th century: Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19th century: Modern epidemiology (see Table 8-1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current: Eco-epidemiology </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  3. 3. Causality: Epidemiological Triangle H Harris, 2011 | Copyright © Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  4. 4. Theories of Causality in Health & Illness H Harris, 2011 | Copyright © Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  5. 5. Web of Causality for Infant Mortality H Harris, 2011
  6. 6. Terms/Concepts <ul><li>Immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Natural History of a Disease or Health Condition </li></ul>H Harris, 2011
  7. 7. Natural History of Disease or Health Condition H Harris, 2011 | Copyright © Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  8. 8. Methods in Epidemiological Investigative Process <ul><ul><li>Descriptive epidemiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incidence : </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of persons developing a disease Total number at risk per unit of time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of persons with a characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total number in population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morbidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic epidemiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental epidemiology </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  9. 9. Sources of Epidemiologic Information <ul><ul><li>Vital statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Census data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reportable diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease registries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Center for Health Statistics health surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal observational studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific studies </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  10. 10. HIV in the United States Incidence and Prevalence, US 1977-2006 H Harris, 2011 http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
  11. 11. HIV Incidence & Prevalence <ul><li>Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterosexuals and Injection Drug Users </li></ul><ul><li>Race/Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence </li></ul>H Harris, 2011 http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
  12. 12. END PART 1 H Harris, 2011
  13. 13. Demography http://www.examiner.com/economic-policy-in-national/population-age-affects-economic-growth H Harris, 2011
  14. 14. NURS 348L Public Health Nursing Demography & Chapter 8 Communicable Disease Control H Harris, 2011
  15. 15. Global Trends in Communicable Disease <ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood immunizations >78% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox eradicated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yaws has virtually disappeared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relapsing fever, plague reduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leprosy close to elimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polio close to elimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  16. 16. National Trends in Communicable Disease <ul><ul><li>New diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS, Legionnaires’ disease, West Nile Virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus, dengue fever, t yphoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurging diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli –induced diarrhea, TB, Staphylococcus aureus infections, multiple-drug-resistant organisms, hepatitis B, C, D, Sexually Transmitted Infections </li></ul></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  17. 17. Modes of Transmission <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Vector </li></ul><ul><li>Airborne </li></ul>H Harris, 2011
  18. 18. Levels of Prevention <ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case and contact investigation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation and quarantine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control transmission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safe handling </li></ul></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  19. 19. Major Communicable Diseases US <ul><ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital herpes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human papillomavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital warts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis (A, B, C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  20. 20. Infectious Diseases of Bioterrorism <ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acute bacterial disease) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case fatality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variola virus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk with vaccination </li></ul></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  21. 21. Globally Emerging Communicable Diseases <ul><ul><li>Ebola hemorrhagic fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legionnaires’ disease (legionellosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hantavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. coli O157:H7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dengue fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHO Global Response </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  22. 22. Applying Nursing Process <ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  23. 23. Ethical Issues <ul><ul><li>Health care access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforced compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality, privacy, and discrimination </li></ul></ul>H Harris, 2011
  24. 24. END H Harris, 2011
  25. 25. Extra Spaces Between ¶ & APA H Harris, 2011

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