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Enacting the Value of Openness by Sharing #OER19

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My presentation at OER19 conference https://oer19.oerconf.org/#gref. Recording is here https://oer19.oerconf.org/sessions/enacting-the-value-of-openness-by-sharing-o-043/

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Enacting the Value of Openness by Sharing #OER19

  1. 1. Enacting the Value of Openness by Sharing by Helen Crump OER19, Galway, Ireland, 10th & 11th April, 2019 Networked Participatory Scholarship
  2. 2. Openness Photo : Hanneke Laaning on Unsplash In practice: selfOER (Koseoglu & Bali, 2016) - beyond content - ‘process and products’ as OER (connections, …relationships and resources) - individuals and the learning community are an …important resource - openness as a ‘worldview’, or as a ‘way of being’
  3. 3. Openness Photo : Hanneke Laaning on Unsplash As a ‘way of being’ or a ‘worldview’ Sheila MacNeill: human element; sharing Maeve (anon): sharing; generosity; kindness Rebecca Hogue: sharing Pearl (anon): participating; sharing; helping Gabi Witthaus: licensing; open access; sharing Jeff Merrell: identity; authenticity Martina Emke: attitude; a way of living Tita Beaven: being open to others; connecting people Laura Gogia: practicing open practices; showing/documenting your processes; it’s about life Libby (anon): personal practice and philosophy; fundamental relationship between openness and freedom Judy (anon): deep identity; I find myself strongly aligned to his philosophy (Stephen Downes)
  4. 4. As an entangled phenomenon (Barad, 2007) - no predetermined boundaries between the self, …resources and technology - material-discursive (agential) - entanglement of meaning and matter - a doing; a happening; a process enacted in practice Openness Photo : Hanneke Laaning on Unsplash
  5. 5. Human OER? - can a guest lecturer be an OER? …“any resource that supports education is, at this point, …under consideration” (Downes, 2006) - “I am a human OER” (Funes, 2014) - “I am an OER” (MacNeill, 2015) at OER15 - “We are all an OER” (Sallah, 2018) at OER18 Big and little OER Little OER (Weller, 2010 via Hoyle, 2009) - individually produced, low cost resources (e.g. blogs, …Slideshare, Flickr etc.) - produced by anyone, shared through third party sites - without explicit educational aims or learning outcomes - small granularity, low level of intentionality - unpredictable use, in unpredicted contexts - ‘little’ OER enables a continuum of OER Big and little OER
  6. 6. Big and little and human(?) OER Human OER? - can a guest lecturer be an OER? …“any resource that supports education is, at this point, …under consideration” (Downes, 2006) - “I am a human OER” (Funes, 2014) - “I am an OER” (MacNeill, 2015) at OER15 - “We are all an OER” (Sallah, 2018) at OER18
  7. 7. Boundaries of sharing in networked culture (Kennedy, 2016) - fraught with ambiguity - (i) means many different things (polysemy) - (ii) social and economic motives often counterpoised - three distinct perspectives in the literature - (i) economy driven by social capital (reputation) - (ii) a mode of scaled distribution - (iii) site of social intensification - explained/subsumed under gift exchange theory and ..as distinct from commodity exchange Photo Ander Burdain on Unsplash Sharing
  8. 8. Sharing as a demand, not a gift (Widlok, 2017) - not adequately explained by gift exchange theory - not first and foremost reciprocal - economic mode of transfer (one way, multidirectional) - provides access to what’s needed, is of intrinsic value - a demand, can be a silent demand - based on recognition of the ‘other’ and sharing ‘life’ - established through co-presence (embodied), …communication and relationality - influenced by physical space/materiality (the Internet …as a sharing technology) - ‘sharing out’ of physical resources and ‘sharing in’ of …life’s experiences - about opportunities rather than the obligation of gift …exchange Photo Ander Burdain on Unsplash Sharing
  9. 9. Sharing in open practices Sharing life: - Jeff Merrell: narrates his course design decisions - Sheila MacNeill: blogs about her “struggles” with …openness -- Rebecca Hogue: shares her breast cancer story …and her research in this area - Laura Gogia: openly documents her working …processes /narrates aspects of professional practice …and personal life Creating opportunities: “It’s partially controlled, it’s partially serendipitous, it’s very active, but also it’s creating opportunities for yourself.” Laura Gogia Sharing in open practices As a demand: “I ask for help.” “Me myself, […] I’ve needed help from other people, so I’ve been relying on others’ self as OER to help me.” Pearl (anon) As a response to silent demand: “Maybe one sentence I’ve said somewhere in the blog will be useful to someone somewhere in the world.” Gabi Witthaus “I’m quite conscious is this going to be of use to somebody else.” Judy (anon). “Who else could it be interesting for, and I’m not just talking about other human beings, but hashtags as well.” Martina Emke ? Photo Ander Burdain on Unsplash Sharing
  10. 10. Sharing in open practices Sharing life: - Jeff Merrell: narrates his course design decisions - Sheila MacNeill: blogs about her “struggles” with …openness -- Rebecca Hogue: shares her breast cancer story …and her research in this area - Laura Gogia: openly documents her working …processes /narrates aspects of professional practice …and personal life Creating opportunities: “It’s partially controlled, it’s partially serendipitous, it’s very active, but also it’s creating opportunities for yourself.” Laura GogiaPhoto Ander Burdain on Unsplash Sharing
  11. 11. literacies as social practices has focused on the social and not taken into account material aspects of textual production; it has seen right past the associated technologies (Gourlay et al., 2014) Value Value (Wenger et al, 2011; Benkler, 2006; Bauwens, 2005; Kennedy, 2016) - in a community or network: (i) immediate value: activities and interactions (ii) potential value: knowledge capital - personal assets (human capital) - relationships & connections (social/reputational capital) - non-market value = experiential value or use value - market value = use value + exchange value of commodities - promise of use value over exchange value and a ..partnership between peer economy and the market - exchange of information data and immaterial labour of ..sharing is transformed into a commodity to be exchanged. Photo Jonathan Saavedra on Unsplash
  12. 12. Value of open practices and labour market “When I’ve been on short term contracts I also was able to see the benefits of sharing practice so that people […] could Google me and they could see that I was motivated and interested.” Maeve (anon) “I’ve managed to keep myself permanently employed in a field that moves very very fast and is very very precarious.” Libby (anon) “Being an open scholar gives me an identity that’s not tied to an institution and I’m very appreciative of that because I can quite imagine a scenario if I’d been in a very closed environment and then was suddenly without an institutional home, I’d be feeling very isolated right now.” Gabi Witthaus literacies as social practices has focused on the social and not taken into account material aspects of textual production; it has seen right past the associated technologies (Gourlay et al., 2014) Value Photo Jonathan Saavedra on Unsplash
  13. 13. A sociomaterial literacies perspective enables an interrogation, analysis and explanation of material textual practice in terms of assemblages of texts, technologies and participants” (Goodfellow and Lea, 2016, p. 429). Moreover, it allows consideration of not just texts and technologies, but bodies, actions and objects as well (Fenwick and Edwards, 2010). literacies as social practices has focused on the social and not taken into account material aspects of textual production; it has seen right past the associated technologies (Gourlay et al., 2014) Invisible free labour and biopower Invisible labour - emphasis on the product not the producer - labour downplayed, labelled as creativity Biopower (Foucault, 2008) - power over life (bios) - sharing as a form of biopower? Biocracy (Fleming, 2013) - productivity dependent on social and personal aspects …of life for their value-creating qualities - tacit workplace Biocratic free labour (Fleming, 2013) - formal labour process supported by unremunerated ..aspects of non-work: (i) free time (ii) free self-organisation (iii) free self-development Photo Annie Spratt on Unsplash
  14. 14. Total Capture? (Hardt & Negri, 2000; Hanlon, 2012; Pais & Provasi, 2015) - enclosure of social value, the ‘social factory’ - embodiment of capital (human capital) - resocialisation of economic exchange as market ..becomes increasingly embedded in society At stake: the social commons Photo NICO BHLR on Unsplash
  15. 15. But as what kind of resource? Yes, life is sharing, but to what extent is life capital? That is the question. To what extent is the self an open education resource, or simply a human resource? “I am the resource, ultimately.” Maeve (anon) https://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/8188824613 Life is sharing Photo Alan Levine on Flickr
  16. 16. References: helen.crump@open.ac.uk @crumphelen helencrump.net Thank you https://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/8188824613 Life is sharing Photo Alan Levine on Flickr
  17. 17. https://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/8188824613 Barad, K. (2007) Meeting the Universe Halfway. Durham, Duke University Press Books. Bauwens, M. (2005) ‘The Political Economy of Peer Production’, CTheory, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 12–1/2005. Benkler, Y. (2006) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, New Haven, Conn.; London, Yale University Press. Downes, S. (2006) ‘Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources’, Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects., vol. 3. Fleming, P. (2013) ‘“Some might Call it Work... but We don’t”: Exploitation and the Emergence of Free Work Capitalism’, in Managing ‘Human Resources’ by Exploiting and Exploring People’s Potentials, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 105–128. Foucault, M. (2008) The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979. London, Palgrave. Funes, M. (2014) ‘A human OER’, doublemirror [Online]. Available at https://mdvfunes.com/2014/10/22/a-human-oer/ Hanlon, G. (2012). From profit to rent: The Google model of production. Working Paper No. 3. Queen Mary College, University of London. Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000) Empire, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press Kennedy, J. (2016) ‘Conceptual boundaries of sharing’, Information, Communication & Society, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 461–474 [Online]. DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2015.1046894. Koseoglu, S. and Bali, M. (2016) ‘The Self as an Open Educational Resource [1091]’, #OER16 [Online]. Available at https://oer16.oerconf.org/sessions/the-self-as- an-open-educational-resource-1091/ Pais, I. and Provasi, G. (2015) ‘Sharing Economy: A Step towards the Re-Embeddedness of the Economy?’, Stato e mercato,no. 3/2015 [Online].DOI: 10.1425/81604. Sallah, M. (2017) #OER18 Keynote [Film] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWk7iQNYSDE Veletsianos, G. and Kimmons, R. (2012) ‘Assumptions and challenges of open scholarship’, The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 166–189 [Online]. DOI: 10.19173/irrodl.v13i4.1313. Weller, M. (2010) ‘Big and little OER’, Barcelona, Spain [Online]. Available at http://openedconference.org/2010/about Wenger, E., Trayner, B. and De Laat, M. (2011) ‘Promoting and assessing value creation in communities and networks: A conceptual framework’, Rapport 18, Open University of the Netherlands. Widlok, T. (2016) Anthropology and the Economy of Sharing, Abingdon, Oxon, Routledge References

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