Nutrition review exam3

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Nutrition review exam3

  1. 1. Nutrition 101Exam 3 Review Session TAs: Helen Corless and Delma Betancourt
  2. 2. Chapter 15 Life Cycle Nutrition:Pregnancy and Lactation
  3. 3. Which of the following is not likely to affect male fertility?a) Alcoholb) Vitamin Cc) Vitamin Ed) Zince) Iron
  4. 4. Which of the following is not likely to affect male fertility?a) Alcoholb) Vitamin Cc) Vitamin Ed) Zince) Iron
  5. 5. Heavy alcohol use can lower sperm production, but light to moderate intake does not appear to have an effectVitamin C&E are antioxidants, and men with diets rich in antioxidant nutrients have higher sperm counts and motility
  6. 6. A deficiency of zinc can impair male fertility but this can be reversed over time with supplementation.Overweight and obesity also can impair fertility, as obese men have low sperm counts and hormonal changes that reduce fertility
  7. 7. A fertilized ovum is called a…a) Blastocystb) Zygotec) Embryod) Fetus
  8. 8. A fertilized ovum is called a…a) Blastocystb) Zygotec) Embryod) Fetus
  9. 9. Egg + Sperm = ZygoteA blastocyst is a fertilized ovum by thetime it is ready to implantEmbryo: 2-8 weeksFetus: week 9-delivery
  10. 10. Name the three structures that developduring pregnancy to help protect andnourish the growing fetus
  11. 11. Placenta: metabolically active organ embedded in the uterine wall; performs the respiratory, absorptive, and excretory functions that the fetus’ lungs, digestive system, and kidneys will provide after birthUmbilical cord: a ropelike structure containing fetal blood vessels that extends through the fetus’s belly button-to-be to the placentaAmniotic sac: a fluid-filled balloon-like structure that houses the developing fetus
  12. 12. True or False? Maternal and fetal blood mingles in the placental villi, allowing oxygen, nutrients, and waste products to be exchanged.
  13. 13. FALSE!
  14. 14. Organs start developing during which of the following stages of fetal development?a) Zygotic stageb) Embryonic Stagec) Fetal Stage
  15. 15. Organs start developing during which of the following stages of fetal development?a) Zygotic stageb) Embryonic Stagec) Fetal Stage
  16. 16. By the end of 8 weeks, the embryo hasa complete central nervous system, abeating heart, a digestive system, well-defined fingers and toes and thebeginnings of facial features
  17. 17. Which of the following best characterizes the fetal stage?a) It is a critical period for major organs, such as the central nervous systemb) It is a period of rapid cell division, in which cells differentiate into fetus and placentac) It is a period of rapid growth, in which the fetus grows significantly larger and heavier
  18. 18. Which of the following best characterizes the fetal stage?a) It is a critical period for major organs, such as the central nervous systemb) It is a period of rapid cell division, in which cells differentiate into fetus and placentac) It is a period of rapid growth, in which the fetus grows significantly larger and heavier
  19. 19. What is a “critical period”?
  20. 20. • Times of intense development and rapid cell division• Window of opportunity: certain cellular activities can only occur during these times• Organ and tissue development most vulnerable to adverse influences• Occur in first trimester• Each organ has its own critical period
  21. 21. Name the two most common types ofneural tube defects and explain thedifference between them.
  22. 22. Anencephaly: – Failure of the upper end of the neural tube to close – Brain either missing or fails to developSpina bifida: – Incomplete closure of spinal cord and its bony encasement – Meninges membranes covering the spinal cord often protrude as a sac, which can rupture and lead to meningitis – Varying degrees of paralysis depending on damage to spinal cord
  23. 23. Which nutrient has been shown to preventneural tube defects?
  24. 24. FOLATE!• Prevents & reduces severity of neural tube defects• Folate status important prior to pregnancy and during 1st trimester
  25. 25. Which of the following has been proven to cause neural tube defects?a) Maternal diabetesb) Maternal obesityc) Anti-seizure medicationsd) Mutations in enzymese) Folate deficiency
  26. 26. Which of the following has been proven to cause neural tube defects?a) Maternal diabetesb) Maternal obesityc) Anti-seizure medicationsd) Mutations in enzymese) Folate deficiency
  27. 27. TRICK QUESTION: We don’t know what causes neural tube defects! *It is important to realize that folate deficiency does not necessarily ‘cause’ neural tube defects.
  28. 28. What is the DRI for folate during pregnancy?a) 200 µg/dayb) 400 µg/dayc) 600 µg/dayd) 800 µg/day
  29. 29. What is the DRI for folate during pregnancy?a) 200 µg/dayb) 400 µg/dayc) 600 µg/dayd) 800 µg/day
  30. 30. DRI for folate: Non-pregnant women: 400 µg/day Pregnant women: 600 µg/day
  31. 31. Infants are considered full term if they are born between ____ weeks gestation.a) 30-34b) 34-38c) 38-42d) 42-46
  32. 32. Infants are considered full term if they are born between ____ weeks gestation.a) 30-34b) 34-38c) 38-42d) 42-46
  33. 33. If a baby is born at 38 weeks andweighs 4lbs, he/she would beconsidered:a) Pretermb) Small for gestational agec) Within normal range
  34. 34. If a baby is born at 38 weeks andweighs 4lbs, he/she would beconsidered:a) Pretermb) Small for gestational agec) Within normal range
  35. 35. Remember… Preterm infants may be small, but if their size and weight is appropriate for their gestational age, they have potential for catch-up growth given adequate nutritional support
  36. 36. Remember… Infants who are small for gestational age (SGA) have suffered growth failure in utero and do not catch up as wellIt’s all about whether the infant’s weight is appropriate for their gestational age
  37. 37. What is the name of the theory whichproposes that maternal nutrition statusmay change gene expression in the fetusin a way that sets the stage for chronicdiseases later in life?
  38. 38. Fetal programming!…can anyone give me an example?
  39. 39. How much weight should a healthy-weight woman carrying a single fetusgain during pregnancy?a) 5-15 poundsb) 15-25 poundsc) 25-35 poundsd) 35-45 pounds
  40. 40. How much weight should a healthy-weight woman carrying a single fetusgain during pregnancy?a) 5-15 poundsb) 15-25 poundsc) 25-35 poundsd) 35-45 pounds
  41. 41. What is the recommendation foroverweight pregnant women?a) They should try to lose 5-10lbs through diet aloneb) They should try to lose 5-10lbs through a combination of diet and exercisec) They should gain less weight than a normal weight pregnant woman: about 10-15lbsd) They should gain less weight than a normal weight pregnant woman: about 15-25lbs
  42. 42. What is the recommendation foroverweight pregnant women?a) They should try to lose 5-10lbs through diet aloneb) They should try to lose 5-10lbs through a combination of diet and exercisec) They should gain less weight than a normal weight pregnant woman: about 10-15lbsd) They should gain less weight than a normal weight pregnant woman: about 15-25lbs
  43. 43. Dieting while pregnant is never a good idea! A healthy weight should try to be achieved prior to pregnancy.Overweight women:15-25lbsHealthy weight: 25-35lbsUnderweight: 28-40lbs
  44. 44. Which of the following is true of exerciseand pregnancy?a) Pregnant women should exercise very little and rest as much as possibleb) Pregnant women should get as much exercise as possible, even if they did not exercise prior to getting pregnantc) Pregnant women can continue an exercise regimen that they had prior to getting pregnant with some adjustments
  45. 45. Which of the following is true of exerciseand pregnancy?a) Pregnant women should exercise very little and rest as much as possibleb) Pregnant women should get as much exercise as possible, even if they did not exercise prior to getting pregnantc) Pregnant women can continue an exercise regimen that they had prior to getting pregnant with some adjustments
  46. 46. True or false: Pregnant women have little to no increased caloric need during the first trimester.
  47. 47. TRUE!Caloric needs during pregnancy • First trimester: No or little extra • Second trimester: +340 kcals/day • Third trimester: +450 kcals/day Increase in BMR occurs in second and third trimester
  48. 48. Why is adequate carbohydrate intake during pregnancy so important?
  49. 49. *Ample carbohydrate is necessary to fuel fetal brain*Also, remember carbohydrate’s protein- sparing action -> proteins are vital to the growth and development of fetus
  50. 50. Which of the following nutrients should a woman avoid in supplement form during pregnancy?a) Vitamin Ab) Ironc) Vitamin B12d) Folate
  51. 51. Which of the following nutrients should a woman avoid in supplement form during pregnancy?a) Vitamin Ab) Ironc) Vitamin B12d) Folate
  52. 52. Pregnant women have increased needs for all but which of the following nutrients?a) Vitamin B12b) Calciumc) Zincd) Iron
  53. 53. Pregnant women have increased needs for all but which of the following nutrients?a) Vitamin B12b) Calciumc) Zincd) Iron
  54. 54. The AI levels for calcium and vitamin D do not increase during pregnancy; however it is important for pregnant women to get sufficient amounts of these nutrients in their dietVitamin B12: 2.4->2.6 µg/dayIron: 18->27 mg/dayZinc: 8->11 mg/dayFolate: 400->600 µg/day
  55. 55. What are some nutrient deficienciesthat vegan and vegetarian pregnantwomen are particularly at risk for?
  56. 56. IronVitamin B12 Vitamin D Calcium
  57. 57. What are some of the benefits ofbreastfeeding for infants?
  58. 58. For Infants:• Immune protection• Fewer allergies and intolerances• Fewer respiratory, GI, and ear infections• Cognitive benefits• May protect against some chronic diseases later in life, such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes
  59. 59. What are some of the benefits ofbreastfeeding for mothers?
  60. 60. For Mothers:• Reduced risk of postpartum blood loss• Possible reduced risk of breast and ovarian cancers• Amenorrhea and decreased fertility• Promotes mother-infant bond• Weight loss• Convenience• Economic benefits
  61. 61. List the two hormones involved in human lactation and describe their functions
  62. 62. Prolactin: responsible for the production of milk; released in response to sucking stimulusOxytocin: responsible for let-down reflex
  63. 63. What is colostrum?
  64. 64. Colostrum: • First milk • Thick, yellowish, small amounts • Rich in immune factors and protein – Important nutrition for the baby! • About 20 kcal/oz • Bifidus flora
  65. 65. Describe the key nutrient requirements for lactating women
  66. 66. Lactating women: – Increased caloric need of 500kcal/day • Helps with postpartum weight loss – Increased need for carbohydrate • Glucose used to make lactose • Proteins and fats about the same – Increased fluid needs
  67. 67. True or False? It is safe for a pregnant woman to consume up to 1 alcoholic drink per day
  68. 68. FALSE!Even one drink a day threatens neurological development and behaviors of her infant
  69. 69. Chapter 16 Life Cycle Nutrition:Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
  70. 70. What are some factors that may influence a child’s growth pattern
  71. 71. – Gestational age– Birth weight– Parental stature– Nutritional status
  72. 72. The most rapid growth occurs during…a) Infancyb) Childhoodc) Adolescenced) Adulthood
  73. 73. The most rapid growth occurs during…a) Infancyb) Childhoodc) Adolescenced) Adulthood
  74. 74. Birth weight doubles in the first 4-6 monthsand triples in the first year of life. It takes 5more years to double the weight seen at 1year. Growth is never again as rapid as itis during this time.
  75. 75. Energy and protein needs are highest during infancy (proportionately i.e. per kg body weight) of any life cycle stageInfants require about 100 kcal/kg of body weight per day, whereas most adults need fewer than 40
  76. 76. Which of the following nutrients provides most of the energy in breastmilk and formula to support the infant’s rapid growth?a) Carbohydrateb) Proteinc) Fat
  77. 77. Which of the following nutrients provides most of the energy in breastmilk and formula to support the infant’s rapid growth?a) Carbohydrateb) Proteinc) Fat
  78. 78. Carbohydrate is important for brain development - the infant’s brain uses relatively more glucose than adults (because their brain is relatively bigger!)Fat provides most of energy that supports rapid growth (high energy needs, small stomach!)Protein is essential to growth, as it is the basic building material of the body’s tissues; highest needs of any life cycle
  79. 79. Nutrients of special interest for infants:Vitamins: K, D, B12Minerals: iron, zinc, fluorideWater
  80. 80. When can parents begin to introduce solid foodsa) 3-5 monthsb) 4-6 monthsc) Only after 6 monthsd) It doesn’t matter
  81. 81. When can parents begin to introduce solid foodsa) 3-5 monthsb) 4-6 monthsc) Only after 6 monthsd) It doesn’t matter
  82. 82. The AAP supports exclusivebreastfeeding for 6 months butrecognizes that infants are oftendevelopmentally ready to acceptcomplementary foods between4 and 6 months of age
  83. 83. The pincer grasp generally develops when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  84. 84. The pincer grasp generally develops when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  85. 85. The loss of the extrusion reflex usually occurs when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  86. 86. The loss of the extrusion reflex usually occurs when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  87. 87. The ability to stand alone without support generally develops when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  88. 88. The ability to stand alone without support generally develops when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  89. 89. The ability to sit with little to no support generally emerges when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  90. 90. The ability to sit with little to no support generally emerges when the infant is how old?a) 4-6 monthsb) 6-8 monthsc) 8-10 monthsd) 10-12 months
  91. 91. Which of the following is an appropriate solid food to introduce in the first year of life?a) Honeyb) Cow’s milkc) Chopped meatd) Hot dogs
  92. 92. Which of the following is an appropriate solid food to introduce in the first year of life?a) Honeyb) Cow’s milkc) Chopped meatd) Hot dogs
  93. 93. Macronutrient needs during childhoodFat: Higher proportion of total energy intake for first three years of life (30-40% vs. 25- 35%)Protein: Needs increase after first three years of life, but decrease proportionatelyCarb: After 1 yr same as adults
  94. 94. Macronutrient needs during childhoodFat: Higher proportion of total energy intake for first three years of life (30-40% vs. 25- 35%)Protein: Needs increase after first three years of life, but decrease proportionatelyCarb: After 1 yr same as adults

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