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Poster suggestions for applying the concept of separating grey and black water in egypt- 15 september 2012

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Application of black and grey water separation is one of the effective tools to sustain good wastewater management system. The main obstacles of applying this concept in Egypt are its difficulty to be applied in already existing communities. Thus, starting to apply in the new communities and areas were in situ sanitation is applied. This will lead to minimize the quantities of wastewater resulting from these communities and the clean water consumption which will lead to reducing costs of treatment and disposal.
Applying the concept of separating Grey water from black water in certain communities as an applied demonstration model as in the campus universities through reusing the grey water in irrigating all green areas, as well as act as an education model and applying the same model in some specific tourist resorts and villages. This will reduce drinking water consumption in all institutional buildings and touristic areas, especially in the new constructed touristic villages.
Applying the concept of separating grey and black water in suitable rural communities and reuse the grey water for irrigation will improve the recent sanitation level in effective cost manner as a low cost technology.
Also, using the ecological component of drains in rural areas to treat grey water from housing areas in order to increase the efficiency of septic tanks to receive and treat black water as a sustainable low cost treatment technology in poor rural areas. This will reduce drinking water consumption in all rural areas. Thus, this will solve the problem of sanitation in rural areas especially in scattered housing units.

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Poster suggestions for applying the concept of separating grey and black water in egypt- 15 september 2012

  1. 1. SUGGESTIONS FOR APPLYING THE CONCEPT OF SEPARATING GREY AND BLACK WATER IN EGYPT. Dr. Helaley A. H. Helaley 1 , Dr. Samaa M. Z. Abdel Aziz 2 1 Chief of Industrial Drainage, Sludge and Reuse Sector, 2 Manager of Industrial Wastewater Research Dept., Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company, Alexandria, Egypt. Dr. Helaley Abdel Hady Helaley Alexandria Sanitary Drainage Company. drhelalley@yahoo.com 01005201367- 01229388878 Application of black and grey water separation is one of the effective tools to sustain good wastewater management system. The main obstacles of applying this concept in Egypt are its difficulty to be applied in already existing communities. Thus, starting to apply in the new communities and areas were in situ sanitation is applied. This will lead to minimize the quantities of wastewater resulting from these communities and the clean water consumption which will lead to reducing costs of treatment and disposal. Applying the concept of separating Grey water from black water in certain communities as an applied demonstration model as in the campus universities through reusing the grey water in irrigating all green areas, as well as act as an education model and applying the same model in some specific tourist resorts and villages. This will reduce drinking water consumption in all institutional buildings and touristic areas, especially in the new constructed touristic villages. Applying the concept of separating grey and black water in suitable rural communities and reuse the grey water for irrigation will improve the recent sanitation level in effective cost manner as a low cost technology. Also, using the ecological component of drains in rural areas to treat grey water from housing areas in order to increase the efficiency of septic tanks to receive and treat black water as a sustainable low cost treatment technology in poor rural areas. This will reduce drinking water consumption in all rural areas. Thus, this will solve the problem of sanitation in rural areas especially in scattered housing units. Grey water reuse could result in cost savings, reduced sewage water flows, and potable water savings. The daily water consumption in Egypt is about 165 liter per capita per day. Produced grey water in Mawaa Elsaydeen estimated by using questionnaires for thirty samples from high, mid and low income areas is about 140 liters per capita per day which is 84.8% of the total fresh (potable) water consumption (Table (1)).(2) Most of the studies reported that about two-thirds of domestic water is grey water, drinking and cooking about 8% and black water approximately 23%. The positive correlation between the per capita grey water generation and the average total household water consumption indicates that grey water reuse can play a very important role in decreasing total household water consumption through saving grey water quantities for non-potable water uses such as toilet flushing and laundry. The users’ acceptance plays a crucial role in grey water reclamation and reuse because without acceptance the idea will not proceed. Improving the current situation of wastewater treatment in most small communities, new approaches like water segregation, onsite treatment and internal water reuse are desirable. This seems to be crucial approach especially in water scarce regions. On a small scale this has often involved the collection and treatment of grey water. Grey water contains relatively few nutrients and can be easily treated to a reusable quality.(2) Different grey water treatment technologies are in use. There are various categories of wastewater treatment technologies applied worldwide. Every wastewater treatment technology has its advantages and disadvantages. Constructed wetlands technology is selected from the variety of wastewater treatment technologies. (2) Constructed wetlands are wastewater treatment systems consisting of shallow (usually less than one meter deep) ponds or channels planted with aquatic plants. The process by which wastewater is treated include a wide range of interacting biological, physical and chemical mechanisms. Constructed wetland (CW) systems are reliable, flexible in design, and can be built, operated, and maintained at lower costs compared to conventional methods of biological treatment. Therefore, CW systems are widely used for controlling water-body eutrophication as an ease-operation and cost-effective ecological technology in developing countries. The use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment is becoming widespread throughout the world due to the demand for water-quality improvement and the increasing need for wastewater reclamation and reuse. The constructed wetland system is attractive due to its uncomplicated technology, low capital costs, and minimal maintenance requirements but need a lot of space. This makes it ideal in resource-scarce developing countries where it is, currently used for domestic, non-toxic and also toxic wastewater treatment. In these countries constructed wetlands are often used to treat wastewaters before release to natural water bodies like lakes and rivers. However, in the developing world, constructed wetlands would initially be more likely to be targeted towards better quality of water for human use (2) Constructed wetlands capital costs are highly dependent on the local situation, i.e. soil type, groundwater table height, terrain slope, distance from settlement, discharge criteria, climate etc. Another important factor usually is the economy of scale: larger wetlands tend to be relatively cheaper per PE or per m3 of wastewater treated. Total costs could be lower because the lower loading rates can be treated with smaller systems. One uncertain cost is the ‘removal’ cost of the system after its functional life, now estimated at around 20 years. (2) A survey was done along the different cities, rural areas and touristic villages to investigate the applications of black and grey water separation concept. Maawa El Sayadeen settlement, is one of Alexandria neighbourhoods that lay under great pressure of environmental degradation and it is subject to its negative impacts. This is due to the deteriorate sanitation record of this settlement. The data from this study area was reviewed and the produced grey water in Mawaa Elsaydeen is estimated using questionnaires for thirty samples from high, mid and low income areas (ten families from each area). (2 1. Applying the concept of grey and black water separation in all the rural areas and touristic villages 2. Usage of the old drains which receives the raw sewage as an effective ecological treatment system to treat the grey water. 3. Use the old septic tanks to handle and treat the black water resulting from the rural houses. 4. Simplify wastewater treatment systems in the touristic areas through natural systems such as constructed wetlands. Wastewater from our homes comes from many different sources. The wastewater that comes from showers, washing machines, and sinks is considered grey water because, while it has particles and contaminants, they are not deemed dangerous. The rest of the wastewater, from toilets, dishwashers, and garbage grinders, can contain food particles, feces, and other human body fluids and is considered hazardous. This is what makes up black water. Grey water is defined as "untreated household wastewater that has not come in contact with toilet waste and includes wastewater from bathtubs, showers, washbasins, clothes washing machines and laundry tubs, but does not include wastewater from kitchen sinks or dishwashers or laundry water from washing of materials soiled with human excreta, such as diapers." Grey water, which symbolizes the wastewater generated in the household excluding toilet wastewater (black water), represents the major volume of the domestic wastewater (60–75%) with low content of nutrients and pathogens. (1) The grey water contains a significant amount (41%) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the domestic wastewater and this amount can be removed by the high-rate anaerobic systems. The grey water has a relatively higher temperature (18–38 8C), as compared to the domestic wastewater, because the grey water originates from hot water sources, like shower (29 8C), kitchen (27–38 8C) and laundry (28–32 8C). (1) Black water is wastewater which is loaded with biological material such as feces or grease. Many people refer to black water as “sewage.” Because black water contains dangerous materials, it must be treated before being released or reused; otherwise it could be a source of disease. There are a variety of ways for dealing with black water, ranging from setting up home composting toilets to render such waste inert to flushing black water through a municipal sewer system, where it eventually winds up at a sewage treatment plant so that it can be treated and safely disposed off. Black water is generally not recycled, mostly because it contains so much sewage that it is hard to clean adequately for use. Yet, science has come up with systems that will recycle black water, most systems filtering the water enough to be used outdoors in watering lawns and plants from underground. INTRODUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS (1) Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature. (2) Developing innovative sanitation scenarios: Maawa El Sayadeen Settlement in Alexandria Egypt. Ibrahim Shouk, June 2009. RECOMMENDATIONS RESULTS and DISCUSSION REFERENCES Table 1 Water Estimations from interviews ABSTRACT CONT ACT 1st Conference for Modern Nano-Technology in Water and Waste Water projects (MNTW'2012). Cairo, Egypt. 15 September 2012 Table 2 Grey water from Maawa El Sayadeen and Oman Table 3 Grey water unrestricted reuse parameters

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