Carnegie Museum of ArtAn Empirical Analysis ofUniversity Students’ LeisureDecision-Making An Empirical Analysis of Univers...
Table of Contents	  Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….3     Acknowledgements .......................................
 	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	         INTRODUCTION	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  ...
Acknowledgements        It is with immense gratitude that we acknowledge the support and help of the variousindividuals wh...
About Systems Synthesis        Since the founding of the H.J. Heinz III College at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in1969...
About Carnegie Museum of ArtMission Statement         Carnegie Museum of Art (CMoA) is one of the four Carnegie Museums of...
children and students. With many campuses located in close proximity to CMoA, universitystudents make up another large aud...
Executive Summary        An Empirical Analysis of University Students’ Leisure Decision-Making was a SystemsSynthesis rese...
This four-pronged methodology uncovered numerous conclusions that helped form theTeam’s conclusions. These conclusions are...
Focus Group I:   1. Content, especially for graduate students, is the primary influencer of event/activity      attendance...
museum attendance, especially if they do not identify themselves as “museum-goers”. Bycollaborating with familiar entities...
Project TimelinePhase 1Sept 22            Establish survey sampling frameworkSept 26-Oct 9      Draft Survey 1.0Oct 3-5   ...
Project Goals and RelevanceProject Goals       By collecting data on students’ decision-making processes and behavioral ch...
understanding students’ comprehensive decision-making processes, especially with regard toattending events. That is, the n...
 	  	  	  	  	         METHODOLOGY	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	  	                  ...
Exploratory ResearchSurvey	          As part of the four-pronged methodology approach, the Team conducted research on abro...
happening in e-mail marketing. Among 20- to 35-year olds, at least, their physical addresses change more                 f...
profile.19 This switch from expert publications to peer opinions has drastically changed the waypeople discover and absorb...
reflect who we are, or more, who we would like to be”24. Through social postings across severalplatforms (Figure 1), peopl...
media channels a student acquires information from and how it factors in to his or her decision-making process.Figure 1Bac...
9. Social Media & Networks31        For the purpose of this study, the survey sought to find out if multi-channel marketin...
Major Findings        CMU has a very systematic way to disseminate activity information. A Housefellow, thestaff member wh...
undergraduate students. In sum, PITT ARTS has 110 free events per academic year and eight tonine programs per week. Someti...
undergraduate students. Ms. Clippinger knows proximity might be the issue for students, so sheoffers free transportation f...
would drive up the response rate.Focus Groups       The Team conducted two sets of focus groups. The first set served as e...
Focus Group IIWho: CMU undergraduate studentsTopic         In this set of focus groups, the Team tried to refine previous ...
Case Study: Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra        The Team wrote five case studies to provide further context to this study...
students. CMU, like Pitt, created a partnership with PSO through the Office of the President. Asmany of the CFA faculty me...
materials. Ms. Lynn, while satisfied with the marketing at Pitt, thanks to the PITT ARTSprogram, was a little frustrated b...
attend the PSO College Nights because they provide students with the additional opportunity ofseeing and interacting with ...
Case Studies: Baller BBQ                                                                                                  ...
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making

2,362 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,362
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

An Empirical Analysis of University Students' Leisure Decision-Making

  1. 1. Carnegie Museum of ArtAn Empirical Analysis ofUniversity Students’ LeisureDecision-Making An Empirical Analysis of University Students’   Leisure Decision-Making Terrence Boyd Yun Cai Kathryn Feriozzi Stephanie Garuti Lin Hsieh Sang Luo Elizabeth McFarlin Rachel Niederberger Jacob Oresick Laura Zwicker Jerry Coltin, Faculty Advisor Kitty Julian, Client H.J. Heinz III College – Carnegie Mellon University Systems Synthesis Fall 2011
  2. 2. Table of Contents  Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….3 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. 4 About Systems Synthesis......................................................................................................... 5 About Carnegie Museum of Art............................................................................................. 6 Executive Summary................................................................................................................. 8 Project Timeline .................................................................................................................................. 12 Project Goals and Relevance................................................................................................. 13Methodology .....................................................................................................................15 Exploratory Research............................................................................................................. 16 Survey.................................................................................................................................................. 17 Interviews ............................................................................................................................................ 22 Focus Groups....................................................................................................................................... 26 Case Studies............................................................................................................................. 27 Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra College Nights ................................................................................ 27 Baller BBQ .......................................................................................................................................... 32 Museum of Science, Boston................................................................................................................ 34 University of Pittsburgh Men’s Basketball ......................................................................................... 37 Cleveland Museum of Art Summer Solstice Party ............................................................................. 41 Survey ..................................................................................................................................... 45 Objective .............................................................................................................................................. 45 Research Questions .............................................................................................................................. 45 Creation and Distribution ..................................................................................................................... 46 Response Rate ...................................................................................................................................... 47 Survey Questions and Responses ......................................................................................................... 47 Additional Research............................................................................................................... 64 Young Audiences and Arts Participation Initiative.............................................................................. 64 “The Elusive Young Audience,” Aaron Trent, Slover Linnet Strategies, NAMP 2011 ...................... 66 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, National Endowment for the Arts ........................... 66 Culture Track, LaPlaca Cohen 2011 .................................................................................................... 69 Cultural Engagement Index 2010: Philadelphia Cultural Engagement Index ..................................... 71Synthesis and Conclusions ..............................................................................................74 Research .................................................................................................................................. 75 Case Studies ............................................................................................................................ 76 Focus Groups .......................................................................................................................... 78 Survey ...................................................................................................................................... 80Recommendations and Model.........................................................................................84 For Carnegie Museum of Art ............................................................................................... 85 Collaboration......................................................................................................................................... 85 Experience............................................................................................................................................. 86 Messaging ............................................................................................................................................. 87Questions for Further Research .....................................................................................89Lessons Learned...............................................................................................................94Appendix.........................................................................................................................101       © 2011 by Terrence Boyd, Yun Cai, Kathryn Feriozzi, Stephanie Garuti, Lin Hsieh, Sang Luo, Elizabeth McFarlin, Rachel Niederberger Jacob Oresick and Laura Zwicker 2  
  3. 3.                           INTRODUCTION                                                 3  
  4. 4. Acknowledgements It is with immense gratitude that we acknowledge the support and help of the variousindividuals who contributed their time, advice, and expertise to the development of this project.First and foremost, we would like to express our sincere thanks to Kitty Julian and the CarnegieMuseum of Art for entrusting us with this research great opportunity. Many thanks to our supportive advisory board: Sarah Beauchamp, Social Media Director,Silk Screen and SponsorChange.org; Gina Casalegno, Dean of Student Affairs, Carnegie MellonUniversity; Yu-Ling Cheng, Marketing Manager, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra; CynthiaCloskey, President, Big Big Design; Benjamin Davis, Coordinator of Student Activities, ArtsPass Program and Student Media Groups, Carnegie Mellon University; Nicholas Ferrell, FormerCommunity Advisor and Residential Assistant, Carnegie Mellon University; Jake Flittner,Student Body President, Carnegie Mellon University; Ryan Freytag, Manager of Cultural Policy& Research, Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council; Jeff Inscho, Web Media & Marketing Associate,Heinz College; Ramayya Krishnan, Dean, Heinz College; Lindsay O’Leary, PR & MarketingManager, Mattress Factory; Brenda Peyser, Associate Dean, Heinz College; Nick Pozek,Manager of Technology & Web Initiatives, Carnegie Museum of Art; Kate Prescott, President,Prescott & Associates; Shernell Smith, Coordinator of Student Development andMulticultural/Diversity Initiatives, Carnegie Mellon University; and Anne Witchner, AssistantDean of Student Affairs and Director of Orientation, Carnegie Mellon University. Thank you to everyone who helped with the preparation and execution of our survey:Janel Sutkus, Director of Institutional Research and Analysis, Carnegie Mellon University; andHeinz College Ph.D. candidates Laura Brandimante, Rajiv Garg and Skylar Speakman. Thank you also to Marsha Powers, General Manager, Eat’n Park; Ed Helgerman, GeneralManager, Giant Eagle; Donna Morosky, Carnegie Mellon University Athletics Department; andCarnegie Mellon bookstore, School of Drama, and School of Music for their generous donationsfor our survey incentives. To everyone else who assisted in our research process, we are greatly appreciative: JustinAcierno, Director of Marketing and Ticket Operations, University of Pittsburgh AthleticsDepartment; Michael Bielski, Senior VP and COO, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra; ElizabethBolander, Assistant Director of Audience Research and Development, Carnegie Museum of Art;Laura Brandimante, Heinz College PhD Candidate; Annabelle Clippinger, Director of Pitt Arts,University of Pittsburgh; Erin Lynn, Director of Group Sales, Pittsburgh Symphony OrchestraLuke Skurman, Co-founder of Baller BBQ, and Laura Synnott, Associate Teaching Professor,Heinz College. Finally, we would like to thank our systems advisor, Jerry Coltin, and our team membersfor their hard work and dedication, without which this project would not have been possible.   4  
  5. 5. About Systems Synthesis Since the founding of the H.J. Heinz III College at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in1969, Systems Synthesis has served as a required Master-level capstone project to be completedin a student’s second year. The Systems Synthesis project has three main goals: 1) To provide an opportunity for students to develop skills in problem structuring and solving, including how to define a problem, its boundaries, and a project scope; determine a client’s requirements; proceed effectively even though information is incomplete; determine effective analytical methods and theories; design alternative solutions; estimate/compare impacts and risks of alternatives; develop implementation plans; and document results and communicate recommendations. 2) To enable students to develop project management, teamwork, and communication skills, including how to develop and effectively use the skills of each member; take initiative and responsibility; design tasks that are feasible, linked, and phased; keep members informed and coordinated; accommodate unforeseen circumstances; communicate results and obtain useful feedback; professionally resolve interpersonal problems; and meet deadlines. 3) To provide a capstone experience for students, offering the opportunity to learn how to conduct applied multidisciplinary research; learn new methods, theories, or skills as needs arise; adapt methods to real problems; be alert and receptive to new ideas; frame technical/organizational/economic/political criteria; evaluate alternatives from many perspectives; understand the organizational context for problem-solving; be able to work comfortably with partial knowledge; develop contingency plans; and translate analytical work into recommendations for clients.                                         5  
  6. 6. About Carnegie Museum of ArtMission Statement Carnegie Museum of Art (CMoA) is one of the four Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, acollective of institutions dedicated to providing creative and distinctive experiences forexploration and learning. CMoA falls under the umbrella of the “most far-reaching culturalorganization in Pittsburgh, known throughout the world for vast art and scientific collections andscientific research”.1 Independently, the museum is internationally and nationally recognized forits collection, a diverse synthesis of genres, mediums, and exceptional artists, and for itscommitment to providing enriching opportunities that educate minds, inspire visitors, and unitethe community.History Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie founded CMoA in 1895 with the vision of creating amuseum with collections consisting of “the old masters of tomorrow”.2 As opposed toinstitutions focused on acquiring old masters at the same time, this arguably makes CMoA thefirst museum of modern art in the United States. Since its inception, the museum has presentedcontemporary, American, decorative, European, French and post-impressionist works of art.3With numerous expansions and renovations since its’ opening, the museum today includestwenty-nine galleries, a permanent collection of 35,000 pieces of work, and approximately 1,800works on display at a time.4Company Located in the Oakland neighborhood east of downtown Pittsburgh, CMoA resides downthe street from CMU and the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt). CMoA positions itself locally bycollecting and exhibiting work from local artists, and regionally, through participation in thePittsburgh Biennial. Alternatively, the museum has a strong international presence, shapedprimarily by the Carnegie International, an exhibition of contemporary work from around theworld, held every three years. This showcase of work also serves as a vital acquisitionopportunity for the museum. Winslow Homer’s The Wreck (1896) is but one example of themany works acquired through the International. The museum focuses on educating and engagingtheir audience through lecture series, monthly e-newsletters by Lynn Zelevansky, the museum’sdirector, and interactive activities on its website.5Consumers Approximately 300,000 people visit CMoA every year.6 While the museum attracts bothnational and international visitors, its primary audience is from Pennsylvania, and specificallyregional counties. Family activities, youth classes and school and teacher programs such asARTventures for Families and The Art Connection make CMoA a popular place for families,                                                                                                                1 “Facts & Figures.” Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.carnegiemuseums.org>.2 “History.” Carnegie Museum of Art. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.cmoa.org>.3 “Facts & Figures.” Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.carnegiemuseums.org>.4 Ibid.5 Ibid.6 Ibid.     6  
  7. 7. children and students. With many campuses located in close proximity to CMoA, universitystudents make up another large audience base at the museum.Competitors There are many other sources of arts, culture and entertainment in Pittsburgh that are indirect competition with CMoA—sporting events, concerts, movie theaters and other museums. Aprime competitor is the Pittsburgh Cultural District, which has many cultural institutions,restaurants and opportunities for social activities conveniently located together in one downtownarea.Collaborators CMoA’s collaborators are the other three Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, with aspecific emphasis on the Carnegie Museum of History, as they share a facility and offer a “twofor the price of one” admission rate. CMoA also collaborates with many local universities,including CMU, Chatham University, Duquesne University, Point Park University, and Pitt tooffer free admission programs to university students, known as the Arts Pass program.Context Pittsburgh is a mid-sized city with a vibrant arts community. The city is home to aplethora of museums, representing a diverse range of focuses, including history, science,installation art, aviary, and botanical gardens. Carnegie Museum of Art operates within CarnegieMuseums of Pittsburgh, the largest art collective in the Greater Pittsburgh Area. 7  
  8. 8. Executive Summary An Empirical Analysis of University Students’ Leisure Decision-Making was a SystemsSynthesis research project conducted by ten Master’s students from CMU’s H.J. Heinz IIICollege in the fall of 2011. The client for the project was Kitty Julian, Director of Marketing atthe Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural History Museum. The impetus for the project was theArts Pass program—a partnership between local universities and arts and cultural institutions inthe Pittsburgh community that grants students of those universities free admission with theirstudent ID to each participating institution. Data from 2001-2010 showed that the Arts Pass penetration rate of CMoA with CMUstudents was about 30%.7 However, this rate was based on swipes of ID’s and did not captureanything unique about each individual student. As a result, Kitty lacked knowledge about who atCMU was utilizing the Arts Pass, why they were utilizing it and what behaviors or aspectsinfluenced their decision-making. More importantly, Kitty was unsure why CMU students werenot using the Arts Pass. This Systems project stemmed from these core problems and sought touncover information about CMU student’s decision-making processes when deciding whether ornot to participate in or attend activities and events in the Pittsburgh community. By determiningwhat influences students, the Team aimed to better enable and inform Kitty and her marketingstaff on strategies to help engage students while at CMU as well as potentially retain theirparticipation post-graduation. The Team established four main assumptions that helped guide the formulation andexecution of the research. First, the concept of an “event” or “activity” was defined in thebroadest sense possible—what a student does in his or her leisure time, that he or she is notrequired to attend. Second, the notion of leisure time was presumed to be time spent outside of aclassroom or workplace setting. This definition does not exclude time spent on-campus, as manysocial and typical leisure activities do take place on-campus. A third assumption was thatreference groups were key influencers and are defined as people to whom a student compareshim- or her-self (e.g. peers, friends, club leaders, etc.). Lastly, the study assumed that full-timestudents were more likely than part-time students to have the time and be in proximity to attendlocal events and activities such as going to CMoA. Consequently, the study survey only sampledfull-time CMU students. After establishing these assumptions, the Team devised a four-prong methodologystrategy with the objective of determining the behaviors and influencers of students’ decision-making processes in regards to event attendance. As shown below, the research methodologyincluded conducting literature research, interviews, focus groups, a survey and case studies.                                                                                                                7 CMoA lacks the technological capacity to measure exactly how many individual students use Arts Pass, and instead it can onlycount the total number of uses by a student with a CMU ID card. Therefore, this 30% figure is merely an estimate of individualattendees from CMU.See Appendix # for details of this data.   8  
  9. 9. This four-pronged methodology uncovered numerous conclusions that helped form theTeam’s conclusions. These conclusions are outlined below and are separated by methodologicalapproach:Research: 1. Social networking is engrained in university students’ everyday lives 2. Multi-channel marketing is expanding as marketers strive to win the attention of consumers 3. 18-24 year-olds are heavily influenced by their peers when making decisionsInterviews: 1. Social media is not always the most effective mode of communicating with university students 2. Consistent personal e-mails are an effective way of marketing arts and cultural events to university students 3. Having an institutionalized, arts-centric program at a university helps retain and engage students throughout their academic career 4. Social media influencers are hard to identity and their influence is difficult to quantify 5. CMU provides outlets for outside organizations to reach its students 9  
  10. 10. Focus Group I: 1. Content, especially for graduate students, is the primary influencer of event/activity attendance 2. One-time events/activities are more appealing than ongoing events 3. Social media influence on event attendance is less than one might expect 4. A personal invitation has a greater impact on university students’ desire to attend an event/activitySurvey: 1. Content and whether friends are going are the main influencers of event/activity attendance for university students 2. Most students hear about events through word-of-mouth 3. Social media is a good outlet to hear about events, but does not necessarily influence attendance 4. University students are more likely to attend an event/activity if they hear about it through multiple channels 5. Most CMU students are aware of Arts Pass, but less than half use it per year, with an average usage rate of three times per yearCase Studies: 1. University students want to be in social environments 2. Personal connections positively impact a student’s perception of an organization 3. Collaboration with a university can provide key access to its students 4. Multi-channel marketing effectively engages students’ attentions 5. Tiered-pricing can drive student attendance, as most students are cost-conscious 6. Content and word-of-mouth greatly influence decision-makingFocus Group II: 1. Time of day is an important influencer as most university students are extremely busy 2. University students are more influenced to go to one-time events versus ongoing events 3. An event organizer’s connection to CMU would influence students to attend 4. Students, especially undergraduates, operate on a “group” mentality and will attend events/activities in groups even if the event’s content does not necessarily appeal to them Based on these conclusions, the Team developed a marketing strategy that will enableCMoA to better market to university students, specifically CMU students. This strategy ispurposefully broad-based as the Team expects it can be generalized to other arts organizationsthat are comparable to CMoA in terms of proximity to a university population. The strategy isbased on three key words: collaboration, experience and messaging. Collaboration refers to CMoA seeking opportunities to further partner with CMU andlocal events and organizations. This study uncovered that students are apprehensive about 10  
  11. 11. museum attendance, especially if they do not identify themselves as “museum-goers”. Bycollaborating with familiar entities, such as CMU, CMoA will be able to help diminish thesebarriers to entry. In conjunction with establishing partnerships within the community, the Team alsorecommends that CMoA focus on creating casual and social experiences in both its physical andvirtual environments. The research overwhelmingly found that university students are incrediblysocial creatures and like to hang out with friends during their spare time. In order to convincestudents to hang out with their friends in a setting like an art museum instead of in their dorm orat a party, CMoA should provide opportunities to experience the museum in an informal waysuch as offering a study space or events that allow social interaction in addition to education.This casual experience should also be mirrored on CMoA’s web presence by offering a pagededicated just to university students where the tone and content reflect students’ interests: friends,socializing, and interaction. The third aspect of the marketing strategy is messaging; spreading the right wordsthrough multiple channels. This study demonstrates the utmost importance and influence friendshave on university students’ decision-making. Consequently, CMoA’s marketing messages tothis audience should include terms such as “bring a friend” or “have fun with your friends at themuseum”. Students are keen to share their experiences and opinions with friends as thepopularity of social media sites like Facebook demonstrates. As a result, when offeringpromotions or tickets for events in which CMoA wishes to engage students, the museum shouldoffer them in pairs, thus enabling a student to share his or her experience with a friend. 11  
  12. 12. Project TimelinePhase 1Sept 22 Establish survey sampling frameworkSept 26-Oct 9 Draft Survey 1.0Oct 3-5 Focus Groups IOct 10 Group discussion regarding Survey 1.0 Start Survey 2.0 Distribute Survey 2.0 to selected Advisory Board membersOct 10-17 Collect feedback from reviewers Sub-Group discussion regarding Survey 2.0Oct 19 Finalize Survey 3.0 Pilot test Survey 3.0Oct 21 Collect and upload pilot test results Begin work on Survey 4.0Oct 24 Send Survey 4.0 (final) to John Papinchak, CMU Registrar, for reviewOct 24 Obtain random sample from Dr. Janel SutkusOct 24 Interim PresentationPhase IINov 5 Distribute survey to CMU campus & begin case studiesNov 12 Collect survey results and start Minitab data analysis; finish case studiesNov 14-17 Focus Group IINov 16 Integrate survey results into formal reportNov 22 Final presentationDec 5 Final presentation to systems advisor, Jerry ColtinDec 12 Submit report to the Heinz College and client                         12  
  13. 13. Project Goals and RelevanceProject Goals By collecting data on students’ decision-making processes and behavioral characteristics,and by further adding to the Team’s best analysis of that data, the Team hopes to achieve threemain goals: 1. Inform CMoA on how to best make strategic marketing decisions 2. Enable CMoA to better market to this unique audience 3. Add a unique and valuable perspective to existing national arts marketing research on this topicProject Relevance It is particularly important for CMU and CMoA that much of this project is specific to thePittsburgh region, because Pittsburgh is a top destination for CMU post-graduate employment.For CMU’s undergraduate class of 2010, Pittsburgh was the second most common employmentdestination, closely behind New York City.8 As university education has been shown to be thenumber one indicator of museum attendance,9 it is crucially important that CMoA engagestudents during their time on campus. If CMoA can pique CMU students’ interest while they arein school, there is a good chance it can retain these students as museum patrons for years aftergraduation. Further, this project builds on existing research that has tried to understand youngaudience participation in the arts. Specifically, this project expands on two pioneering studies, bythe PITT ARTS program and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA). First, PITT ARTS, aninitiative that has had tremendous success in connecting University of Pittsburgh students tocultural activities, conducted valuable research between 1999 and 2004 in the research studycalled the “Young Adult Arts Participation Initiative” (YAAPI). YAAPI concluded time was the“most significant barrier to young adult participation in the arts, followed by studying,transportation, and knowledge that an event was happening.”10 However, the proliferation ofsocial media in the time since that research was conducted has fundamentally altered the waythis demographic communicates, and ultimately makes decisions. This project serves to flesh outmuch of the YAAPI findings. The NEA’s “2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts” primarily compileddemographic information. The NEA found that participation in the arts fell significantly from2002 to 2008, irrespective of age group,11 although reasons for this decline and possible solutionswere not explored. Therefore, this project—through the Team’s research, survey and focusgroups—seeks to expound upon both the PITT ARTS and YAAPI studies by better                                                                                                                8 2009-2010 Career & Professional Development Center Annual Report. Carnegie Mellon University. Web. 20 November 2011.<http://www.studentaffairs.cmu.edu/career/about-us/annual-reports/annualreport>.9 Williams, Kevin, and David Keen. 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. Rep. no. #49R. NEA Office of Research &Analysis, Nov. 2009. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nea.gov>.10 Julian, Kitty, and Annabelle Clippinger. Young Audiences and the Arts. Rep. PITT ARTS. Web. 2 Dec. 2011.<http://www.pittarts.pitt.edu>.11 Williams, Kevin, and David Keen. 2008 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. Rep. no. #49R. NEA Office of Research &Analysis, Nov. 2009. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nea.gov>. 13  
  14. 14. understanding students’ comprehensive decision-making processes, especially with regard toattending events. That is, the national body of research on arts participation would benefit fromgreater insight into what students want to do, where they want to do it and how they want to bereached. This project is also relevant because it provides insight into the behavioral habits of theMillennial Generation, which is too large and important to ignore. The current generation, whichis generally defined as those born after 1977, is roughly 80 million strong, and the largestgeneration since the Baby Boomers.12 The Millennial Generation is not only large, but it isuniquely connected to and reliant on the rapidly evolving technology of the day. Technology hasan increasingly prominent role in work, play and consumer decisions, and it is essential tounderstand how this generation uses technology in its decision-making. Finally, this project is nationally relevant as there are a plethora of arts organizationscomparable to CMoA in terms of proximity to a university. Across the United States, there areover 200 art museums located within three miles of a college or university. Therefore, it followsthat this project’s conclusions and recommendations may be applicable, or at the very least + There is a plethora of art museums withininstructive, for arts organizations across the country. 2-3 milesArt Museums within 2-3 Miles of a University (n= ~200) Map of of a University                                                                                                                12 Pew Research Center, Millennials: Portrait of Generation Next (February 2010), 4.   14  
  15. 15.             METHODOLOGY                                                 15  
  16. 16. Exploratory ResearchSurvey   As part of the four-pronged methodology approach, the Team conducted research on abroad range of relevant topics such as consumer behavior, student psychology and museumtrends. The goal of this research was to gain a foundation of information that would furtherinfluence the development of the survey. The Team looked at multiple sources throughout thesemester such as Mashable.com, Socialmediatoday.com, New York Times, and a multitude ofother online resources dedicated to the task of publishing trending ideas in the social mediaworld. Throughout this research, three themes related to student engagement emerged: referencegroups, social media and multi-channel marketing. Each part of research is backed up witharticles, interviews, and focus group data to solidify the importance of these three key areas.Background: Reference Groups As previously mentioned, reference groups are defined as those people to whom studentsrefer themselves (e.g. friends, family, coworkers, etc.). Because of reference groups’ stronginfluence in students’ decision-making, the Team researched this topic in-depth. Below is a briefoutline of the reference group data gathered to help support and develop how reference groupinfluence would be tested in the survey developed for CMU students.Research In the study “Making Connections, Dimensions of Student Engagement,” by theCommunity College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE), researchers determined a numberof elements that make up a person’s social influencers. According to the report, “connecting[with peers] is an interactive, iterative series of events that is personal and creates a sense ofpresence.”13 This building of a relationship with peers is applicable to museums and othercultural institutions. For example, the Metropolitan Museum of Art14 is actively engaged in its’visitor’s participation. The Met has created a synergy of its’ mobile app, website, and in-housetechnology experience, ultimately creating a relationship with its visitors. By encouraginginvolvement both in the museum and outside at a home computer, the Met is encouraging thedevelopment of a personal connection to an institution, through the sum of its parts. Overall, thetechnological elements combine a person’s interests with the interests of other museum-goersand are planned to help the future growth of the museum’s visitors, both online and in-house. Personal emails were also found to be a way to market effectively. A Mashable.comarticle said the following: “E-mail addresses are a safer long-term investment than social media features. Think about all the money companies spent advertising their MySpace pages in 2007. Even on Facebook, your direct messages to fans are relegated to a second tier inbox no one reads. This is something you don’t have to worry about                                                                                                                13 Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2009). “Making Connections: Dimensions of Student Engagement (2009CCSSE Findings).” Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin, Community College Leadership Program.<http://www.ccsse.org>.14 Grobart, Sam. “Multimedia Tour Guides on Your Smartphone.” Nytimes.com. New York Times, 16 Mar. 2011. Web. 3 Dec.2011. <http://www.nytimes.com>. 16  
  17. 17. happening in e-mail marketing. Among 20- to 35-year olds, at least, their physical addresses change more frequently than their e-mail addresses.15”This research shows that friends, family and other close interactions are the paramountinfluencers of students’ decision-making. To further develop this idea, the Team looked into theways that students interact, and any other studies in the field about reference groups. Dr. RayJunko’s blog, “Social Media in Higher Education,” does just that: “94% of students report using social networks weekly and these students are not spending more or less time studying or doing any other activity than their counterparts who do not use social networks”16Dr. Junko goes on to explain that these social media active students are also very active in theirreal-life social activities. Many of these students “have a stronger connection to their institutionand feel better about their social life.”17 This information provided the Team with more evidenceabout the importance of social media and that reference groups play a large role in how studentsinteract, plan activities and go to events. In addition, Dr. Junko explains the importance of marketing to these social media savvystudents. Most students use Facebook as a source of event information, and plan activities anditineraries based on what their friends are saying. As a result, the Team wanted to test if astudent’s involvement with his or her university made him or her more likely to rely on socialmedia, and his or her friends’ decisions. Outside of students’ decision-making, there is more research to enforce the referencegroup idea as the primary influencer in peoples’ decision-making. In the article, “Why OnlineListening,” Michael Lewis details that reference groups are critical, which is why it is importantfor marketers to really watch what people are saying online. Lewis says, “studies confirm thatpeer recommendations influence buying decisions more than any other form of advertising—90% of buyers trust peer reviews and 70% trust online reviews,”18 which shows that people trusttheir friends and family in the social space both for information and for reviews on products.While Lewis talks more about the best practices for companies, he still provides valuable dataabout peoples’ decision-making processes by specifically demonstrating that having an onlinecommunity is essential to the development of reference group influence—people talk, and peoplelisten. Clearly, from peer to peer real-life relationships to the influence of reference groups in thevirtual realm, reference groups dominate as the primary influencers of university students.Background: Social Media In 1990, people woke up and read the newspaper. In 2000, people woke up and visitedtheir homepage. Now, the first thing one does in the morning is check his or her Facebook                                                                                                                15 Ferriss, Tim. “4 Social Media Marketing Predictions for 2011.” Mashable.com. Mashable, Inc., 28 Dec. 2010. Web. 6 Oct.2011. <http://www.mashable.com>.  16 Heiberger, Greg, and Ruth Harper. “Have You Facebooked Astin Lately? Using Technology to Increase Student Involvement.”Web log post. Social Media in Higher Education. 10 Oct. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://blog.reyjunco.com>.17 Ibid.18 Lewis, II, Michael. “Why Online Listening?” Social Media Today. Social Media Today, LLC, 12 Aug. 2011. Web. 26 Sept.2011. <http://www.socialmediatoday.com>. 17  
  18. 18. profile.19 This switch from expert publications to peer opinions has drastically changed the waypeople discover and absorb material. People are more willing to learn from their direct onlinesocial circles instead of outdated and impersonal sources that are restrained by space and time.Social media sites like Facebook have created the platform where everyone can be a broadcasterby sharing endless amounts of content—ranging anywhere from world news to silly antics. People are naturally interested in what others are doing20 and social media is the easiestway to keep up with this boundless stream of data. What separates social media from an intricateform of gossip is that it invites an interaction with information instead of being a one-sidedconversation. At some level, social media is the new-age office water cooler, a social gatheringplace where people take a break from their daily happenings to share miscellaneous—but self-absorbed—content to anyone willing to hear it. For most young adults, social media is fully integrated into their daily routines, especiallywith its’ emergence on mobile platforms. In 2010, it was measured that “social networking …eats up twice as much […] online time as any other activity”21 and 96% of all 18-35 year-oldAmericans belong to a social network.22 This recent spike in social media use triggered theTeam’s investigation of the habits and reliance on digital communities in order to betterunderstand how social media effects students’ decision-making.Social Media Main Concepts:23 1. Reach – The ability to spread an individual’s message to a focused or global audience 2. Accessibility – Easily available to the public at little or no cost 3. Usability – Only requires a modest amount of existing skills or training, making it accessible to virtually anyone 4. Immediacy – Ability to instantly publish content and instantaneously receive responses These concepts better define the advantages that social media has over uses of traditionalmedia. Using these ideas, the Team hoped to structure the survey in a way that would elucidate agreater understanding of how CMU students specifically utilize social media to make decisionsabout whether or not to attend certain events/activities.Research Researchers attribute the popularity of social media to the mirror effect. This effect isdefined not in the “obvious narcissistic way, but in a more profound and symbolic sense to                                                                                                                19 Reiss, Christopher. “What is ‘Social Media’ All About?” Quora. 4 May 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.quora.com>.20 Somak, Roy. “Why Are Social Networks So Addictive?” Quora. 19 Nov. 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.quora.com>.21 Ostrow, Adam. “Social Networking Dominates Our Time Spent Online [STATS].” Mashable.com. Mashable, Inc., 2 Aug.2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.mashable.com>.22 Petri, Keith. “The Biggest Shift Since the Industrial Revolution | Social Media Social Media Revolution Infograph | We CreateFans | En.gauge Media – Keith Petris Space.” Keith Petris Space. 12 Jan. 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://keithpetri.com>.23 “Social Media.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media>. 18  
  19. 19. reflect who we are, or more, who we would like to be”24. Through social postings across severalplatforms (Figure 1), people—especially those aged 18-35 years—mold an electronic image ofthemselves through the friends they publically interact with, the places they check into, theopinions they comment on, the photographed facial expressions they display or by the eventsthey attend. 25 Chart by Arno Ghelfi People are also posting more than ever—the average Facebook user creates 90 pieces ofcontent a month—because they are addicted to the sense of community that these sites provide. 26Brian Roemmele, President at Multiplex Media Corporation,27 even goes as far as to say that thisaddiction is a chemical reaction, making the argument that social media identification isconnected to the same psychological changes (production of neuropeptides) people experiencewhen they feel love—the human tendency to seek the feelings of being needed and accepted.28 In 2010, Neilson Media Research noted that social media was dominating onlinemessaging, superseding both email and instant messaging.29 Communicating and planning havenow become a social activity that encourages group collaboration and approval. With theimmense amount of content that is posted each day, the Team wanted to investigate which social                                                                                                                24 Roemmele, Brian. “Why Are Social Networks So Addictive?” Quora. 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.<http://www.quora.com>.25 Hempel, Jessi. “Web Strategies That Cater To Customers.” Businessweek.com. Bloomberg, L.P., 11 June 2007. Web. 3 Dec.2011. <http://www.businessweek.com>.26 @jmyjmz Web log post. Twitter.com. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.27 Roemmele, Brian. “Why Are Social Networks So Addictive?” Quora. 26 Jan. 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011.<http://www.quora.com>.28 Ibid.29 Ostrow, Adam. “Social Networking Dominates Our Time Spent Online [STATS].” Mashable.com. Mashable, Inc., 2 Aug.2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.mashable.com>. 19  
  20. 20. media channels a student acquires information from and how it factors in to his or her decision-making process.Figure 1Background: Multi-channel Marketing Multi-channel marketing encompasses all marketing, including the previously mentionedsocial media. Multi-channel marketing is a conscious combination of Internet based marketing,direct mail, telemarketing, broadcast media, and unique marketing schemes such as street teams.Marketers pick and choose a combination of various channels of marketing to grab the attentionof their target audience.30 It can also be said that organizational websites have evolved from a “channel” into a“platform.” Online marketing platforms include: 1. Email Campaigns 2. SEM & SEO (Search Engine Marketing & Optimization) 3. Directory Listings (free and paid inclusion) 4. Banner Ad Campaigns 5. Whitepaper Syndication 6. RSS Feeds & SMS 7. Mobile 8. Blogs                                                                                                                30 Kolleman, Jan J. “The New Definition of Multichannel Marketing.” Translation and Localization Blog - SDL Blog. SDL plc,16 Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://blog.sdl.com>. 20  
  21. 21. 9. Social Media & Networks31 For the purpose of this study, the survey sought to find out if multi-channel marketing iseffective in influencing student attendance as well as to determine what multi-channelcombination is most effective with university students. Like other research on multi-channelmarketing, the Team sought to gain insight into different areas of this type of marketing: the mixof communication channels and alignment of those channels with respondents’ preferences.32The preferred volume of communication was also researched during the study’s two sets of focusgroups. In addition, due to the research conducted on the importance of reference groups andsocial media, the study focused on multi-channel marketing viability and methodology in thesurvey.Interviews In order to provide greater context and gain insights about the research methodology, theTeam conducted interviews with CMU’s Student Activities Office, Pitts’ PITT ARTS Director,and Rajiv Garg, a Heinz College Ph.D. candidate. The context, major findings and importance ofeach interview are outlined below.CMU Student Activities OfficeInterview Date: September 23, 2011Interviewees: • Ben Davis, Coordinator Student Activities, Arts Pass Program & Student Media Groups • Taylor Grabowsky, Former Arts Pass Coordinator and Residential AssistantContext CMU’s Arts Pass Program was started in the early 2000s and was directly connected tothe College of Fine Arts’ budget and curriculum. The program soon opened up to the entireuniversity after the Student Affairs Office took control and began funding it through the campus’activities fee. Liz Vaughan, Director of Student Activities at CMU, suggested that the Team meet withBenjamin Davis about the Arts Pass program. Having this information would facilitate strongercommunication about the Team’s research goals and efforts. Likewise, it would also help preventany potential confusion that could arise when presenting to the broader campus community. Ms.Vaughn also strongly recommended that the Team consult Taylor Grabowsky, a formercoordinator of the Arts Pass Program to learn more about the program and key influencers oncampus.                                                                                                                31  Kolleman, Jan J. "The New Definition of Multichannel Marketing." Translation and Localization Blog - SDL Blog. SDL Plc,16 Nov. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://blog.sdl.com>.  32 Godfrey, Andrea, Kathleen Seiders, and Glenn B. Voss. “Enough Is Enough! The Fine Line in Executing MultichannelRelational Communication.” Journal of Marketing 75.4 (2011): 94-109. Marketing Power. American Marketing Association, 1July 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <http://www.marketingpower.com>. 21  
  22. 22. Major Findings CMU has a very systematic way to disseminate activity information. A Housefellow, thestaff member who directs a residential community, either sponsors an event or is approachedabout promoting one. The event details are then passed down to the dormitory’s CommunityAdvisor (CA), the student who manages the building’s Residential Assistants (RAs). These RAsare in direct contact with the students and it is their job to provide information and experiencesfor students while living on campus. Another, but less effective, way of making students awareof events are by posting flyers about upcoming events on bulletin and announcement boards. There are several opportunities during the year to communicate to students, the first beingin their “welcome packets” at student orientation. CMoA potentially has a chance to provideorganizational information packets to the entire incoming class at orientation. Later that week,CMoA has another opportunity to reach these new undergraduates by setting up an informationaltable during the Pittsburgh Connections Fair, a program that strives to engage students in outdoorrecreation throughout the city.33Significance One of the major takeaways of this interview is the fact that there are plenty ofopportunities for CMoA to get involved with CMU students (tabling, hanging flyers,participating in activities fairs). These opportunities are geared more heavily towardunderclassmen; since all freshmen are required to live in the dorms their first year, it is very easyto grab their attention using the residential staff. However, once a student moves off campus, theinformation distribution chain is broken and it becomes more difficult to market toupperclassmen and graduate students. Mr. Davis suggested that since these students do not havean RA or CA, direct emails would be the next best way to communicate to this audience.PITT ARTSInterview Date: October 13, 2011Interviewee: • Annabelle Clippinger, PITT ARTS Director, University of Pittsburgh Context Launched in 1997, PITT ARTS was designed to encourage Pitt students to participate incultural opportunities in the community. PITT ARTS wants students to be actively involved inthe arts so that they will become sophisticated consumers and supporters of the arts, as they growolder. Each year, PITT ARTS has meetings with large and small arts organizations ahead of theseason to set its programs. PITT ARTS purchases blocks of tickets from these organizations for                                                                                                                 “Pittsburgh Connections.” Cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. Web. 4 Dec. 2011. <http://www.studentaffairs.cmu.edu>.  33   22  
  23. 23. undergraduate students. In sum, PITT ARTS has 110 free events per academic year and eight tonine programs per week. Sometimes it offers free dinner, transportation and other incentives toencourage students to participate. The program’s goal is to help promote diverse arts to thestudents. As a result, it spends less effort on promoting popular shows like “Wicked.” PITT ARTS has been very successful at attracting students to attend these activities. Theaverage attendance rate is about 90% and the program has numerous free events in collaborationwith big and small arts organizations. Three team members met with Annabelle Clippinger,Director of PITT ARTTS, to gather more information about the program and gain a broaderunderstanding of how Pitt promotes arts experiences to its students.Major Findings PITT ARTS encourages students to sign up to a weekly mailing list that has 8,000-9,000subscribers. By using PatronMail (Pitt’s email system), PITT ARTS sends out differentnewsletters to undergraduate and graduate students each week. Almost all of the free programsare targeted to undergraduates, with two to three free programs for graduate students each year.There is also a different program called the “cheap seat program” for graduate students and staffthat offers discounted tickets to arts events. PITT ARTS promotes its programs through activityfairs, dormitory news, and by attending five to six different orientation events a year. Ms. Clippinger believes the content of the e-newsletter definitely plays an important rolein engaging students. If students do not understand certain types of art or are unfamiliar with thearts organization, it is really hard to motivate them to attend the concerts. Thus, PITT ARTS triesto play around with the words or create an image that appeals to the students to encourage themto attend. PITT ARTS does not utilize social media, because the program has direct access to itsaudience—Pitt students—through its comprehensive email list. Instead, PITT ARTS reliesprimarily on e-mail and posters to sufficiently market its events. In addition, PITT ARTS has a complete database that records each student’s eventattendance. This record makes it easy to trace who are the most involved students and whoseldom attends any programs, giving PITT ARTS a better understanding of the demographics ofthe attendees. To further understand more specific information about these active students, PITTARTS conducts 12-14 small surveys. These surveys focus on learning how students receive artsinformation outside of PITT ARTS and the Pitt campus so the program can collaborate withthose organizations.Significance The most significant finding from the PITT ARTS meeting is that an integrated systemwithin a particular university is an effective way to substantially promote students’ artsattendance. Although the PITT ARTS framework may be challenging to start and grow, therewards are demonstrable—PITT ARTS is highly successful at attracting and engaging studentswith a 90% participate rate and low marketing costs. Similarly, creating and maintaining a ticket and attendance database has enabled PITTARTS to conduct the majority of its research in house. As a result, PITT ARTS knows itsaudience and knows what events draw their attention as well as how to attract them, especially 23  
  24. 24. undergraduate students. Ms. Clippinger knows proximity might be the issue for students, so sheoffers free transportation for them. She knows students like incentives, so she sometimes offersfood at the events. And she knows the content of the e-newsletters is effective in engagingstudents, so she spends a majority of her time describing each event in an appealing way. Overall,the PITT ARTS interview provided valuable insights about how a university can successfullypromote arts engagement among its students given the proper organizational framework.Rajiv GargInterview Date: September 27, 2011Interviewee: • Rajiv Garg, Heinz College Ph.D. Candidate, Carnegie Mellon UniversityContext A Master of Information Systems Management student from Heinz College referredRajiv Garg to the Team as a valuable person to consult regarding the Team’s survey research. Mr.Garg’s own research focuses on online social networks, information diffusion on the Internet,digital piracy, Internet content personalization, open source software, technology innovation, andtechnology mergers & acquisitions. Two team members met with Mr. Garg to discuss hisresearch and garner advice from him about surveying, research strategies and social mediainfluencers.Major Findings Meeting with Mr. Garg had a large impact on the design and implementation of theTeam’s survey. Mr. Gargs expertise with surveying university students proved incrediblyvaluable in making sure CMU students could accurately take the survey as well as be motivatedto click on the survey link. Similarly, Mr. Gargs advice about offering the first 50 respondentsan incentive in addition to a drawing for prizes proved useful, as the survey had over 100respondents within the first 8 hours of its distribution. Overall, meeting with Mr. Garg was acritical component of the survey design process and the Team is grateful for his advice andexpertise.Significance Mr. Garg is experienced with conducting survey research, particularly with a similarstudy population to this project. Consequently, he was able to provide many insights aboutconstructing effective surveys. For instance, Mr. Garg suggested including two similar questionsabout events with slight differences in order to test the consistency of respondents answers. Mr.Garg also put some aspects of the survey into perspective for the Team. In particular, he talkedabout the challenges of the Team’s desire to capture specific information about social mediainfluencers. He mentioned that capturing that kind of data is extremely difficult and wouldinvolve a long-term study in which the researcher monitored social media activity on a dailybasis. In addition, Mr. Garg gave the Team advice about administering incentives in a way that 24  
  25. 25. would drive up the response rate.Focus Groups The Team conducted two sets of focus groups. The first set served as exploratoryresearch to uncover deeper insights about the previously mentioned research findings. Thesecond set of focus groups served as a way to further validate previous research, test differencesbetween CMU undergraduate and graduate students, uncover museum-specific behaviors andconfirm the Team’s survey conclusions.Question Methodology Both sets of focus groups began with fairly vague questions. The questions became moreprecise as participants volunteered more of their own insights. For instance, a beginning questionwas “What factors are most influential in deciding whether to attend an event?” Participants’responses were most often stream-of-consciousness attempts to describe how they perceivedtheir social decision structure, and although initial answers were fairly unfocused and off-topic,patterns invariably emerged.Focus Group IWho: CMU graduate studentsTopic The Team asked students what factors influence their decision to attend events/activitiesin general. Specifically, the Team asked how these influencing factors (e.g., proximity, cost,content, etc.) were weighted relative to each other. The Team also asked how students learnabout events/activities and how different channels may be more or less likely to influence theirattendance. The conversation was left broad in order to see if the participants would advance itorganically in any particular direction.Insights Students indicated that an activity’s content was the primary influencing factor and thatthey would attend events alone if the content was sufficiently attractive. Students would,however, attend events they did not find appealing if enough of their friends were attending. Thegroup also indicated that they usually prioritize one-time events and infrequent events overongoing activities. Other factors that were important, but not critical, were cost and proximity. In terms of learning about activities, students preferred a multi-channel approach. That is,they like to be informed and reminded about an event from as many different media channels aspossible, because this is convenient for them and can also reinforce an event’s credibility. One-to-one invitations are powerful, whether it is in person or via e-mail since students tend todismiss mass e-mails as spam, even when they come from friends. Students also demonstratedthat they are somewhat influenced by whether their friends have replied to a Facebook event. 25  
  26. 26. Focus Group IIWho: CMU undergraduate studentsTopic In this set of focus groups, the Team tried to refine previous research and test the surveyresults. The Team asked questions directly related to CMoA, as opposed to the initial focusgroups, where questions were not exclusively related to museum attendance. Four areasinfluenced this focus group’s questions: influencers, museum behaviors, effectivecommunication, and barriers to entry. Specifically, the Team wanted to discover what prohibitsstudents from attending the museum and garner feedback on proposed ideas that may resolve thisproblem.Insights Students indicated that friends are the most influential factor in determining what activityor event to attend. They said that it is undesirable to split up, and they would prefer to stay ingroups, even if they would prefer to do different things. Regarding awareness of CMoA, students noted they have no knowledge of the events,programs etc. offered by the museum, as they never see anything advertised. Therefore, thisseems to make proximity and price irrelevant, even though students walk by CMoA everyday.However, proximity is actually a significant influencer. Most undergraduates do not have a carand look for activities nearby where they can spend a few hours.In addition, time of day is crucial. Students are often busy during the week with school andmeetings, so in their limited free time, many students said that they want to relax, spend timewith friends, play video games, and “turn the intellect off.” Students also expressed that there are some things that would make them more inclined togo to CMoA. First, if they were communicated to through multiple channels (e-mail and socialmedia applications specifically), it would put the museum in their mind, substantially increasingtheir likelihood to attend. Second, if a firmer connection existed between CMoA and CMU, itwould pique students’ interest. While students said it is hard to attend CMoA during theweekdays, if the museum offered an early evening event (6-8pm) during their usual free time,they may be more inclined to go to the museum as it enables students to still have a social nightout, as the museum is nearby, and the event ends early.     26  
  27. 27. Case Study: Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra The Team wrote five case studies to provide further context to this study as well asdemonstrate best practices for student-event engagement. The following case studies wereselected based on three criteria: the event or organization specifically targets universitystudents; is within close proximity to a college/university or is easily accessible to universitystudents; and the event’s organizers use innovative marketing tactics to engage students. Theevents chosen were the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra’s College Nights; Baller BBQ; theMuseum of Science, Boston’s College Night; the University of Pittsburgh Men’s Basketballgames; and the Cleveland Museum of Art’s Summer Solstice Party. The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra: College Nights Prepared By: Rachel Niederberger and Laura Zwicker Introduction Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (then the Pittsburgh Orchestra) was founded in 1896.PSO has educational programs for school children, university students and continuing educationfor adults. This case study will deal exclusively with the College Nights at PSO, an educationalprogram specifically for university students in the Pittsburgh area and surrounding towns.Pittsburgh is unique for its high concentration of university students. The 2002 census ranked it22nd out of all cities in the United States with a saturation level of people with a Bachelor’sdegree or higher at 31%.34 Begun in 2000, the College Night program started inauspiciously. The University ofPittsburgh (Pitt) bought several sets of group tickets for its students and PSO took notice. WhenPitt bought the groups of tickets, PSO began to think about the possibility of a future partnership.Over the next few years, Pitt’s Office of the Provost developed a partnership with PSO, wherethe office underwrote a dessert reception at Heinz Hall (where PSO performs), and studentsbought their own tickets to the concert. This partnership inspired an expansion over the next tenyears to bring in more universities from the surrounding areas to fill the gap between younggrade school students who attend PSO’s Fiddlesticks concert series and PSO’s typically olderdemographic. In addition, the faculty and staff of Pitt are involved in the College Night program. Manyof them use the concerts as extra credit or even bring a class to hear performances. The PITTARTS program is the marketing tool for College Night at Pitt, making it a significant player inthe success of the College Night program at Pittsburgh’s largest university. PITT ARTS providesmultiple options to order and pay for tickets as well as a central contact to answer questionsabout transportation, making the planning process for students attending College Night muchsimpler. Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Fine Arts (CFA) joined the College Nightprogram in approximately 2005.35 At the same time, PSO was pushing to engage more university                                                                                                                34 U.S. Census Bureau. “ACS: Ranking Table -- Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a BachelorsDegree.” American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau, 2002. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.census.gov>.35 Communication with Cheryl Hays, Director of the President’s Office and Secretary of the Board of Trustees, and MichaelBielski, Senior Vice President & COO at the PSO about when CMU joined the College Nights program, Oct. 2011. 27  
  28. 28. students. CMU, like Pitt, created a partnership with PSO through the Office of the President. Asmany of the CFA faculty members are also members of PSO, most of CMU’s College Nights arescheduled around concerts in which a faculty member is being featured as a soloist. Thisscheduling gives PSO a definitive way to market to CMU students. Millie Myers, a PSO boardmember who is also involved at the Tepper School of Business on CMU’s campus, wasinstrumental in connecting PSO to the right people to initiate the partnership. Pittsburgh’s demographics are, once again, strongly university students, especially in thecity limits. This gives PSO an easy way to market to the students—simply by putting up posters,handing out flyers and sending e-mails, all of which PSO currently does. Getting to PSO is alsosimple, thanks to Pittsburgh’s accessible bus system. PSO’s program is particularly important because of its comprehensive reach to universitystudents. There are also some that have reciprocal relationships with PSO, like West VirginiaUniversity that PSO plays at twice a year. The universities currently on the College Night listare: o West Virginia University o The University of Pittsburgh o MBA Night o Robert Morris University o Carnegie Mellon University o California University o Slippery Rock University o Indiana University of Pennsylvania o University of Pittsburgh Alumni o Pennsylvania State University Alumni o Grove City College o Duquesne University Alumni o Engineers Night (student organization from Pitt that arranges their own night) o St. Vincent College o Point Park University o Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio o Chatham University o Carlow University PSO is close to these schools, but the presence of College Night with each university ismore of an inherent and happenstance program than something that was strategized and plannedout by PSO. This makes it difficult to identify the characteristics of College Night thatdistinguish PSO as a leader in this programming to university students. But PSO has beensuccessful and this analysis strives to determine the key factors that have affected that success.Problems & Solutions Even though the PSO College Night program was not planned, it did encounter and solvemultiple problems dealing with reaching out to students. Erin Lynn, the Director of Group Salesat PSO, visits both Pitt and CMU regularly to pass out flyers, posters, and other promotional 28  
  29. 29. materials. Ms. Lynn, while satisfied with the marketing at Pitt, thanks to the PITT ARTSprogram, was a little frustrated by CMU’s system. “I don’t know the point person at CMU,” shesaid. Also, she said, the contact at CMU changes a lot, and she has not been able to keep up withwho it is, much less have a relationship with him or her. Ms. Lynn thinks that perhaps CMU’sStudent Activities Office does not broadcast itself as the point of contact for CMU enough tooutside organizations like PSO. Ms. Lynn indicated that it might be easier to get a biggerresponse at CMU if the Student Activities Office actively marketed outside events to itsuniversity students. In addition, CMU does not have a main events calendar that goes out to allstudents. There is an “opt in” d-list for undergraduates, but the only online exposure that PSOgets at CMU is in CFA e-mails about its events, which are also “opt in.”36 Ms. Lynn is concernedthat the event is not advertised enough, but she does not have a lot of options to increaseattendance. Each university has proved to be different and difficult in its own way for marketingPSO’s College Nights. Ms. Lynn is satisfied with the numbers for each College Night, butlooking over the history of the attendance data, she does not see much of an uptick in studentattendance over the past 10 years. She does not really know why, either. PSO also does not havea notice about College Nights on its website, perhaps indicating the lesser importance of theCollege Nights to the organization as a whole. Ms. Lynn said there was supposed to be a websitenotice, but over the past year, there has been very little communication. To deal with this problem, Ms. Lynn is interested in exploring more channels to marketto students. With the exponential increase in social media use worldwide, Ms. Lynn is veryinterested in capitalizing on students’ use of social media to advertise the College Nights morebroadly. Currently, PSO’s presence on Facebook, Twitter and other social media is run solely bythe single-ticket marketing arm of PSO, in which Ms. Lynn is not involved. Therefore, Ms. Lynnrecommends texting—which PSO already uses for its’ single tickets program. Studies haveshown that more and more young people prefer texts as their primary means of communication.37 In addition, PSO needs to advertise the College Nights on its own website. The authors’knowledge of the 2010 CMU College Night was happenstance—there were no social media,website advertisement or e-mail blasts about it. CMU students who currently work at PSOprimarily advertised the event through word-of-mouth. By advertising the event on the PSOwebsite and through social media, PSO can take an active role in endorsing this pivotal programthat has shown so much promise. Ms. Lynn also indicated that the universities that have heavily involved alumni, facultyand administration have more attendees at the College Nights. For example, the MBA Night atPSO involves six universities including Robert Morris, CMU, Duquesne, Carlow, andWaynesburg. What started as a small chamber music concert with light hors d’oeuvres and theinvolvement of just a couple of universities has evolved into the night that currently takes placeat Heinz Hall and includes dinner and a business and music panel before a full-orchestra concert.Ms. Lynn says these attributes encourage students in the MBA programs at these universities to                                                                                                                36 Davis, Benjamin, and Taylor Grabowsky. “Student Activities Office Interview.” Personal interview. 23 Sept. 2011.37 Fox, Zoe. “31% of U.S. Adults Prefer to Be Reached by Text Message [STUDY].” Mashable.com. Mashable, Inc., 19 Sept.2011. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. <http://www.mashable.com>.   29  
  30. 30. attend the PSO College Nights because they provide students with the additional opportunity ofseeing and interacting with their peers and role models. The partnerships between the aforementioned 17 universities also usually involve areception, but some of the better-attended College Nights involve dinner, and/or some similarevent to an MBA Night. This continues the thought from the PITT ARTS research studies thatexpanding an event into more of an occasion with all kinds of benefits increases attendance.38Ms. Lynn also talked about the personal involvement of PSO’s Music Director, Manfred Honeck,in the College Nights. “Manfred takes a particular interest in all of the students at each CollegeNight and takes the time to talk to each person in the room,” says Ms. Lynn. Maestro Honeck iskeenly interested in the success of College Nights and wants to be directly involved. Ms. Lynnbelieves that this contributes to the success of College Nights. Additionally, several schools have their own unique personal connections with PSO:CMU, through orchestra members who also serve as faculty members at CMU’s School ofMusic; and Point Park through its relationship with Marvin Hamlisch as one of its DistinguishedMaster Artists in Residence. Conclusions and Recommendations From the data on the PSO College Nights thus far, three factors have been identified asways PSO increases student attendance: 1. School administration involvement (reception) 2. Tying concert to something else of interest (ex: MBA Night business/music panel) 3. Alumni involvement and/or other connection between university and PSO Based on these findings, specific recommendations for CMoA include getting schooladministration involved in sponsoring receptions to indicate that CMoA has buy-in from theschool. These partnerships may also provide an additional incentive for CMU students to go tothe museum. Also, if there is something else of interest going on at the museum, such as anetworking event or panel, it might further encourage students to invest their time in attending.Finally, a personal connection to the school through an alumnus, artist or museum representativecould potentially increase the likelihood of students’ attendance.                                                                                                                38 Annabelle Chippinger and Kitty Julian. Young Audiences and the Arts. Rep. Young Audiences and The Arts: Findings of theYoung Adult Arts Participation Initiative, 2004. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.pittarts.pitt.edu/documents/YAAPI_report.pdf>. 30  
  31. 31. Case Studies: Baller BBQ Baller BBQ Prepared By: Terry Boyd and Yun CaiIntroduction The Baller BBQ started in 2007 as an annual summer grill-out located in Pittsburgh’sShadyside neighborhood when a group of six friends and local residents—Michael Brant, KevinHeher, Alex Palma, Luke Skurman, Serge Smailbegovic, and Bobby Zappala—decided to startthrowing parties for young professionals. These informal networking parties were dedicated tostudents who had resisted the urge to leave town post-university graduation. The BBQ is nowheld twice a year and provides 1,000 pounds of food, a massive bar, and an assortment of liveentertainment for its rapidly growing attendees. The Baller BBQ’s founders initial plan of encouraging progress and creativity inPittsburgh through celebration soon became a fundraising effort called the Business Bout—acompetition offering $5,000 in seed money to startups with a desire to stay local.39 Baller BBQ isparticularly important as a case for this report because it appeals to the 21-35 year-olddemographic (a majority of this study’s target audience) and the event’s organizers havesuccessfully used social media and digital communications to promote the BBQ.Problem Although Baller BBQ does not have any direct competitors, Mr. Skurman, one of theevent’s founders, mentioned they still implement an aggressive marketing campaign to raiseyoung people’s interests and passion to attend the BBQ. Furthermore, Baller BBQ has reliedheavily on social media marketing. Nonetheless, the BBQ needed to diversify its social mediaapproaches. Due to the most recent change in making Facebook events—if you have more than500 confirmed attendees, you can no longer send messages to your guests—Baller BBQ ishaving problems using Facebook as a marketing platform.Solutions Mr. Skurman was able to solve these problems by building close friendships with localcommunities, utilizing creative social media marketing strategies and redesigning its businessmodel. Baller BBQ leveraged its relationships with Pitt, CMU, Duquesne, AlphaLab andInnovation Works to spread the word about the $5,000 prize to their channels of young andaspiring entrepreneurs. Baller BBQ also has a great relationship with several media outletsregionally, such as the Pittsburgh Post Gazette, PGH BIZ Times, Pittsburgh Mag, Pop City andWTAE. These relationships have been fruitful, as they have enabled the BBQ team to effectivelymarket its annual event to a large audience. Facebook and Twitter were the most effective marketing channels when promoting theevents. They allowed Baller BBQ to directly connect with its fans before the event and createinteractions that provided a real-time FAQ section. This also gave yhe Baller BBQ team the                                                                                                                39 Collier, Sean. “Last Warning: Dont Miss the Baller BBQ.” Pittsburgh Magazine Sept. 2011. Pittsburghmagazine.com.Pittsburgh Magazine, Sept. 2011. Web. 3 Dec. 2011. <http://www.pittsburghmagazine.com>. 31  

×