What is communism? What is socialism? a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
What is capitalism? Adam Smith: a Scottish professor, wrote The Wealth of Nations challenged mercantilism (labor not money was the source of wealth) laissez faire: the government should not interfere in business Need for Reform utilitarianism John Stuart Mill concluded that the government should stay out of people’s lives as much as possible but also allow the promotion of education. ▪ called for equality between men and women ▪ warned against potential tyranny of the majority and that government power should be limited.
What is socialism? Socialists believed that the means of production should be operated to benefit all of the people rather than just some of them they hoped to end the misery of the poor by changing the structure of society Utopian Socialists utopia: the ideal society
Karl Marx German, studied at the Universities of Bonn and Berlin forced to Paris where he met Friedrich Engel Friedrich Engels Son of a German manufactuer Wrote a book that caught the eye of Karl Marx
Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels believed that it wasn’t possible to have a utopian society. They felt that it was important to dissolve the existing social system. Their basis was on the struggle of the classes. Marx’s ideas Conflict between the classes was inevitable division of classes Capitalism was not a permanent state Marx’s Writings Communist Manifesto (1848) Das Capital (1885) Greatly effected the workers ▪ Trade unions ▪ Strikes
Romanticism: the idea that humankind was good, emphasized the senses and emotions followed the basic idea of Jean-Jacques Rousseau Other famous romanticists ▪ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ▪ Alexander Dumas (Three Musketeers and Count of Monte Cristo) ▪ Victor Hugo (The Hunchback of Notre Dame) ▪ Sir Walter Scott (Ivanhoe) ▪ John Keats
Realism: portrayed life in a realistic style, advocated human freedom and wanted a better world, wanted change-not escape Charles Dickens Naturalism: took a scientific approach to their art, describing everything with objective precision Leo Tolstoy ( War and Peace, Anna Karenina) Stephen Crane (Red Badge of Courage)
Impressionism (in painting): art that didn’t delve into social problems, was pleasant to look at and a little sentimental, they used color to create effects Claude Monet
Post- Impressionism: they believed that art should reproduce reality as close as possible Georges Seurat (Sunday afternoon on the island of La Grande Jatte) Vincent van Gogh