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Vegetative propagation

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Get to know about tissue culture, artificial propagation, vegetative propagation- Grafting, layering and cutting.

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Vegetative propagation

  1. 1. Topic 1- Vegetative propagation Vegetative reproduction (vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication, vegetative cloning) is a form of asexual reproduction in plants. It is a process by which new organisms arise without production of seeds or spores.[ It can occur naturally or be induced by horticulturists. Although most plants normally reproduce sexually, many have the ability for vegetative propagation, or can be vegetatively propagated if small pieces are subjected to chemical (hormonal) treatments. This is because merismetic cells capable of cellular differentiation are present in many plant tissues. Horticulturalists are interested in understanding how meristematic cells can be induced to reproduce an entire plant.
  2. 2. Types In a wide sense, methods of vegetative propagation include cutting, vegetative layering, division, budding, grafting and tissue culture. Cutting is the most common artificial vegetative propagation method, where pieces of the "parent" plant are removed and placed in a suitable environment so that they can grow into a whole new plant, the "clone", which is genetically identical to the parent.
  3. 3. Natural vegetative propagation Natural vegetative propagation is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennially plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem, although any horizontal, underground part of a plant (whether stem, leaf, or root) can contribute to vegetative reproduction of a plant. Most plant species that survive and significantly expand by vegetative reproduction would be perennial almost by definition, since specialized organs of vegetative reproduction, like seeds of annuals, serve to survive seasonally harsh conditions.
  4. 4. Artificial vegetative propagation Mass propagation of eucalyptus seedlings Vegetative propagation of particular cultivars that have desirable characteristics is very common practice. Reasons for preferring vegetative rather than sexual means of reproduction vary, but commonly include greater ease and speed of propagation of certain plants, such as many perennial root crops and vines. Another major attraction is that the resulting plant amounts to a clone of the parent plant and accordingly is of a more predictable quality than most seedlings. However, as can be seen in many variegated plants, this does not always apply, because many plants actually are chimeras and cuttings might reflect the attributes of only one or some of the parent cell lines. Man-made methods of vegetative reproduction are usually enhancements of natural processes, but they range from rooting cuttings to grafting and artificial propagation by laboratory tissue culture.
  5. 5. Types The three common methods for the artificial propagation of plants are: 1. Cuttings, A small part of a plant which is removed by making a cut with a sharp knife is called a 'cutting'. A cutting may be a piece of stem, root or even a leaf. While making a cut, care should be taken to see that there are some buds on it. In this method, a cutting of the parent plant (say, of stem or shoot) having some buds on it is taken and its lower part is buried in the moist soil. After a few days, the cutting develops roots; shoot, and grows into a new plant. Cuttings are a means of asexual reproduction in plants. The new plant formed from a cutting is exactly similar to the parent plant.
  6. 6. 2. Layering, and In this method, a branch of the plant is pulled towards the ground and a part of it is covered with moist soil leaving the tip of the branch exposed above the ground. After some time, new roots develop from the part of the branch buried in the soil. The branch is then cut off from the parent plant. The part of the branch which has developed roots grows to become a new plant (just like the parent plant). Jasmine plant (chameli) is propagated or produced by the layering method. The parts of branches which are buried in soil grow their own roots. When this happens, the branches of the parent plant connecting the newly formed plants are cut off so that the newly formed plants may grow on their own and develop into mature plants (like the parent plant).
  7. 7. 3. Grafting. Grafting is a method in which the cut stems of two different plants (one with roots and other without roots) are joined together in such a way that the two stems join and grow as a single plant. This new plant will have the characteristics of both the original plants. (i) The cut stem of a plant (or tree) having roots (and fixed in soil) is called stock. Stock is the lower part of a plant (or tree) having the roots. (ii) The cut stem of another plant (without roots) is called scion. Scion is the upper part of a plant which may have leaves on it (but no roots).
  8. 8. Topic 2-Tissue culturePlant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micro propagation. Based on the concept of cellular totipotency. All the multicellular organisms basically are formed from a single cell (a zygote). The single cell produces an undifferentiated multiple cells until it’s called a callus. The embro formed is called the embroid. Again, a single cell can also be separated and cultured to give rise to a new plantlet. This is called cell culture.

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