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Indian architecture vs african architecture

the slides give you all you need to know about the architecture of india and africa. enjoy!

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Indian architecture vs african architecture

  1. 1. •The beginnings of Indian architecture are more properly to be dated to the advent of Buddhism in India. •In the reign of Ashoka (c. 270-232), the construction of Buddhist monasteries and stupas took place – the first architectural works of India. Buddhist architecture was predominant for several centuries.
  2. 2. The Great Mosque of Djenné is a large banco that is considered by many architects to be one of the greatest achievements. it is one of the most famous landmarks in Africa. Along with the “Old Town Of Djenné" it was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.
  3. 3. •By the eighth century, with the consolidation of Hindu kingdoms, the southern Hindu school of architecture was beginning to flourish. • Notable achievements of the Pallavas - rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram and the temples of Kanchipuram. •In north India, meanwhile, architecture was to be a more contentious matter. The period from 1000-1300 was a time when Hindu architecture flourished throughout India.
  4. 4.  North Africa saw the rise of Islamic architecture, including famous structures as the Great Mosque of Kairouan or the Cairo Citadel.  Well-known structures employing the use of monoliths (a large single upright block of stone, especially one shaped into or serving as a pillar or monument) include tombs such as the “Tomb Of the False Door" and the tombs of Kaleb and Gebre Mesquel in Axum. • West Africa: locals lived in domed- shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city ( Kumbi Saleh); section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques. • Central Africa: Mostly dependent on Island architecture , as this part is largely in between the waters ; 1. Zimbabwean style 2. Transvaal Free State style have been very prominent at that time
  5. 5. The weakness of Muslim dynasties in the north enabled Rajput kings to assert their independence; the results of this Hindu revival are to be seen in Chittor, and elsewhere in Rajasthan where massive forts dot the landscape. In north India, meanwhile, architecture was to be a more contentious matter. The fabled temple at Somnath, renowned for its purported riches, is said to have been destroyed by the Muslim invader Mahmud of Ghazni, and after the attainment of Indian independence, the restoration of this temple became a matter of national pride for more ardent defenders of the faith. The Mughal emperors of India, most particularly Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan, were heavily invested in monumental architecture and spent lavishly on the construction of mosques, mausoleums, forts, palaces, and other buildings. The principal sites of Mughal Architecture.- •Delhi •Lahore •Agra
  6. 6. Now a part of Old Delhi, Its most famous buildings include the Jama Masjid, one of the largest mosques in the world, and the Red Fort (Lal Qila), which over the last four hundred years has become uniquely emblematic of state power. Akbar likewise built a new capital at Fatehpur Sikri, a few miles outside Agra
  7. 7. North Africa The Islamic conquest of North Africa saw Islamic Architecture develop in the region, including such famous structures as the great Mosque of Kairouan or the Cairo Citadel. West Africa Ghana-The Great Mosque of Djenne Benin-Walls of Benin City
  8. 8. Yoruba- Sungbo's Eredo East Africa Kitara and Bunyoro- earthworks near the Katonga River Nubia (Christian and Islamic)- • Meroitic Pyramids •The city of Kerma •The Western Deffufa •Temple of Debod Central Africa Kongo- The capital of the Kingdom of Kongo
  9. 9. Southern Africa In Southern Africa one finds ancient and widespread traditions of building in stone. Two broad categories of these tradition have been noted: 1. Zimbabwean style 2. Transvaal Free State style. Shona-The conical tower inside the Great Enclosure in Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city built by a prosperous culture Sotho-Tswana-Terraced hill, entrance way of Khami, capital of the Torwa State
  10. 10. During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab, Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Portuguese soldiers had initially come in the mid-16th century as allies to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, and later Jesuits came hoping to convert the country. Castles were built especially beginning with the reign of Sarsa Dengel around the Lake Tana region, and subsequent Emperors maintained the tradition, eventually resulting in the creation of the Fasil Ghebbi (royal enclosure of castles) in the newly founded capital (1635), Gondar. Emperor Susenyos (r.1606-1632) converted to Catholicism in 1622 and attempted to make it the state religion, declaring it as such from 1624 until his abdication; during this time, he employed Arab, Gujarati (brought by the Jesuits), and Jesuit masons and their styles, as well as local masons, some of whom were Beta Israel.
  11. 11. During the British Raj many new buildings were erected. There are several important architectural structures of the colonial period. The most noteworthy architectural phenomenon in the first half of the 20th Century in India was the building of Imperial Delhi, a masterpiece by Sir Edward Lutyen. Built in high renaissance architecture, it had a typical feel of early 19th Century Europe. Important erected structures- •Rashtrapati Bhawan •Gateway of India •Cellular Jail
  12. 12. The French colonized a fishing village (Pondicherry) in Tamil Nadu and transformed it into a flourishing port-town. The town was built on the French grid pattern and features neat sectors and perpendicular streets and divided into two sectors, French Quarter (Ville Blanche) and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire). French styled villas were styled with long compounds and stately walls, lined houses with verandas, large French doors and grills. Infrastructure such as banks, police station and Pondicherry International Port still hold the French presence.