Pairs Trading - Hedge Fund Strategies


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A brief overview of a hedge fund strategy used in alternative investment markets.

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Pairs Trading - Hedge Fund Strategies

  1. 1. Hedge Fund Strategies Pairs trading
  2. 2. Pairs trading Index: 1. Definition 2. Data snooping and market response 3. Relative pricing 4. Co-integrated prices 5. Bankruptcy risk
  3. 3. 1. Definition Pairs trading: - Choose two stocks whose prices have moved together historically; - Short the winner and buy the loser, when the spread between them widens; - Prices will converge and the arbitrageur will profit, if history repeats itself, (Gatev et. al 2006)
  4. 4. 2. Data snooping and market response The danger in data-snooping modifications outweigh the potential insights gained about the higher profits that could result from learning through testing. One approach to the data snooping issue is to test the results out of sample. (Gatev et. al 2006)
  5. 5. 3. Relative pricing Relative pricing, does not say what that price will be but means that two securities that are close substitutes for each other should sell for the same price. Allows for bubbles in the economy. But not arbitrage or profitable speculation. The Law of One Price [LOP] and a ‘‘near-LOP’’ are applicable even if that price is wrong. (Gatev et. al 2006)
  6. 6. 3. Relative pricing LOP: ‘‘... that two investments with the same payoff in every state of nature must have the same current value.’’ (Ingersoll, 1987)
  7. 7. 3. Relative pricing Method: Use an algorithm to choose pairs with the same or nearly the same state prices historically. Then trade that pairs, because the LOP proposes that in an efficient market their prices should be nearly identical. (Gatev et. al 2006)
  8. 8. 4. Co-integrated prices The pairs trading strategy may be justified with nonstationary common factors within an equilibrium assetpricing framework; The prices of the component portfolios would be cointegrated and the pairs trading strategy would be expected to work, if the long and short components fluctuate with common nonstationary factors. (Bossaerts & Green, 1989 and Jagannathan & Viswanathan, 1988)
  9. 9. 5. Bankruptcy risk Bankruptcy risk: is one cause why the returns cannot be taken as stationary. Sensitivity of the pairs trading to the default premium: The strategy may work because are pairing two firms, the first may have a temporarily increasing probability of bankruptcy (long end), whereas the second of which may have a constant or decreasing probability of bankruptcy (short end). - It would be expected to have asymmetry in the profits from the long and the short components  It should be tested the long and short positions separately to see if this is driving the results. (Gatev et. al 2006)
  10. 10. References Bossaerts, P., and R. Green, 1989, ‘A General Equilibrium Model of Changing Risk Premia: Theory and Evidence’, Review of Financial Studies, 2, 467–493; Gatev, E.; Goetzmann, W. N.; and Rouwenhorst, K. G., 2000, ‘Pairs trading: Performance of a relative value arbitrage rule’, Yale School of Management working paper. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University; Ingersoll, J., Jr., 1987, ‘Theory of Financial Decision-Making’, Rowman and Littlefiled, New Jersey; Jagannathan, R., and S. Viswanathan, 1988, ‘Linear Factor Pricing, Term Structure of Interest Rates and the Small Firm Anomaly’, Working Paper 57, Northwestern University.