An Explorative Study of theLeadership Style, Organisational Culture and Context Requiredfor Successful Open Innovation (OI) Practice in the Creative Industries.
Research Objectives● To understand the context and leadership competencies required for successful OI, through a literary review of current OI theory, style, approaches and the outcomes of open innovation activities.● To conduct primary and qualitative research, identifying the range of leadership skills, behaviours and competencies required and utilised in facilitating OI, as compared to leadership qualities found in the creative industries.● To analyse findings in the context of existing theories and determine the main factors affecting the success or failure of OI processes in the creative industries.
Rational● Access to Sample for Data Collection● Interest in Understanding Research Area● New Area of Study in Field of Leadership● Work Related Interest
Questions to Explore● What is the definition of open innovation and how does it differ from innovation?● Why use OI processes?● What leadership styles, contexts and cultures have been shown to work well in the OI process?● What types of companies have already been researched using OI ? Which have not?● What are the limitations to the current availability and depth of research in OI?
Other Questions● What are the predominant leadership styles found in the creative industries?● How do these compare to the styles required for successful OI?● Is OI already taking place among creative businesses?● What are the factors affecting the success or failure of OI processes in creative industries?● What recommendations can be made to improve leadership competencies in creative businesses when conducting OI practices.
Literary Review - Main Theories● Term Open Innovation (OI) originally coined by Henry Chesbrough in 2003 as a model for Innovation Management – based on the need for companies to open up their innovation processes, combining internally and externally developed technologies, creating increased business value.● Originally used in context of open source software development, (Gruber & Henkel: 2006, West & Gallagher: 2006.) although now has broader connotations. (Piller & Walcher: 2006) e.g. management models (Gassman & Reepmeyer: 2005), business models, industrial dynamics.
Open Innovation Model – based on Chesbrough, H: 2003
Leadership Competencies● Leadership Role very important in fostering organisational change to accommodate outside partners, and to facilitate the process of OI (Dodgson et al: 2006)● Although current research mentions the need for leaders to support others striving to be innovative, there is little analysis of leadership in OI. (Enkel et al: 2006)● OI requires cognitive changes in the mindset of a leader and adaptation of organisations to enable the OI process. (Buijs: 2007)
Methods Explore and Compare Leadership Styles between OI Leaders and Leaders in Creative Industries.● Primary Data Collection Tools - Leadership questionaire (aim for sample size of 100), semi-structured interviews (with 10 leaders). Explore organisational structure, culture and context present in cases of successful and unsuccessful OI and any leadership activities which impede or enhance this environment.● Primary Data Collection Tools – Semi-structured interviews with (same 10) leaders and observation of company culture where possible.
Type of Analysis● Primary qualitative data collection methods chosen based on exploratory nature of study and lack of available secondary data.● Interviews analysed based on answers given, body language and observed characteristics.● Company Culture Analysed based on predefined observation criteria. e.g. team dynamics, attitudes to work● Leadership Questionaire results scored and analysed based around 8 different predefined leadership styles.
Limitations● A lack of depth and volume of current research (and secondary data) surrounding OI theory and how it integrates to existing business models.● Relatively small sample size in this study, meaning generalisation of results could be misleading.●
Authors● The Definition of Open Innovation: Chesbrough, 2003a, b, 2004, 2006a, b; Chiaromonte, 2006; Gassmann and Reepmeyer, 2005; Gruber and Henkel, 2006; West and Gallagher, 2006; Gaule, 2006; Motzek, 2007● Business models: Chesbrough, 2003c, 2007; Chesbrough and Schwartz, 2007;Van der Meer, 2007● Organisational Structure and Company Boundaries: Brown and Hagel, 2006; Chesbrough, 2003b; Dahlander and Wallin, 2006; Dittrich and Duysters, 2007; Fetterhoff and Voelkel, 2006; Jacobides and Billinger, 2006; Lichtentaler and Ernst, 2006; Lichtenthaler, 2007a, b; Simard and West, 2006, Tao and Magnotta, 2006● Leadership and Organisational Culture: Dodgson al., 2006; Fleming and Waguespack, 2007; Witzeman al., 2006● Tools and Technologies: Dodgson al., 2006; Enkel al., 2005; Gassman al., 2006; Henkel, 2006, Huston and Sakkab, 2006, 2007; Piller and Walcher, 2006; Tao and Magnotta, 2006● IP, Patenting and Appropriation: Chesbrough, 2003a; Henkel, 2006; Hurmelinna al., 2007● Industrial Dynamics and Manufacturing: Berkhout et al., 2006; Bromley, 2004; Christensen al., 2005; Cooke, 2005; Vanhaverbeke, 2006