An Explorative Study of the Leadership Style, OrganisationalCulture and Context Required for Successful Open Innovation (OI)Practice in the Creative Industries.
Research Objectives● To understand the context and leadership competencies required for successful OI, through a literary review of current OI theory, style, approaches and the outcomes of open innovation activities.● To conduct primary and qualitative research, identifying the range of leadership skills, behaviours and competencies required and utilised in facilitating OI, as compared to leadership qualities found in the creative industries.● To analyse findings in the context of existing theories and determine the main factors affecting the success or failure of OI processes in the creative industries.
Rational● Access to Sample for Data Collection● Interest in Understanding Research Area● New Area of Study in Field of Leadership● Work Related Interest
Questions to Explore● What is the definition of open innovation and how does it differ from innovation?● Why use OI processes?● What leadership styles, contexts and cultures have been shown to work well in the OI process?● What types of companies have already been researched using OI ? Which have not?● What are the limitations to the current availability and depth of research in OI?
Other Questions● What are the predominant leadership styles found in the creative industries?● How do these compare to the styles required for successful OI?● Is OI already taking place among creative businesses?● What are the factors affecting the success or failure of OI processes in creative industries?● What recommendations can be made to improve leadership competencies in creative businesses when conducting OI practices.
Literary Review - Main Theories● Term Open Innovation (OI) originally coined by Henry Chesbrough in 2003 as a model for Innovation Management – based on the need for companies to open up their innovation processes, combining internally and externally developed technologies, creating increased business value.● Originally used in context of open source software development, (Gruber & Henkel: 2006, West & Gallagher: 2006.) although now has broader connotations. (Piller & Walcher: 2006) e.g. management models (Gassman & Reepmeyer: 2005), business models, industrial dynamics.
Open Innovation Model – based on Chesbrough, H: 2003
Leadership Competencies● Leadership Role very important in fostering organisational change to accommodate outside partners, and to facilitate the process of OI (Dodgson et al: 2006)● Although current research mentions the need for leaders to support others striving to be innovative, there is little analysis of leadership in OI. (Enkel et al: 2006)● OI requires cognitive changes in the mindset of a leader and adaptation of organisations to enable the OI process. (Buijs: 2007)
Methods Explore and Compare Leadership Styles between OI Leaders and Leaders in Creative Industries.● Primary Data Collection Tools - Leadership questionaire (aim for sample size of 100), semi-structured interviews (with 10 leaders). Explore organisational structure, culture and context present in cases of successful and unsuccessful OI and any leadership activities which impede or enhance this environment.● Primary Data Collection Tools – Semi-structured interviews with (same 10) leaders and observation of company culture where possible.
Type of Analysis● Primary qualitative data collection methods chosen based on exploratory nature of study and lack of available secondary data.● Interviews analysed based on answers given, body language and observed characteristics.● Company Culture Analysed based on predefined observation criteria. e.g. team dynamics, attitudes to work● Leadership Questionaire results scored and analysed based around 8 different predefined leadership styles.
Limitations● A lack of depth and volume of current research (and secondary data) surrounding OI theory and how it integrates to existing business models.● Relatively small sample size in this study, meaning generalisation of results could be misleading.● The creative industries consists of 13 subsectors as defined by the DCMS, covering a broad range of business types. This study explores leadership in creative industries which may be too general a definition to clearly distinguish specific leadership competencies.
Wk 1 Wk 2 Timeline Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5Feb Formulate Initial look at OI Workshop Prepare Research Title and current available Edinburgh & meet Presentation & Objectives research tutor meet SupervisorMar Give Presentation, Hand in Proposal, Literary Proposal Construct Feedback on Proposal? Arrange more literary meet supervisor questions and Interviews research, write again areas to discuss Proposal for interviews. Meet with supervisorApr Send out Conduct interviews Conduct Start to process leadership Interviews data, resend questionnaire leadership questionnaire/chas e Meet with Collate Leadership Process and Start to build Meet with supervisor, start toMay supervisor, questionnaire compare two sets picture of process pull together information. Look process data results of data and competencies. at structure and main findings.Jun Start draft one Meet supervisor Finish 1st draftJul Meet supervisor? Start draft 2Aug Finish draft 2 Proof read and final tweak and hand in & sleep meet supervisor (if bind available)
Authors● The Definition of Open Innovation: Chesbrough, 2003a, b, 2004, 2006a, b; Chiaromonte, 2006; Gassmann and Reepmeyer, 2005; Gruber and Henkel, 2006; West and Gallagher, 2006; Gaule, 2006; Motzek, 2007● Business models: Chesbrough, 2003c, 2007; Chesbrough and Schwartz, 2007;Van der Meer, 2007● Organisational Structure and Company Boundaries: Brown and Hagel, 2006; Chesbrough, 2003b; Dahlander and Wallin, 2006; Dittrich and Duysters, 2007; Fetterhoff and Voelkel, 2006; Jacobides and Billinger, 2006; Lichtentaler and Ernst, 2006; Lichtenthaler, 2007a, b; Simard and West, 2006, Tao and Magnotta, 2006● Leadership and Organisational Culture: Dodgson al., 2006; Fleming and Waguespack, 2007; Witzeman al., 2006● Tools and Technologies: Dodgson al., 2006; Enkel al., 2005; Gassman al., 2006; Henkel, 2006, Huston and Sakkab, 2006, 2007; Piller and Walcher, 2006; Tao and Magnotta, 2006● IP, Patenting and Appropriation: Chesbrough, 2003a; Henkel, 2006; Hurmelinna al., 2007● Industrial Dynamics and Manufacturing: Berkhout et al., 2006; Bromley, 2004; Christensen al., 2005; Cooke, 2005; Vanhaverbeke, 2006