Shubha Chakravarty and Mattias LundbergLabor Markets Core CourseWorld BankMay 2013Design and Implementation ofSkills Train...
• 6 Key Challenges• Background on the AGI• Answering the Challenges• Summary• Additional advice• Where to Get HelpOutline ...
1. Whom to target: “Vulnerability” vs. “Employability”2. What to teach: Demand-driven vs. market-driven3. What to teach: T...
• Objective: Economic empowerment for young women (aged 16-24) in 8 countries worldwide• Design Features:– Private sector/...
• Implemented by Ministry of Gender• Design Features:– 4 NGO service providers competitively selected (plus 4 more sub-con...
• Implemented by Helvetas (International NGO, with Govt.)• Design Features:– Builds upon an existing model for private sec...
• Tradeoff between “Vulnerability” vs. “Employability”• Option 1: Define clearly whom you want to train, define realistict...
• Tradeoff between demand-driven vs. market-driven trades• Various challenges with venturing into new trades:– Availabilit...
• Trainees have various learning needs: tradeoff between how manyto address• Emerging evidence that comprehensive skills p...
• Although rarely reported, high dropout rates plague many skillstraining programs• Trainees have many constraints to part...
• Tradeoff between investing in monitoring and training morestudents• Require a market assessment– Provide training/ guida...
• Tradeoff between govt. and NGO/private sector delivery of skills training• If you choose non-govt. service delivery, the...
 Acknowledge the tradeoff between vulnerability andemployability by either adjusting targets or budgeting morefor vulnera...
• Do an impact evaluation during Phase 1 (please!)– Advocate for expansion (or not)– Know which components are essential– ...
• WB’s Youth Employment Inventory (www.youth-employment-inventory.org)– Global repository of youth employment programs (WB...
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Labor Markets Core Course 2013: Case Study of the Adolescent Girls Initiative

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Labor Markets Core Course 2013: Case Study of the Adolescent Girls Initiative

  1. 1. Shubha Chakravarty and Mattias LundbergLabor Markets Core CourseWorld BankMay 2013Design and Implementation ofSkills Training Programs:A Case Study of the AdolescentGirls Initiative
  2. 2. • 6 Key Challenges• Background on the AGI• Answering the Challenges• Summary• Additional advice• Where to Get HelpOutline of Presentation2
  3. 3. 1. Whom to target: “Vulnerability” vs. “Employability”2. What to teach: Demand-driven vs. market-driven3. What to teach: Technical skills vs. full package of skills4. How to incentivize trainees: Complementary services5. How to incentivize training providers: Performance-based contracts6. How to build client ownership: Institutionalarrangements6 Key Design Challenges3
  4. 4. • Objective: Economic empowerment for young women (aged 16-24) in 8 countries worldwide• Design Features:– Private sector/NGO training providers competitively selected to providemarket-relevant skills training– Vocational Skills for wage or self employment– Life skills training to address girls’ vulnerabilities– Financial literacy and business development– Microfinance (South Sudan)– Stipend (Rwanda, Afghanistan)– Job placement through performance-based contracts (Liberia, Nepal)• Today, we’ll focus on Liberia and Nepal (with some anecdotesfrom non-AGI programs in Uganda and Kenya)Background on the AGI
  5. 5. • Implemented by Ministry of Gender• Design Features:– 4 NGO service providers competitively selected (plus 4 more sub-contracted)– Trainees choose between job skills and business development– Wide variety of training areas: painting, hotel/ restaurant work, driving,etc.– Coverage: 2500 girls in Greater Monrovia– Training conducted in small groups– Six month follow-up period for job placement• Video: http://www.youtube.com/worldbank#p/c/35/9rP4-b1FN_gAGI in Liberia (EPAG)
  6. 6. • Implemented by Helvetas (International NGO, with Govt.)• Design Features:– Builds upon an existing model for private sector skills training (supportedby DfID and SDC)– Focus on wage employment– Training providers conduct rapid market assessments (RMAs) to identifytraditional and non-traditional trades– Mixed classrooms with males and older students (up to age 40)– Wide geographic coverage: 4000 girls in 50 districts of country• Video: http://www.youtube.com/worldbank#p/c/1/ljKBQob27sIAGI in Nepal (AGEI)
  7. 7. • Tradeoff between “Vulnerability” vs. “Employability”• Option 1: Define clearly whom you want to train, define realistictargets, and adjust as needed (Liberia)– Entrepreneurship Target: 85%. Job Skills Target: 55%– Original eligibility criteria loosened, literacy feeder component added.• Option 2: Let the market decide (Nepal)– Set clearly defined (and verifiable) vulnerability criteria– Pay a per-student incentive for members of vulnerable groups– Adjust the criteria as needed (e.g., some groups may not requireincentives over time)• Don’t assume the “vulnerable” will come to you– Specialized communications and outreach strategies (Liberia)– Leverage civil society groups to reach out to specific groups (Nepal) Bottom line: Acknowledge the tradeoff by either adjusting targetsor budgeting more for vulnerable groupsChallenge 1: Whom to target7
  8. 8. • Tradeoff between demand-driven vs. market-driven trades• Various challenges with venturing into new trades:– Availability of curricula, trainers, skills certification– Higher risk of dropouts– For women: stigma associated with male-dominated trades may constraintheir employment after the training• Tradeoff between entrepreneurship and wage employment• Various approaches to facilitating an informed choice amongtrainees:– Informal counseling (Liberia)– Orientation session before application (Kenya)– Advertisements (e.g., radio spots) before application (Nepal)– Induction period after application (Rwanda) Bottom Line: Educate (yourself and) your beneficiaries before theychoose a trade. Equip all trainees with basic entrepreneurship skills.Challenge 2: What to teach8
  9. 9. • Trainees have various learning needs: tradeoff between how manyto address• Emerging evidence that comprehensive skills packages have goodresults:– One (or more) technical skills (multi-skilling)– Entrepreneurship and financial literacy– Life skills: Customer service, interview skills, negotiation, communication,stress management, worker rights• Employers often say that the “other stuff” matters more than thetechnical skills themselves• Various challenges with delivering skills packages:– Might need to engage various training providers– Additional complexity and cost reduces potential for scale-up Bottom Line: In most contexts, purely technical skills training is notenough. Experiment with different packages to learn what’sabsolutely necessary.Challenge 3: What to teach9
  10. 10. • Although rarely reported, high dropout rates plague many skillstraining programs• Trainees have many constraints to participation: Tradeoff betweenhow many to address• Related tradeoff between facilitating participation and attractingless motivated students• Types of incentives:– Stipends: None, transport only, transport plus subsistence– Other monetary incentives: completion bonus, microfinance loans, start-up kits– Non-monetary incentives: child care, one-on-one mentoring,interventions, prizes for attendance• Pre-program assessments help, but “revealed preferences” aremore telling Bottom line: Figure out which constraints are binding, and focus onaddressing thoseChallenge 4: Incentivizing Trainees10
  11. 11. • Tradeoff between investing in monitoring and training morestudents• Require a market assessment– Provide training/ guidance on how to conduct (Nepal)• Frequent and unannounced quality control visits– Can be done cheaply using part-time monitors (Liberia)– Develop checklist in conjunction with training providers– Follow-up doggedly with any issues discovered until resolution• Use performance-based contracts:– Reserve a portion of the contract amount to be paid upon verification ofemployment of graduates– In Liberia: “Withheld Incentive Payment”– In Nepal: “Output-based financing” Bottom line: too many programs under-invest in quality control andjob placement.Challenge 5: Incentivizing training providers11
  12. 12. • Tradeoff between govt. and NGO/private sector delivery of skills training• If you choose non-govt. service delivery, there are multiple levels ofinvolvement with govt.:– Advisory and oversight role– Implementation role: hiring and management of training providers– Quality control: monitoring and certification of training providers– Curriculum standardization– Skills Certification– Policy/ Advocacy role (e.g., Adolescent Girls Unit)• If you choose govt. service delivery, there are many potential ways tocollaborate with civil society/ private sector:– Advisory and oversight role– Capacity building of public TEVT agencies– Third party monitoring– Beneficiary outreach and selection Bottom line: Choose the highest quality option for training provision, butdon’t wait until the end of Phase I to put government in the driver’s seat.Challenge 6: Building Client Ownership12
  13. 13.  Acknowledge the tradeoff between vulnerability andemployability by either adjusting targets or budgeting morefor vulnerable groups. Educate your beneficiaries before they choose a trade. Equipall trainees with basic entrepreneurship skills. Experiment with different packages of skills to learn what’sabsolutely necessary. Find out which constraints are binding when incentivizingtrainee participation. Invest in quality control and use performance-based contractsto maximize post-training employment. Even if they don’t deliver the training, government ownershipneeds to built from the beginning.Summary13
  14. 14. • Do an impact evaluation during Phase 1 (please!)– Advocate for expansion (or not)– Know which components are essential– Compare your program to other interventions– Learn which beneficiaries are succeeding and which need more help• Do include trainees in your monitoring efforts– Participant feedback via mobile phones or in-person– Participants can collect data and do data entry– Graduates can help recruit/ mentor the next batch of trainees– Participants are powerful advocates for expansion/ scale-upAdditional Friendly Advice14
  15. 15. • WB’s Youth Employment Inventory (www.youth-employment-inventory.org)– Global repository of youth employment programs (WB and non-WB)• AGI “Learning from Practice” series– Tips on designing skills training programs based on lessons learned from the implementationof AGI pilots• Hempel, Fiala 2012. “Measuring Success of Youth Livelihood Interventions: Apractical guide to monitoring and evaluation”. World Bank and IYF.• UNESCO 2012 report: “Youth and Skills: Putting Education to Work”• Ibarraran Shady 2009: “Evaluating the impact of job training programs in LatinAmerica: Evidence from IDB funded operations”• ILO’s Global Employment Trends for Youth/ Women (annual publications)• International Youth Foundation (IYF)• Global Partnership on Youth Employment (GPYE)– ILO, WB, IYF• Youth Employment Network (ILO, WB)• Making Cents International (makingcents.com)– Annual conference (good place to meet NGOs working on youth employment), plus variousoff-the-shelf curriculaWhere to Get Help15

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