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Propositional logic uses atomic propositions and propositional connectives like conjunction, disjunction, negation, conditional, and biconditional to build more complex arguments. These connectives have specific truth conditions defined by truth tables. Variables are used to represent propositions, forming propositional forms that can represent different arguments. An argument is valid if it follows a valid argument form where the premises cannot be true and the conclusion false for any substitution instances.

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Geom1-7handout

Geometry uses a deductive structure with undefined terms, definitions, assumptions, and theorems. Definitions state the meanings of terms and can be written conditionally as "if this, then that" with a hypothesis and conclusion. Definitions are reversible, meaning their conditional statements can be written in reverse order as well. However, theorems and assumptions are not always reversible, as the converse of a statement may not necessarily be true.

2.2 definitions and biconditionals

The document discusses definitions, biconditional statements, and their use in geometry. It provides examples of:
1) Defining perpendicular lines and lines perpendicular to a plane.
2) Analyzing statements about a diagram for truth based on definitions.
3) Rewriting conditional statements as biconditional statements using "if and only if".
4) Identifying whether biconditional statements are true based on the truth of both the conditional statement and its converse.

Comparing Things

This document discusses how to compare words using suffixes like "er" and "est". It explains that adding "er" is used to compare two objects, while adding "est" is used to compare more than two objects. Examples are provided like "tall", "taller", and "tallest" to demonstrate how the word stays the same but the suffix is added to indicate comparison.

Comparing things

To compare two objects, add "er" to the end of the adjective, and to compare more than two objects, add "est". For example, to say one snake is longer than another, use "longer", and to say which snake is the longest of all, use "longest". Adding "er" or "est" changes the adjective to show comparisons of more or most.

Metamathematics of contexts

This document outlines a formal system of contexts and metamathematics. It introduces context sequences and partial truth assignments. A model maps context sequences to sets of partial truth assignments. The vocabulary of a context is the set of meaningful atoms. Satisfaction is defined for well-formed formulas over contexts and atoms. Theorems about consistency, truth, and flatness models are discussed as extensions to reason about properties of contexts.

Run ons

This document discusses run-on sentences and how to identify and correct them. It defines a run-on sentence as being composed of two or more sentences run together without proper punctuation or conjunctions. There are two main types of run-ons: fused sentences that are placed together without punctuation, and comma splices that are separated by commas. Run-ons can be corrected by separating the clauses with a period, semicolon, comma plus conjunction, or using a subordinate conjunction to form a complex sentence. Guidelines for using semicolons and examples of subordinate conjunctions are also provided.

Matching techniques

The document discusses different types of matching techniques including pattern matching, partial matching, and fuzzy matching. Pattern matching involves comparing two structures and testing for equality between corresponding parts. Partial matching is used when complete matching is inappropriate, such as when meaning is the same but terminology differs. Fuzzy matching allows for approximate string matching and is useful when data may be corrupted by noise.

Metamathematics of contexts

This document outlines a formal system called metamathematics of contexts. It describes contexts as sets that define the meaningful vocabulary within that context. Formulas are built from propositional atoms using context operators. Models are functions that map context sequences to partial truth assignments. The semantics define satisfaction in a model based on the vocabulary of a context. The system has provability rules and useful theorems. Extensions examine consistency models where contexts cannot assign different truth values, truth models with a single assignment, and flatness models where contexts have identical vocabularies regardless of sequence.

Geom1-7handout

Geometry uses a deductive structure with undefined terms, definitions, assumptions, and theorems. Definitions state the meanings of terms and can be written conditionally as "if this, then that" with a hypothesis and conclusion. Definitions are reversible, meaning their conditional statements can be written in reverse order as well. However, theorems and assumptions are not always reversible, as the converse of a statement may not necessarily be true.

2.2 definitions and biconditionals

The document discusses definitions, biconditional statements, and their use in geometry. It provides examples of:
1) Defining perpendicular lines and lines perpendicular to a plane.
2) Analyzing statements about a diagram for truth based on definitions.
3) Rewriting conditional statements as biconditional statements using "if and only if".
4) Identifying whether biconditional statements are true based on the truth of both the conditional statement and its converse.

Comparing Things

This document discusses how to compare words using suffixes like "er" and "est". It explains that adding "er" is used to compare two objects, while adding "est" is used to compare more than two objects. Examples are provided like "tall", "taller", and "tallest" to demonstrate how the word stays the same but the suffix is added to indicate comparison.

Comparing things

To compare two objects, add "er" to the end of the adjective, and to compare more than two objects, add "est". For example, to say one snake is longer than another, use "longer", and to say which snake is the longest of all, use "longest". Adding "er" or "est" changes the adjective to show comparisons of more or most.

Metamathematics of contexts

This document outlines a formal system of contexts and metamathematics. It introduces context sequences and partial truth assignments. A model maps context sequences to sets of partial truth assignments. The vocabulary of a context is the set of meaningful atoms. Satisfaction is defined for well-formed formulas over contexts and atoms. Theorems about consistency, truth, and flatness models are discussed as extensions to reason about properties of contexts.

Run ons

This document discusses run-on sentences and how to identify and correct them. It defines a run-on sentence as being composed of two or more sentences run together without proper punctuation or conjunctions. There are two main types of run-ons: fused sentences that are placed together without punctuation, and comma splices that are separated by commas. Run-ons can be corrected by separating the clauses with a period, semicolon, comma plus conjunction, or using a subordinate conjunction to form a complex sentence. Guidelines for using semicolons and examples of subordinate conjunctions are also provided.

Matching techniques

The document discusses different types of matching techniques including pattern matching, partial matching, and fuzzy matching. Pattern matching involves comparing two structures and testing for equality between corresponding parts. Partial matching is used when complete matching is inappropriate, such as when meaning is the same but terminology differs. Fuzzy matching allows for approximate string matching and is useful when data may be corrupted by noise.

Metamathematics of contexts

This document outlines a formal system called metamathematics of contexts. It describes contexts as sets that define the meaningful vocabulary within that context. Formulas are built from propositional atoms using context operators. Models are functions that map context sequences to partial truth assignments. The semantics define satisfaction in a model based on the vocabulary of a context. The system has provability rules and useful theorems. Extensions examine consistency models where contexts cannot assign different truth values, truth models with a single assignment, and flatness models where contexts have identical vocabularies regardless of sequence.

Propositional logic sneha-mam

The document discusses propositional logic and provides examples of its data structures and applications. It explains that propositional logic can represent statements using variables and logical connectives like implication, conjunction, disjunction and negation. An example problem is given about a student's cleverness and passing that is translated into propositional logic statements. Backtracking is also discussed as a way to determine if a propositional logic sentence is satisfiable by searching for a solution. Some improvements to backtracking mentioned are the pure symbol heuristic and unit clause heuristic.

Propositional logic

The document discusses translating natural language statements into propositional logic by identifying logical structures like negation, conjunction, disjunction, etc. It provides examples of translating statements involving negation (e.g. "Bill does not own a car"), conjunction (e.g. "Jenny went to the park and Bill went to the park"), disjunction (e.g. "Either my roommate will bring the textbook or my lab partner will let me borrow hers"), and discusses how to properly capture meaning and logical relationships. Key concepts covered are using variables to represent propositions, appropriate use of logical operators, and handling collective subjects, temporal sequences, and additive comparisons.

Propositional logic & inference

Propositional logic deals with propositions as units and the connectives that relate them. It has a syntax that defines allowable sentences using proposition symbols and logical connectives like conjunction, disjunction, implication and equivalence. Sentences are formed using Backus Naur Form grammar. Semantics specify how to compute the truth of sentences using truth tables and models. Knowledge bases can be represented as a set of sentences and inference is used to decide if conclusions are true in all models where the KB is true, such as using a truth table algorithm.

Propositional logic

The document provides an overview of propositional logic including:
1. It defines statements, logical connectives, and truth tables. Logical connectives like negation, conjunction, disjunction and others are explained.
2. It discusses various logical concepts like tautology, contradiction, contingency, logical equivalence, and logical implications.
3. It outlines propositional logic rules and properties including commutative, associative, distributive, De Morgan's laws, identity law, idempotent law, and transitive rule.
4. It provides an example of using truth tables to test the validity of an argument about bachelors dying young.

Propositional logic

Propositional calculus (also called propositional logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zeroth-order logic) is the branch of logic concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true or false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of logical connectives, and how their value depends on the truth value of their components. Logical connectives are found in natural languages.

Propositional logic

This document discusses propositional logic and knowledge representation. It introduces propositional logic as the simplest form of logic that uses symbols to represent facts that can then be joined by logical connectives like AND and OR. Truth tables are presented as a way to determine the truth value of propositions connected by these logical operators. The document also discusses concepts like models of formulas, satisfiable and valid formulas, and rules of inference like modus ponens and disjunctive syllogism that allow deducing new facts from initial propositions. Examples are provided to illustrate each concept.

Logic introduction

This document provides an introduction to logic. It outlines the objectives of studying logic as sharpening intellect, developing learning ability, strengthening understanding, and promoting clear thinking. Key benefits include supporting reasoning powers, distinguishing good from bad arguments, and learning principles of clear thinking. Logic is defined as the study of correct versus incorrect reasoning. Important concepts discussed include premises, propositions, arguments, sound versus unsound arguments, and laws of logic. The overall aim is to learn how to evaluate arguments.

Logic Ppt

Here are the specific kinds of supposition for the terms in each proposition:
1. "Tamarao" - Essential supposition
2. "Tamarao" - Material supposition
3. "Pag-asa" - Logical supposition
4. "Pag-asa" - Material supposition

Translating English to Propositional Logic

The document discusses translating statements from English to propositional logic, including:
- Conjunction and disjunction are commutative but order matters for statements with mixed operators
- How to translate conditional statements like "if P then Q" and biconditionals like "P if and only if Q"
- Necessary and sufficient conditions and how they relate to conditionals
- Examples of translating various English language statements into propositional logic statements

Logic parti

Propositional logic uses propositions that are either true or false as building blocks. Propositions can be combined using logical connectives like negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, and biconditional. Truth tables define the truth values of compound propositions based on the truth values of the atomic propositions. Logical equivalences allow replacing one proposition with an equivalent proposition to simplify expressions in propositional logic.

PowerPoint Presentation

This document discusses the basics of propositional logic. It defines propositions or statements as the basic units of propositional logic. Compound propositions are formed when simple propositions are connected with logical connectives like "and" and "or". A proposition must always be able to be validated as true or false. It provides examples of true, false, and non-valid propositions. Propositional variables are used to represent unspecified statements. Logical equivalences are compound propositions that have the same logical content. Predicates are parts of statements that can be affected by variables. Quantifiers like universal, existential, and uniqueness are used to represent logical quantities.

#3 formal methods – propositional logic

These slides are part of a formal class notes prepared for the module "Formal Methods" taught for the students of Software engineering.

Hum 200 w7

This document discusses syllogisms in ordinary language. It begins by outlining objectives related to identifying ways arguments can deviate from standard form, reducing the number of terms in a syllogism, and translating categorical propositions. It then covers reducing terms to three, translating propositions into standard form, using parameters for uniform translation, identifying enthymemes and sorites, and disjunctive and hypothetical syllogisms. It concludes with discussing types of dilemmas and methods for responding to them.

Propositional logic for Beginners

1) Propositional logic uses propositions that can be resolved as true or false and operators like NOT, AND, and OR to combine propositions.
2) Truth tables express all combinations of inputs to determine if a proposition is a tautology (always true) or contradiction (always false).
3) Equivalent propositions have the same truth values and De Morgan's laws can be used to transform expressions.
4) Some logical operators are "lazy" and short-circuit evaluation to improve efficiency by reducing unnecessary computations.

Logic (slides)

This document defines logical propositions, statements, and logical operations such as negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, equivalence, and quantification. Propositions can be combined using logical operations to form compound statements. Truth tables are used to evaluate compound statements based on the truth values of the component propositions. Logical properties such as commutativity, associativity, distributivity, idempotence and negation are also discussed.

Pragmatics:Adjacency pairs

The document discusses adjacency pairs and conversation analysis (CA). Some key points:
- Adjacency pairs refer to utterances between two speakers that are related/expected responses to each other, like questions/answers or greetings/greetings.
- CA examines the sequential structure and patterns of conversation. Context is created through talk rather than external to it.
- Conversations follow cooperative principles like quantity of information, quality/truthfulness, relation to prior statements, and clarity. These can be observed or flouted/violated.
- Other concepts discussed include preference structures, dispreferred responses, presequences, insertion sequences, and openings/closings. Limitations of CA are also noted

Lecture 2 predicates quantifiers and rules of inference

1) Predicates become propositions when variables are quantified by assigning values or using quantifiers. Quantifiers like ∀ and ∃ are used to make statements true or false for all or some values.
2) ∀ (universal quantifier) means "for all" and makes a statement true for all values of a variable. ∃ (existential quantifier) means "there exists" and makes a statement true if it is true for at least one value.
3) Predicates with unbound variables are neither true nor false. Binding variables by assigning values or using quantifiers turns predicates into propositions that can be evaluated as true or false.

Mathematics Sets and Logic Week 1

This document provides an overview of key concepts in sets and logic covered in Chapter 1, including:
- Basic symbols and terminology used in sets and logic
- Definitions of sets, set operations like union and intersection, and relationships between sets
- Properties of sets such as subsets, power sets, cardinality, and complement
- Algebraic laws governing set operations like distributive, associative, commutative, identity, and De Morgan's laws
- Methods of representing and reasoning about sets using mathematical notation and Venn diagrams

First order logic

The document discusses first-order logic (FOL) and its advantages over propositional logic for representing knowledge. It introduces the basic elements of FOL syntax, such as constants, predicates, functions, variables, and connectives. It provides examples of FOL expressions and discusses how objects and relations between objects can be represented. It also covers quantification in FOL using universal and existential quantifiers.

Set Theory - Venn Diagrams and Maxima, Minima

- Of 60 students in a class studying maths, physics, and chemistry, anyone studying maths also studied physics. No one studied both maths and chemistry. 16 students studied both physics and chemistry.
- The number studying exactly one subject must be greater than the number studying more than one subject.
- Using this information in diagrams and equations, the minimum number of students who could have studied chemistry only is 0, and the maximum is 44.

C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

The document discusses key concepts in research methods in social psychology, including:
1) Correlational research examines how variables are associated but does not prove causation, while experimental research manipulates an independent variable and measures its effect on a dependent variable.
2) Validity refers to how accurately a measure assesses the intended construct, while reliability is the consistency of results over time and across items.
3) When interpreting experimental results, interactions occur when the effect of one variable depends on the level of another, while main effects are consistent effects across levels of other variables.

C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10

Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. It examines topics such as how people see themselves and others, what determines decision-making and attraction, the causes of racism and how to reduce it, when and why people help others, what causes aggression and how to reduce it, how persuasion works, and how to increase self-control. Social psychology focuses on the interaction between a person and their social situation, and how situations strongly shape thoughts, attitudes, emotions, and behavior. It also examines how people are both cultural animals and have competing selfish and social impulses, as well as automatic and conscious thought processes that construct our reality.

Propositional logic sneha-mam

The document discusses propositional logic and provides examples of its data structures and applications. It explains that propositional logic can represent statements using variables and logical connectives like implication, conjunction, disjunction and negation. An example problem is given about a student's cleverness and passing that is translated into propositional logic statements. Backtracking is also discussed as a way to determine if a propositional logic sentence is satisfiable by searching for a solution. Some improvements to backtracking mentioned are the pure symbol heuristic and unit clause heuristic.

Propositional logic

The document discusses translating natural language statements into propositional logic by identifying logical structures like negation, conjunction, disjunction, etc. It provides examples of translating statements involving negation (e.g. "Bill does not own a car"), conjunction (e.g. "Jenny went to the park and Bill went to the park"), disjunction (e.g. "Either my roommate will bring the textbook or my lab partner will let me borrow hers"), and discusses how to properly capture meaning and logical relationships. Key concepts covered are using variables to represent propositions, appropriate use of logical operators, and handling collective subjects, temporal sequences, and additive comparisons.

Propositional logic & inference

Propositional logic deals with propositions as units and the connectives that relate them. It has a syntax that defines allowable sentences using proposition symbols and logical connectives like conjunction, disjunction, implication and equivalence. Sentences are formed using Backus Naur Form grammar. Semantics specify how to compute the truth of sentences using truth tables and models. Knowledge bases can be represented as a set of sentences and inference is used to decide if conclusions are true in all models where the KB is true, such as using a truth table algorithm.

Propositional logic

The document provides an overview of propositional logic including:
1. It defines statements, logical connectives, and truth tables. Logical connectives like negation, conjunction, disjunction and others are explained.
2. It discusses various logical concepts like tautology, contradiction, contingency, logical equivalence, and logical implications.
3. It outlines propositional logic rules and properties including commutative, associative, distributive, De Morgan's laws, identity law, idempotent law, and transitive rule.
4. It provides an example of using truth tables to test the validity of an argument about bachelors dying young.

Propositional logic

Propositional calculus (also called propositional logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zeroth-order logic) is the branch of logic concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true or false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of logical connectives, and how their value depends on the truth value of their components. Logical connectives are found in natural languages.

Propositional logic

This document discusses propositional logic and knowledge representation. It introduces propositional logic as the simplest form of logic that uses symbols to represent facts that can then be joined by logical connectives like AND and OR. Truth tables are presented as a way to determine the truth value of propositions connected by these logical operators. The document also discusses concepts like models of formulas, satisfiable and valid formulas, and rules of inference like modus ponens and disjunctive syllogism that allow deducing new facts from initial propositions. Examples are provided to illustrate each concept.

Logic introduction

This document provides an introduction to logic. It outlines the objectives of studying logic as sharpening intellect, developing learning ability, strengthening understanding, and promoting clear thinking. Key benefits include supporting reasoning powers, distinguishing good from bad arguments, and learning principles of clear thinking. Logic is defined as the study of correct versus incorrect reasoning. Important concepts discussed include premises, propositions, arguments, sound versus unsound arguments, and laws of logic. The overall aim is to learn how to evaluate arguments.

Logic Ppt

Here are the specific kinds of supposition for the terms in each proposition:
1. "Tamarao" - Essential supposition
2. "Tamarao" - Material supposition
3. "Pag-asa" - Logical supposition
4. "Pag-asa" - Material supposition

Translating English to Propositional Logic

The document discusses translating statements from English to propositional logic, including:
- Conjunction and disjunction are commutative but order matters for statements with mixed operators
- How to translate conditional statements like "if P then Q" and biconditionals like "P if and only if Q"
- Necessary and sufficient conditions and how they relate to conditionals
- Examples of translating various English language statements into propositional logic statements

Logic parti

Propositional logic uses propositions that are either true or false as building blocks. Propositions can be combined using logical connectives like negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, and biconditional. Truth tables define the truth values of compound propositions based on the truth values of the atomic propositions. Logical equivalences allow replacing one proposition with an equivalent proposition to simplify expressions in propositional logic.

PowerPoint Presentation

This document discusses the basics of propositional logic. It defines propositions or statements as the basic units of propositional logic. Compound propositions are formed when simple propositions are connected with logical connectives like "and" and "or". A proposition must always be able to be validated as true or false. It provides examples of true, false, and non-valid propositions. Propositional variables are used to represent unspecified statements. Logical equivalences are compound propositions that have the same logical content. Predicates are parts of statements that can be affected by variables. Quantifiers like universal, existential, and uniqueness are used to represent logical quantities.

#3 formal methods – propositional logic

These slides are part of a formal class notes prepared for the module "Formal Methods" taught for the students of Software engineering.

Hum 200 w7

This document discusses syllogisms in ordinary language. It begins by outlining objectives related to identifying ways arguments can deviate from standard form, reducing the number of terms in a syllogism, and translating categorical propositions. It then covers reducing terms to three, translating propositions into standard form, using parameters for uniform translation, identifying enthymemes and sorites, and disjunctive and hypothetical syllogisms. It concludes with discussing types of dilemmas and methods for responding to them.

Propositional logic for Beginners

1) Propositional logic uses propositions that can be resolved as true or false and operators like NOT, AND, and OR to combine propositions.
2) Truth tables express all combinations of inputs to determine if a proposition is a tautology (always true) or contradiction (always false).
3) Equivalent propositions have the same truth values and De Morgan's laws can be used to transform expressions.
4) Some logical operators are "lazy" and short-circuit evaluation to improve efficiency by reducing unnecessary computations.

Logic (slides)

This document defines logical propositions, statements, and logical operations such as negation, conjunction, disjunction, implication, equivalence, and quantification. Propositions can be combined using logical operations to form compound statements. Truth tables are used to evaluate compound statements based on the truth values of the component propositions. Logical properties such as commutativity, associativity, distributivity, idempotence and negation are also discussed.

Pragmatics:Adjacency pairs

The document discusses adjacency pairs and conversation analysis (CA). Some key points:
- Adjacency pairs refer to utterances between two speakers that are related/expected responses to each other, like questions/answers or greetings/greetings.
- CA examines the sequential structure and patterns of conversation. Context is created through talk rather than external to it.
- Conversations follow cooperative principles like quantity of information, quality/truthfulness, relation to prior statements, and clarity. These can be observed or flouted/violated.
- Other concepts discussed include preference structures, dispreferred responses, presequences, insertion sequences, and openings/closings. Limitations of CA are also noted

Lecture 2 predicates quantifiers and rules of inference

1) Predicates become propositions when variables are quantified by assigning values or using quantifiers. Quantifiers like ∀ and ∃ are used to make statements true or false for all or some values.
2) ∀ (universal quantifier) means "for all" and makes a statement true for all values of a variable. ∃ (existential quantifier) means "there exists" and makes a statement true if it is true for at least one value.
3) Predicates with unbound variables are neither true nor false. Binding variables by assigning values or using quantifiers turns predicates into propositions that can be evaluated as true or false.

Mathematics Sets and Logic Week 1

This document provides an overview of key concepts in sets and logic covered in Chapter 1, including:
- Basic symbols and terminology used in sets and logic
- Definitions of sets, set operations like union and intersection, and relationships between sets
- Properties of sets such as subsets, power sets, cardinality, and complement
- Algebraic laws governing set operations like distributive, associative, commutative, identity, and De Morgan's laws
- Methods of representing and reasoning about sets using mathematical notation and Venn diagrams

First order logic

The document discusses first-order logic (FOL) and its advantages over propositional logic for representing knowledge. It introduces the basic elements of FOL syntax, such as constants, predicates, functions, variables, and connectives. It provides examples of FOL expressions and discusses how objects and relations between objects can be represented. It also covers quantification in FOL using universal and existential quantifiers.

Set Theory - Venn Diagrams and Maxima, Minima

- Of 60 students in a class studying maths, physics, and chemistry, anyone studying maths also studied physics. No one studied both maths and chemistry. 16 students studied both physics and chemistry.
- The number studying exactly one subject must be greater than the number studying more than one subject.
- Using this information in diagrams and equations, the minimum number of students who could have studied chemistry only is 0, and the maximum is 44.

Propositional logic sneha-mam

Propositional logic sneha-mam

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Propositional logic & inference

Propositional logic & inference

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Propositional logic

Logic introduction

Logic introduction

Logic Ppt

Logic Ppt

Translating English to Propositional Logic

Translating English to Propositional Logic

Logic parti

Logic parti

PowerPoint Presentation

PowerPoint Presentation

#3 formal methods – propositional logic

#3 formal methods – propositional logic

Hum 200 w7

Hum 200 w7

Propositional logic for Beginners

Propositional logic for Beginners

Logic (slides)

Logic (slides)

Pragmatics:Adjacency pairs

Pragmatics:Adjacency pairs

Lecture 2 predicates quantifiers and rules of inference

Lecture 2 predicates quantifiers and rules of inference

Mathematics Sets and Logic Week 1

Mathematics Sets and Logic Week 1

First order logic

First order logic

Set Theory - Venn Diagrams and Maxima, Minima

Set Theory - Venn Diagrams and Maxima, Minima

C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

The document discusses key concepts in research methods in social psychology, including:
1) Correlational research examines how variables are associated but does not prove causation, while experimental research manipulates an independent variable and measures its effect on a dependent variable.
2) Validity refers to how accurately a measure assesses the intended construct, while reliability is the consistency of results over time and across items.
3) When interpreting experimental results, interactions occur when the effect of one variable depends on the level of another, while main effects are consistent effects across levels of other variables.

C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10

Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. It examines topics such as how people see themselves and others, what determines decision-making and attraction, the causes of racism and how to reduce it, when and why people help others, what causes aggression and how to reduce it, how persuasion works, and how to increase self-control. Social psychology focuses on the interaction between a person and their social situation, and how situations strongly shape thoughts, attitudes, emotions, and behavior. It also examines how people are both cultural animals and have competing selfish and social impulses, as well as automatic and conscious thought processes that construct our reality.

C:\fakepath\1 intro student_fa10

This document provides an overview of the syllabus and topics covered in a social psychology course. It outlines that there will be 4 unit tests, 4 online quizzes, opportunities for extra credit, and a cumulative final exam. Attendance is important for one's grade. Key topics that will be discussed include how people see themselves and relate to others, decision making, attraction, racism and prejudice, helping behavior, aggression, persuasion, self-control, and contemporary social issues. Recurring themes are that humans are evolved cultural animals, the influence of others, competing internal and external drives, and the automatic vs. conscious mind.

Virtue Ethics

Virtue ethics is an approach to ethics which emphasizes the character of the moral agent, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking.

Ethical subjectivism

Russ Shafer-Landau is a professor of philosophy who has authored and edited several books on ethics. The document discusses two types of ethical subjectivism: normative and meta-ethical. Normative subjectivism holds that an act is morally right if the person judging approves of it. Meta-ethical subjectivism claims that moral judgments cannot be true or false. The document presents arguments for each view and considers objections, such as disagreement in ethics not proving lack of objective truth and moral judgments potentially being factual beliefs that do not intrinsically motivate.

Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that evaluates actions based on their consequences. It holds that the morally right action is the one that produces the greatest happiness or benefit for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism is supported by three principles: consequentialism, which says actions are right as they produce good consequences; welfarism, which says happiness is the only intrinsic good; and aggregationism, which says the best consequence maximizes the overall sum of happiness. Together these principles lead to the principle of utility - that the action producing the greatest happiness is the morally right one.

C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

C:\fakepath\3 method student_fa10

C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10

C:\fakepath\2 intro student_fa10

C:\fakepath\1 intro student_fa10

C:\fakepath\1 intro student_fa10

Virtue Ethics

Virtue Ethics

Ethical subjectivism

Ethical subjectivism

Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism

- 2. FORMAL ANALYSIS Formal logic: evaluate the validity of argument based upon its form NOT the content of its premises and conclusion Much like math, variables take the place of statements and we deal solely with the variables Propositional logic: system of formal logic in which we can take simple atomic propositions and build more complex arguments
- 3. Propositional logic uses 2 main building blocks: propositions and propositional connectives Propositions: statement that is either true or false (has a truth value) “Atomic” without propositional connectives Propositional connectives: Used to connect smaller propositions into larger ones Very similar to mathematical connectives: */-+ Larger propositions that include connectives also have a truth value PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC
- 4. CONNECTIVES Conjunction, disjunction, negation, conditional & biconditional Each connective is governed by its own truth conditions (conditions under which propositions that include the connective are true) We can discover the truth conditions of non-atomic propositions that include many connectives through the use of truth tables Each connective has its own truth table
- 5. VARIABLES Replace propositions in English with variables that can stand in for any proposition Propositions, once replaced by variables, are put in propositional forms Propositional form: a pattern that can represent any number of actual propositions Example: p&q is a propositional form in which “p” and “q” can stand for any proposition Substitution instance: replace variables by actual propositions – many possible sub. instances for each prop. form
- 6. RULES Each proposition can be replaced by one or several variables in a series of propositional forms (argument) but each variable must represent the same proposition throughout P & Q can both represent the same proposition but P cannot represent two different propositions within the same series/argument Variables can represent atomic propositions or more complex ones that, themselves, include connectives
- 7. ARGUMENT FORMS Once we have propositional forms, we can combine them into argument forms Argument form: offers a pattern of argument that we is always valid pattern for any number of arguments Example: 1) p&q 2) p
- 8. ARGUMENT FORMS An argument is valid IF it is a valid argument form Note: not all valid arguments are so in virtue of their argument form – here we offer a sufficient, but not necessary, condition for validity An argument form is valid IF AND ONLY IF it has no substitution instances in which the premises are true and the conclusion false
- 9. CONJUNCTION Propositional conjunction: [while still in English] “and” expresses the conjunction of two or more propositions (called “conjuncts”) Non-propositional conjunction: “and” does not express the conjunction of two or more propositions Test: can you separate the proposition into two separate conjuncts without changing the meaning of the sentence?
- 10. DISJUNCTION Propositional connective: “or” Unless specified, meant as an inclusive “or” Exclusive “or” generally implied by context and not the actual proposition itself
- 11. NEGATION Propositional connective: “not” The negation of a proposition is true if and only if the proposition is false and vice versa “Not” is tricky so a good test for whether a proposition is an instance of negation is to reformulate the sentence so it starts with “It is not the case that x” … if it is possible without affecting the meaning of the sentence, it is probably an instance of negation