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Introduction of Fired heaters


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Brief introduction to Fired Heaters operation and design. Definition of the different Heaters in the industry and brief strategy how to operate them safely.

Published in: Engineering

Introduction of Fired heaters

  1. 1. Fired Heaters Petroskill course Hector Nguema Ondo
  2. 2. Fired Heaters Combustion fundamentals 𝐢𝐻4 + 2𝑂2 β†’ 𝐢𝑂2 +2𝐻2 𝑂 + π»π‘’π‘Žπ‘‘ BTU’s Amount of work needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit 1π΅π‘‡π‘ˆ = 1055 𝐽
  3. 3. Fired Heaters Furnace Design
  4. 4. Fired Heaters Draft Systems
  5. 5. Fired Heaters Typical Natural Draft Profile
  6. 6. Fired Heaters Air preheaters
  7. 7. Fired Heaters Types of burners
  8. 8. Fired Heaters Burner examples Hot Oil Heater #4 Regen Gas Heater
  9. 9. Fired Heaters Burner and Flame Patterns
  10. 10. Fired Heaters β€’ Inspection – Clean up, check for damages – Ensure all burners and pilot valves are closed β€’ Purge – Remove any flammable vapors present in the heater β€’ Light-off Pilots – Remove the blind in the pilot header β€’ Light-off burners – Remove blind in the main fuel header – If burners does not light within a few seconds, you should turn the fuel off β€’ Normal Operations – Increase Temperature and process stream flow – Check balance through the passes and check outlet temperatures Start-up
  11. 11. Fired Heaters Air Adjustment
  12. 12. Fired Heaters Troubleshooting & β€’ Cause overheating and coke formation β€’ Use of a pyrometer β€’ Build-up of deposits inside tubes β€’ Monitor tube skin temperatures β€’ Remove Ash outside the tubes β€’ Do not required shutdown
  13. 13. Fired Heaters Equipment Failure β€’ Feed Pump failure  Try to start again or use the back-up pump β€’ Fan failure  Steam Ring or air doors β€’ Control Valve failure  No flow control Shutdown β€’ Burner failure  Burner tips plug β€’ Instrument failure  Readings comparison β€’ Flame out  Burner flames go out and fuel is still entering the burner.  Shutdown and purge the heater
  14. 14. Fired Heaters Operation Variables β€’ Gradient temperature from convection tubes to atmosphere
  15. 15. Fired Heaters Fuel and Flow Variables control
  16. 16. Fired Heaters Control strategy FF