SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
Assignment 2: Site research report and presentation
Lecturer: Puan Hasmanira Mokhtar
NAME STUDENT ID
KHOR SEEM LENG 0315208
VIVIAN TAN FUI VUN 0318270
LAU SII 0319027
CHUA JIA CHENG 0315160
MUHAMMAD HAZIQ BIN HJ
Table of Content
Part 1 : Introduction 3 - 6
Part 2 : Windows 7 - 13
Walls 14 - 16
Floorings 17 - 20
Ceilings 21 - 22
Part 3 : Compare and Contrast 24 - 31
References 32 - 34
FUNCTION OF THE BUILDING
THE LIBRARY LEVEL 3 IN TAYLOR UNIVERSITY LAKESIDE
The main function of this building ( library ) is for the students studying in this
university to enjoy the facilities provided in the library by the school authorities
.A library is an organized collection of sources of information and similar
resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or
borrowing .Besides borrowing and references in the library ,students also get
to used the different types of facilities provide in the library .For instances ,the
discussion rooms ,mini movie theater and etc.
Level 3 of the library
Quiet Study Area
This diagram shows the floor plan of Level 3 in the library, which is
the scope of research for our assignment in the campus.
The discussion room: There are in total 4 different size of
discussion room provided for students to discuss their works or
assignment in between 4 to 7 person.
Main Collection: where students get their references from books and
MINI MOVIE THEATER: The movie theater made with carpet flooring and
walls to reflect sounds .It was an ideal place for student to chill and watch
movie without any noise interruption .
COMPUTER LAB : The computer lab is cover with carpet flooring , glass
doors and windows to allow natural lights pass through.
Location of the Building
The subject of research for our group assignment is the four-storey
library in Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus. It is located in Block C Level 2
to Level 5 of the campus. To be more specific, the area of research is Level 3
in the library. Library is a crucial part of the University’s daily academic life. It
provides state-of-the-art facilities for students, creating a conducive and
comfortable environment for students to do their self-study, research and also
This is the location map of Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus.
1. GLASS WINDOW
Glass has become one of the most popular and complex building materials
used today by offering virtually unlimited aesthetic options, combined with
outstanding performance. However, designing with glass does require special
considerations – especially during the selection and specification process.
It is also the only building material that not only insulates us from temperature
extremes, it can also control the passage of light and heat into and out of the
There are 3 main areas to consider about window ad glazing:
Solar heat gain
CHARACTERISTICS OF GLASS
Thermal insulating glass for windows and facades, also known as "low-E" (for
low-emissivity) glass, usually forms the inner pane of an insulating glass unit
(IGU). A transparent metallic coating reflects heat back into the room rather
than allowing it to escape through the windows. At the same time, low-E glass
allows solar heat to pass into a building and warm the interior (this is known
as "passive solar heat gain").
Diagram 1: www.senatorwindows.ie
Solar control glass is glass designed to reduce or prevent solar heating of
buildings. There are two approaches that can be used: the glass is either
tinted (coloured) throughout the material (called a "body tint"), or else it has a
microscopically thin and transparent coating on one side.
In the body tint approach, the colour causes the glass to absorb solar energy,
which is then re-radiated back out and away from the building. Coated
glasses immediately reflect the heat away.
These technologies reduce the solar heating that tends to take place in large
buildings, and thus reduce the need for air conditioning. It is therefore an
Diagram 2: www.glassonweb.com
Safety and security
To improve its resistance to impact and breakage, glass can be either
toughened or laminated, depending on where and how it is being used.
Laminated glass can be made so strong that it is practically impossible to
break, making it feasible to use glass wherever desired, even where high
security requirements apply, including bullet-resistant applications. In the case
of breakage, fragments adhere to the flexible "interlayer" between glass
layers, reducing the chance of injuries.
A range of fire-resistant glass types is available that offers increasing levels of
protection, which is measured in defined time periods (30, 60, 90, 120, 180
minutes). Fire-resistant glass must meet strict levels of integrity and
insulation, or integrity only which are set down by European CE standards.
Fire-resistant glass must always be specified as part of a tested and approved
glazing system and installed by specialists to be sure of reaching expected
fire performance, if required.
Diagram 3 : www.safti.com
Acoustically insulating glazing can be a major contributor to comfort levels in
buildings and houses. Its benefits are greatest for people living or working
near busy high streets, urban traffic, motorways or railway lines and airports.
The acoustic glass in a double-glazed unit uses a special interlayer that acts
as a dampening core so that sound energy is effectively blocked from passing
from the outside to the inside pane of glass.
Diagram 4: http://www.glassforeurope.com/
Decorative: interior design
Glass can transform living spaces and work environments. A wide range of
effects, patterns and colors allows interior designers endless possibilities in
look and atmosphere. Glass can be combined with stone, wood or metal for a
strong visual and tactile effect. In offices and other professional settings, glass
offers a fresh, light yet serious aesthetic.
Diagram 5 : www.lilapink.com
Self-cleaning glass has been coated with a special dual function layer that
harnesses the elements to which windows and facades are exposed - namely
the sun and rain - to break down and wash away dirt. This first function is
photo-catalytic; in other words, it is activated by light to break down the dirt
that collects on it. The second function is to spread rain water evenly over the
glass. The hydrophilic self-cleaning coating prevents this beading into
droplets, causing water to run across the entire surface, washing away the
components that the dirt has been broken down into.
Diagram 6 : http://www.alside.com/
TYPES OF GLASS USED IN WINDOWS
There are multiple ways of treating glass to enhance its strength, energy
efficiency, or appearance.
Types of Glass
Used in Windows
TYPES OF WINDOW FRAMES
Improving the thermal resistance of the frame can contribute to a window's
overall energy efficiency. There are advantages and disadvantages to all
types of frame materials, but vinyl, wood, fiberglass, and some composite
frame materials provide greater thermal resistance than metal.
Types of window
It offers superior Transparency has to be balanced with its relatively
low R-value (energy saving). R-value is considered as one of the most
2.Re cyclic use
Glass can be reused for the production of new, different glasses
products (external recycling).
Low -E improves the insulation qualities.
Mining of glass sand results in particulate emissions, soil erosion, and
Air pollution associated with energy consumption for mining,
processing, and transporting materials.
Glass manufacturing release air pollutants that contribute to
numerous environmental problems.
Manufacturing is high energy consuming due to high temperature
required for processing the raw materials.
After demolition much glass is disposed of in landfill without reuse or
Ceramic tile is used for library’s toilet walls with sealed grout. Ceramic is
made up of clay and other materials such as glass, stone and cements.
The manufacture of ceramic requires a very high pressure to compress
the clay into different shapes such as squares, rectangles or ovals.
Normally, ceramic is used for bricks, roof tiles, glazed tiles for internal
wall, some sanitary appliances, floor tiles, hollow wall, sinks and others.
Ceramic tile has a high degree of resistance to moisture. Ceramic tile is
dense. It has a hard surface and does not absorb water well. Therefore,
humidity in the toilet can be decreased. Ceramic tile also has stain
resistant. The visible colors can be removed easily from the ceramic
tile surface. Hot water or a fabric can be used to remove and make the
surface clean. Furthermore, the ceramic tiles have chemical resistance
too. The tiles resist to the chemical solutions such as acid solutions or
The advantages of using ceramic tile in the toilet are it is durable, stain
resistant, easy to clean and environmentally friendly. Ceramic tile is not
as strong as porcelain tiles because it lacks in strength. Therefore, the
cost of ceramic tile is lower than porcelain tiles. Ceramic tile is suitable
and sustainable for the toilet walls. Although the aesthetical value of
ceramic tile is not high enough, it is still clean and bright. It performs
well in the toilet as it has stain resistant. A white nylon scrub brush and
a little soap can be used to maintain the performance of ceramic tile in
The interior walls of the library are made up of concrete walls. Concrete
is made up of water, cement, aggregates, reinforcement and chemical
admixtures. Concrete has high compressive strength and low tensile
strength. Concrete is suitable to use in buildings, roads, bridges,
tunnels, dams, runways and sewerage systems pavements.
The concrete wall has low maintenance because it is non-porous and it
may not loss its main properties over time. The advantage of using
concrete wall in the library is fire-resistant. Concrete wall forms a highly
effective barrier to fire spread. However, concrete wall may crack
sometimes. Cracking, shrinkage cracking and tension cracking may
occur during setting or use.
Concrete walls are suitable and sustainable for library walls due to its
fire-resistant. It is safe. The aesthetic value of concrete walls can be
increased by applying paint. Solvent borne paint can be used because
it can provide glossy appearance. A regular dishwashing soap and a
nylon bristle brush can be used to maintain the surface of concrete
Water-based paints are usually used for the building. Water-based
paints are easy to clean up with water. Furthermore, water-based
paints can be dried quickly. It is also an elastic and flexible finish which
can resist to cracking. Water-based paints also have stable color for a
long period and it will not turn color into yellow.
Furthermore, water-based paints also have a lower Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs). It does not produce toxic fumes. Water-based
paints are very easy to apply. It can be applied just like other regular
paint. A roller, sprayer or brush can be used to apply the paint.
Although water-based paint is easy to apply, it doesn't go onto slick
Introduction of Carpets
Carpet is the flooring used in the library of the campus. Carpet is a popular
feature in home decorating, and it is often incorporated into a home's interior
design. There are many types of carpet and the function depends on the type
of carpet selected.
Uses of Carpets
Wall-to-wall and area carpet are popular to cover floors and enhance a
room's decor. There are many styles and types of carpet meant for
decorative and pragmatic purposes. Cut-pile carpet is a popular choice
as it is very durable. Plush carpets are softer and often show footprints
when someone walks
across them. Berber carpet
is made of looped fibers
and is extremely durable
and resistant to tracking.
Frieze carpets are made of
twisted fibers and are also
Carpets meant for the outdoors are often both decorative and practical.
Carpet may be used to cover a porch, walkway or the edges of a
garden. This type of carpet is made of plastic derivatives and must be
waterproofed for the best durability. Outdoor carpet comes in a variety
of designs and is often as easy to install as gluing tiles to a concrete
There are many uses for carpet scraps left over from projects. Carpet
scraps may be used as cushions for your knees when gardening, or to
slip under heavy furniture to protect the floor while moving it. They may
be used to clean window screens and scrapers while working on a
project. Pieces of carpet may be placed underneath washers and
dryers to eliminate thumping noises. They are also useful to pet owners,
as carpet scraps may be used to make a scratching post for a cat or a
bed for a dog.
Properties of Carpets
Quick and easy to be installed.
Soft to step on and has cushioning
Able to absorb sound.
Have dust-trapping properties.
Advantages of Carpet
Carpet is a great decorating element. In
carpeting, there is a fabulous array of
colors and styles. When incorporated
into a room decor, a contemporary
textured carpet increases the perception
of quality and value and offers a
delightful contrast to smooth surface
areas such as walls and furniture.
Reduce noise levels
Carpet is able to reduce noise levels by sound absorption. Library is a
quiet place for people to study and the sound absorbing ability of
carpet makes it suitable to be used as flooring material in the library.
Improve indoor air quality
Carpet is beneficial to indoor air quality by keeping the dust content of
the indoor air low. Dust settles quickly and is then securely held by the
pile fibers of the carpet until it is vacuumed again.
The comfort factor is also one of the most appealing aspects of
carpeting as carpet is soft to walk on. Carpeting prevents injury in the
event of a fall by absorbing the shock as compared to hard flooring.
Carpet can retain the warmth by effectively insulate against cold.
Carpets act as a heat barrier and thermal insulator by having low heat
conduction. This property of carpet can save more energy.
Disadvantages of Carpets
Accumulation of dust and dust mites in carpet flooring might cause
health problems. Carpet flooring should be avoided if somebody living
in the house has respiratory or allergy problems. Mold is prone to
develop on the underside of the carpet leading to health risk issue.
High level of maintenance
Carpets have to be constantly deep
cleaned and vacuumed compared to
other flooring materials. If carpets are
poorly maintained, it will make your
room look dirty and unsightly instead
of warm and inviting. A professional carpet cleaning to completely
remove accumulated dirt, dust, or stains on the carpet carries a heavy
Sensitivity to moisture and stain
Carpets can easily absorb stains and get damaged when soaked.
Carpets are also prone to mildew when used in a moist environment.
Carpets have various colors and styles, having flexible flooring options so that
customers can choose the best matching design with their room. Darker
carpets give a warmer feel while lighter-colored ones provide an airy but
delightful ambience. The texture of carpets can add dimension to an
otherwise bland-looking room.
Ceilings are the surface that covers the upper limit of an interior room, placed
under the lower surface (eg. Concrete bed) of an upper floor or under roof
trusses. It is mainly used for aesthetics such as to hide the structural &
electrical components, ie. the air ventilations or piping, however some ceilings
due to its various finishes can have different characteristics & properties,
which may benefit the environment of the whole building. Different types of
ceiling finishes are made to adapt to the architecture of numerous
2) SUSPENDED CEILING/DROPPED
A secondary ceiling that is hung below the
existing ceiling. The new ceiling is created
using a metal grid suspended from hangers
or wires which supports lay-in ceiling panels
or tiles supported by a lightweight, metal, grid
system suspended from a higher ceiling
element made of wood, metal, or masonry.
- Since dropped ceilings use tiles, the ceiling must first be marked to
ensure that all areas including the ones attached to the walls are
covered with the tiles.
- The perimeter of the existing ceiling must then be calculated &
determine the total number of tiles to be used.
- Before installing the tiles, the runners (the metal supports) must be
marked with chalk lines. Typically, the main runners would be installed
before the cross tees
- The tiles are then slid into the runners & into place
Acoustic performance – Some ceiling tiles are specifically
manufactured for soundproofing, and any suspended ceiling will
naturally suppress some sound from the room above it keeping the
No finishing works – ceilings such as drywall or coffered ceilings
would need sanding & painting on the large surface. Dropped ceilings
uses tiles that are already aesthetically finished.
Easy access to piping & wires – plumbing, cable and electrical wiring
are tucked above the grids & when access is needed, the tiles can just
be removed temporarily.
Easy maintenance – when issues arise, it can be maintained by just
replacing the tile, while other ceilings may need to replace it’s sheeting,
hence more sanding & painting.
Reduced headroom – the tiles need to be
lower than the piping & electrical wires,
hence the room would feel smaller
Ages quickly – typical tiles damage easily
when handled, and stains easily, but tin and
vinyl do not have these characteristics.
Different manufacturers may give different characteristics for the tiles but most
have focused on sustainability & maintenance such as:
Energy efficiency, including daylight efficacy. This uses the ceiling
plane to reflect daylight as well as electrical illumination.
Reduced resources needed for construction of the tiles;
2v) Aesthetical value
The obvious contribution a dropped ceiling can give to aesthetical value is that
it hide exposed structural or mechanical components such as pipes,
plumbing, ducts, conduits, cables, structural framing members, or just a bare,
masonry surface. For many years, the tiles used for dropped ceiling has been
white tiles, but nowadays, manufacturers create tiles to please the eyes of
people, innovating to give different sizes, colors, shapes, pattern & texture.
Staircase is a structure which connects the lower floors to the upper floors. The
staircase in Taylor's Library has 68 steps and it consist of different material such as
Cements, Concrete and Metals. The base of the staircase which is made of concrete
the reason for using concrete is because it can withstand the load and pressure given
from the top. Concrete steps are constructed in two ways. The most common method
is to build a wood form in the shape of the proposed steps and to pour prepared
concrete into the forms. Another popular way to install concrete stairs is to buy
precast steps. Other prefabricated stairs include an entire set of steps and railings that
are premade and installed on site. The finishes in Taylor's University's library are
using carpet. There are various types of finishes available for example tiles, rocks,
carpets, and many more. Traction is the main function of the finishes which is to
reduce people for slipping. Traction can also be added by applying a rougher finish,
adding a sealant with sand or clear grit embedded in it, or painting them with special
paint. The handrail of the staircase is made of metals which make it look stable and
hard so that it will be more sustainable. The Stair Handrail for steps is usually simple,
plain yet elegant in nature. Little details may be found on it in order for it to achieve
optimum functionality. Since the main functions of a stairway handrail are to promote
safety and to prevent unnecessary injuries, it should be easily held, durable and
1. GLASS BLOCK
Glass blocks can be used in many aspects. Among its many uses include
walls. Glass blocks may serve as wall partitions or as a means of enclosure of
a given area or space. Using glass blocks as walls create a certain
uniqueness or twist which cannot be provided by ordinary wooden or dry
Visibility and Light Transmission
Glass block transmits 80
percent available light in both
Not capable of supporting other
The thermal resistance (R-
value) of glass blocks are
double that of traditional
single-glaze plate glass.
They block clear views inside
and outside while allowing dim
images of figures and
movement through the glass.
Easily installed Light
Provide insufficient light for
reading or computer work.
it can easily be used for
partitions, full walls and
obscuring unwanted views.
The windows do not open and
are difficult to break.
Glass blocks resist fire, sound
Durability and Cost Effectiveness
Glass block is scratch-
resistant, and works
particularly well as a wall
Electro chromic windows
Electro chromic windows are part of a new generation of technologies called
switchable glazing-or "smart" windows-which change the light transmittance,
transparency, or shading of windows in response to an environmental signal.
Diagram 8 : http://www.scribd.com/
An electric current is run through it and this causes the color of the glass to
darken, creating a barrier for privacy or temperature control.
Figure 1: Before direct sun enters the Figure 2: After direct sun enters the
windows, the electro chromic glazing the window, the electro chromic
is fully bleached at their most glazing switch to their fully colored,
transparent state. darkest transparent state and the
fluorescent lighting dims accordingly
Energy efficiency Higher upfront costs
Still relatively new in market
Environmental friendly Power Outage
It requires electricity for the transformation
between dark and transparent
Longer life span Long transition times
It offers the consumer
privacy with limited effort.
Higher maintenance costs
Instillation more difficult
In general, electro chromic window is recommended as an alternative to
replace the existing material as it is an energy saving investment and a
greener product to use. It costs very little to power the glass and is more
convenient than typical methods to darken a room. Where the cost is initially
high, it does save on energy costs. Privacy and convenience are two
important benefits of switchable glass, although it is also limited by the
technology itself. There may still be room for maintenance and repair.
However, given its simple structure, it can last for a long time.
Manufacturing Fired at higher
temperatures, but lower
Fired at higher
Dense Less dense Denser
Fixing Easier to work Harder to work
Cost Cheaper More expensive
Water absorption Higher water absorption
Alternative to replace ceramic with porcelain tiles in the toilet
Porcelain tiles can be used to replace ceramic tiles in the toilet because it is
denser than ceramic tiles. Besides, porcelain tiles also have lower water
absorption if compare to ceramic tiles. Although porcelain tile is more
expensive, it is high quality glazed. Furthermore, porcelain tiles are more
attractive than ceramic tiles.
Concrete Brick Glass
Safer More safer Less safer
Low aesthetic value High aesthetic value Higher aesthetic
Cost Cheap Expensive More expensive
High rate of
Low rate of
Lower rate of
Alternative to replace the concrete wall with a brick wall
The brick wall is suggested to replace concrete wall because brick wall is
safer. In addition, a brick wall has a higher compressive strength. Although
brick wall is more expensive than concrete wall, it has a higher aesthetic value.
Furthermore, a brick wall has a lower rate of absorption if compared with a
Alternative to replace water-based paint with oil-based paint
Oil-based paint can be used to replace water-based paint. It is because it has
an attractive gloss. The paint is a durable finish. Oil-based paint is more
expensive than water-based paint and latex paint, but it is long lasting and
can use for a few years.
Latex Paint Oil-based Paint
Characteristics -Dry quickly
-Easier to clean
finish resistant to
-Easy to clean
create a smooth
Rate of Drying Faster than latex
paint, but faster
Slower than latex
Cost Cheaper Moderate Expensive
(A) White Porcelain Tiles
Durable Grout lines can be hard to clean
Water and stain resistant Difficult to repair
Wide choice of colors, textures and
Fragile items that drop on the surface
probably will break
Body-scratches or damage less likely
Glossy tiles can be slippery when wet
Wear-resistant Vulnerable to moisture
Long-lasting Softer woods may dent easily
Provides a warm look Some uneven finishes are difficult to
Can be refinished May shrink or expand, creating gaps
Porcelain tile flooring is recommended as an alternative to replace the existing
material as it is used for decorative and also functional purposes. Porcelain
tile is considerately resistant to stain, scratch and moisture. It also has a high
breaking strength and easy to be cleaned and maintained. Porcelain tiles can
last longer while on the other hand, enhancing the appearance of the library
Gypsum board ceiling also uses tiles, made from gypsum board, a high-
quality machine made product with precision cutting. Unlike dropped ceilings
though, the tiles are finished with decoration paint, however, since it uses tiles,
the paint doesn’t have to replace fully like flat ceilings.
Cost-Affective for both the short run &
Not as flexible as plaster
Fire resistant Special machinery for installation
Sound isolation Heavyweight
Vinyl Ceiling or PVC Ceiling is one of the
most common types of ceiling today.
Heavily plasticized PVC, which is the type
used for ceilings in most cases, contains
very few additives and additional
ingredients that might make it dangerous.
Cheap to install Low aesthetical value
Wide varieties Made of harmful chlorine
Professional Installers are common Non-recyclable
Durable & sturdy – Lasts for a long
Requires additives to acquire desired
Very little maintenance
In my opinion & thorough research, I sincerely think that Gypsum board
ceiling is the type best suited to replace the dropped ceiling. It is similar to
dropped ceiling; it has acoustic performance, fire-resistant, uses tiles & is
durable. The only exception being that it needs sanding & painting, which may
come to an advantage to someone who wants to design the ceilings with their
own patterns rather than choose from a shop. Vinyl ceilings may have a lot of
advantages, however some can be found in Gypsum board ceilings & the
disadvantages are too many & harmful for people in the library.
Base: 1) Timber. Look more nature and nice. it can also withstand pressure
although it might not be the best load bearing material but it is good
in Thermal Insulation because timber is a natural element that
can release heat. The material can also be renewable.
2) Glass. By using special chemically treated, tempered and laminated
glass it is possible to get the required strength to hold the weight of
itself and the people walking on it. By using glass the stairs looks
more high class and elegant which can increase the reputation of the
best environment campus.
Hander: Glass. Look more elegant and classy, it also can make the staircase
a greater attraction and people can be more cautious when they can see
through the glass.
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