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Adjetives clauses


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Adjetives clauses

  1. 1. Adjetives clauses <br />
  2. 2. Adjective clause pronouns used as the subject<br />I thanked the woman.<br />Shehelped me.<br />I thanked the woman who helped me.<br />I thanked the woman that helped me.<br />I thanked the woman: is the independent clause.<br />Who/ That helped me: are the adjective clause, whish modifies the noun WOMAN.<br />Who and That are the subjects of an adjective clause.<br />(a) And (b) have the same meaning.<br />
  3. 3. The book is mine.<br />Itis on the table.<br />The book whish is on the table is mine.<br />The book that is on the table is mine.<br />Who> used for people.<br />Whish> used for things.<br />That > used for both.<br />Incorrect: THE BOOK IS MINE THAT IS ON THE TABLE.<br />
  4. 4. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PRONOUNS USED AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB<br />Themanwas Mr. Jones.<br />I sawhim.<br />Themanwho(m) I sawwas Mr. Jones.<br />Themanthat I sawwas Mr. Jones.<br />Themanѳ I sawwas Mr. Jones.<br />In (a) whoisusuallyusedinstead of whom, especially in speaking. Whomisgenerallyusedonly in very formal English.<br />Incorrect: THE MAN WHO(M) I SAW HIM WAS MR. JONES. <br /> THE MAN THAT I SAW HIM WAS MR. JONES. <br /> THE MAN I SAW HIM WAS MR. JONES. <br />Thepronounhim<br />Mustbe removed. <br />Itisunnecessary<br />becausewho(m),<br />That,orѳfuctions as<br />theobject of theverb<br />Saw.<br />
  5. 5. Themoviewasn`tverygood.<br />Wesawitlastnight.<br />d) Themoviewhichwesawlastnightwasn`tverygood.<br />e) Themoviethatwesawlastnightwasn`tverygood.<br />f) Themovieѳwesawlastnightwasn`tverygood.<br /> In (c) and (f): anobjectpronounisoftenomittedfromanadjectiveclause. (a subjectpronoun, however, maynotbeomitted.)<br />
  6. 6. Objectiveclausepronounused as theobject of a preposition.<br />In very formal English, thepreposition comes at thebeginning of theobjectiveclause.<br />Sheisthewoman.<br /> I toldyouabouther.<br />Sheisthewomanaboutwhom I toldyouabout.<br />Sheisthewomanwho(m) I toldyouabout.<br />SheisthewomanthatI toldyouabout.<br />Sheisthewomanѳ I toldyouabout.<br />Usually in everydayusage, thepreposition comes afterthesubject and verb of theadjectiveclause.<br />
  7. 7. Themusicwasgood.Welistenedtoitlastnight.<br />Themusictowhishwelistenedlastnightwasgood.<br />Themusicwhishwelistenedtolastnightwasgood.<br />Themusicthatwelistenedtolastnightwasgood.<br />Themusicѳwelistenedtolastnightwasgood.<br />Incorrect: Themusictothatwe listen lastnightwasgood.<br />
  8. 8. Usual patterns of adjectiveclauses.<br />Usual: I likethepeoplewholivenextto me. <br />Less usual: I likethepeoplethatlivenextto me.<br />Usual: I likebooksthathavegoodplots.<br />Less usual: I likebookswhichhavegoodplots.<br />Usual: I likedthepeopleѳI meetlastnight.<br />Usual: I likedthebookѳ I readlastweek. <br />
  9. 9. In (a): As a subjectpronoun, whois more commonthanthat.<br />In (b) : As a subjectpronoun, thatis more commonthanwhich.<br />In (c) and (d): Objectpronoun are commonlyomittedspecially in speaking.<br />
  10. 10. Using WHOSE<br />I knowtheman.<br />Hisbicyclewasstolen.<br />I knowthemanwhosebicyclewasstolen.<br />Thestudentwriteswell.<br />I readhercomposition.<br />Thestudentwhosecomposition I readwriteswell.<br />Mr. Cart has a painting.<br />Itsvalueis inestimable.<br />Mr. Cart has a paintingwhosevalueis inestimable.<br />
  11. 11. Whoseisusedto show possession. Itcarriesthesamemeaning as otherpossessivepronounsused as adjectives: his, her, its, and their.<br />Likehis, herits, and their, whoseisconnectedto a noun:<br />Hisbicycle - whosebicycle.<br />Hercomposition- whosecomposition.<br />Whosecannotbeomitted<br />Whoseusuallymodifiespeople, butitmayalsobeusedtomodifythings, as in (c).<br />
  12. 12. Usingwhere in adjectiveclauses.<br />Thebuildingisveryold.<br />He livesthere ( in thatbuilding).<br />Thebuildingwhere he livesisveryold.<br />Thebuildingin whichhe livesisveryold.<br />Thebuildingwhich he livesin isveryold.<br />Thebuildingthat he livesin isveryold.<br />Thebuildingø he livesin isveryold.<br />
  13. 13. Whereisused in anadjectiveclausetomodify a place (city, country, room, house, etc.).<br />Ifwhereisused, a prepositionisNOTincluded in theadjectiveclause, as in (a). Ifwhereisnotused, theprepositionmustbeincluded, as in (b).<br />
  14. 14. Usingwhen in a adjectiveclause<br />I`llneverforgettheday.<br />I metyouthen ( onthatday).<br />I`llneverforgetthedaywhen I metyou.<br />I`llneverforgetthedayonwhichI metyou.<br />I`llneverforgetthedaythat I metyou.<br />I`llneverforgetthedayø I metyou.<br />Whenisused in anadjectiveclausetomodify a noun of time ( year, day, time, century, etc.).<br />
  15. 15. Usingadjectiveclausestomodifypronouns<br />Adjectives can modifyindefinitepronouns (someone, everybody.).objectpronouns (who(m), that, which) are usuallyomitted in theadjectiveclause.<br />Thereissomeone (whom) I wantyoutomeet.<br />Everything he saidwaspurenonsense.<br />Anybodywhowantsto come iswelcome.<br />Paula wastheonlyoneI knew at theparty.<br />Scholarships are availableforthosewhoneedfinancialassistance.<br />Adjectiveclauses can modifytheone(s) and those.<br />
  16. 16. INCORRECT: I whoam a student at thisschool come from a country in Asia.<br />ItisIwho am responsable.<br />Hewholaughslastlaughsbest.<br />
  17. 17. Punctuatingadjectiveclauses<br />General guidelinesforthepunctuationclauses:<br />Do not use commasiftheadjectiveclauseisnecessarytoidentifythenounitmodifies.<br />Use commasiftheadjectiveclausesimplygivesadditionalinformation and isnotnecessary ti identifythenounitmodifies.<br />TheprofessorwhoteachesChemistry 101 isanexcellentlecturer.<br />Professor Wilson,whoteachesChemistry 101,isanexcellentlecturer.<br />
  18. 18. In (a) no commas are used. Theadjectiveclauseisnecessarytoidentifywhichprofessorismeant.<br />In (b)commas are used. Theadjectiveclauseisnotnecessarytoidentifyprofessor Wilson. Wealreadyknowwho he is : he has a name. Theadjectiveclausesimplygivesadditionalinformation.<br />
  19. 19. Hawaii,whichconsists of eight principal islands,is a favoritevacation spot.<br />Mrs. Smith,whois a retiredteacher,doesvolunteerwork at the hospital.<br />Theman{whom, that, ø} I metteacheschemistry.<br />Mr. Lee,whom I metyesterday,teacheschemistry. <br />
  20. 20. Usingexpressions of quantity in adjectiveclauses<br />In a clase are 20 srudents. <br />Mosr of themare fromtheFar East.<br />In my classthey are 20 students, most of whom are from Asia.<br />Ha gaveseveralreasons.<br />Only a few of themwerevalid.<br />He gaveseveralreasons, only a fewifwhichwerevalid.<br />TheteachersdiscussedJim.<br />One of hisproblemswaspoorstudyhabits.<br />TheteachersdiscussedJim, oneifwhoseproblemswaspoorstudyhabits.<br />
  21. 21. Anadjectiveclausemaycontainanexpression of quantitywithof: someof, many of, most of, none of, rwo of, half of, both of, neither of, each of, all of, a few of, little of, a number of, etc.<br />Theexpression of quantity procedes thepronoun. Onlywhom, which, and whose are used in thepattern.<br />
  22. 22. Usingnoun + of which<br />Wehaveanantiquetable.<br />The top of it has jade inlay.<br />Wehaveanantiquetable, the top of wich has jade inlay.<br />Anadjectiveclausemayinclude a noun + of whish (the top of which) <br />
  23. 23. Usingwhichtomodify a wholesentence<br />Tom was late. <br />Thatsurprised me.<br />Tom was late,whichsurprised me.<br />Theelevatorisout of order.<br />Thisistoobad.<br />Te elevatorisout of order,whichistoobad.<br />
  24. 24. Thepronounthat and this can refertothe idea of a wholesentencewhich comes before.<br />Similary, anadjectiveclausewithwhichmaymodifythewholesentence.<br />Usingwhichtomodify a wholesentenceis informal and occursmostfrecuently in spokenEnglish. <br />