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Research Impact Value and LIS, Edinburgh 11th July 2018: speaker slides


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Slides presented at #lis_rival, Edinburgh, 11th July 2018 by Hazel Hall, Paul Gooding, Yvonne Morris, Andrew McTaggart, Sara Wingate Gray, Leo Appleton and Alison Brettle

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Research Impact Value and LIS, Edinburgh 11th July 2018: speaker slides

  1. 1. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Practitioner research: value, impact, and priorities Slides presented at Research, Impact, Value and Library and Information Science by: • Hazel Hall, Edinburgh Napier University • Paul Gooding, University of East Anglia • Yvonne Morris, Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals • Andrew McTaggart, Edinburgh City Libraries • Sara Wingate Gray, University College London • Leo Appleton, Goldsmiths University of London • Alison Brettle, Salford University
  2. 2. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Practitioner research: value, impact, and priorities Professor Hazel Hall Edinburgh Napier University Conceptualisations of LIS research impact and value: Learning from the LIS Research Coalition and DREaM
  3. 3. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018
  4. 4. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 #lis_rival
  5. 5. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 @hazelh
  6. 6. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 2018/07/2018_07-csi-flyer-v5-a4.pdf
  7. 7. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Today’s programme encourages us to: 1. Explore concepts and examples of the impact and value of LIS research to services delivery in practice 2. Encourage the strengthening of links between creators, users, and end- user beneficiaries of LIS research output 3. Narrow gaps between LIS research and practice 4. Lay the ground for future research-related support and collaborations across the sector
  8. 8. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 ‘There will also be contributions on the impact and value of past investments at national level to support LIS research in the UK - notably the Library and Information Science Research Coalition (2009-2012) and the Developing Research Excellence and Methods (DREaM) project (2011- 2012)’
  9. 9. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018  2006-2008: Consultations  March 2009: Coalition formally established by 5 founding members  August 2009: Dr Hazel Hall appointed to lead the implementation, 2 days per week in a seconded role Establishment of the LIS Research Coalition To facilitate a co-ordinated and strategic approach to LIS research across the UK (2009-2012)
  10. 10. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 ‘To facilitate a co-ordinated and strategic approach to LIS research across the UK’ Provision of a formal structure  Improve access to LIS research  Maximise the relevance and impact of LIS research Main aims  Bring together information about LIS research opportunities and results  Encourage dialogue between research funders  Promote LIS practitioner research and the translation of research outcomes into practice  Articulate a strategic approach to LIS research  Promote the development of research capacity in LIS
  11. 11. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 @LISResearch
  12. 12. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Heavy use of social media through Twitter feed still active in 2018
  13. 13. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 To facilitate a co-ordinated and strategic approach to LIS research across the UK (2009-2012) To explore the extent to which LIS research projects influence practice (2011) To create outputs to support the use and execution of research by librarians and information scientists (2012) To develop a UK-wide network of LIS researchers (2011-2012)
  14. 14. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018
  15. 15. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 IMPACT Benefits to economy, society, culture, public policy/services, health, environment, and/or quality of life beyond academia
  16. 16. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 IMPACT THEMES IN THE LIS LITERATURE 1. Evaluation of library and information services Considers the impact of the use of resources accessed through libraries and information services e.g. in end-user decision-making Common in healthcare librarianship 2. Methods for the evaluation of library and information services Explores means of evaluating services in context of demonstrating value and improving their return on investment 3. Bibliometrics Quantitative analyses of publication collections: heavy use of citation data and altmetrics (Academic impact) 4. Relationship between LIS research and practitioner work in the domain Assesses the extent to which theory informs practice and – to a lesser extent – how practice informs theory
  17. 17. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 IMPACT MEASUREMENT CHALLENGES IN LIS: EXAMPLES ‘Research into practice’ conceived as a linear process in a single domain:  Time lags between execution of research and its applicability/application  Identification of impact when it lies elsewhere Lack of attribution/recognition:  Research-informed training sessions  Journalists’ reports in professional literature Funding mechanisms:  Research projects funded for the execution of research  Funding (not usually) provided for enhancing or measuring impact, e.g. for extensive dissemination strategies, impact evaluation studies ‘Gaming’ in measurement:  To present the best picture  REF
  18. 18. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018  Establishment of Library and Information Science Research Australia (LISRA) March 2016  CILIP LIRG ‘invigorated’, adoption of Coalition practices/initiatives  Research skills in CILIP’s (new) Professional Knowledge and Skills Base (PKSB)  Some activities in Canada: library research symposia in Ontario All impact cited above is at the level of the profession, rather than services delivery - consistent with the Coalition’s main aims (Indicative) impact of LIS Research Coalition To facilitate a co-ordinated and strategic approach to LIS research across the UK (2009-2012)
  19. 19. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 1. Had DREaM workshop participants innovated in the workplace since 2012? 2. Had their post-DREaM research determined services provision and/or influenced the LIS research agenda? 3. To what extent could they point to any impact of their post-DREaM research on end-user communities? 4. Had the DREaM network opened up new opportunities for their research? 5. Did they continue to work as a network? Impact of DREaM: assessed in DREaM Again study To develop a UK-wide network of LIS researchers (2011-2012)
  20. 20. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018  Online survey  Focus groups in Edinburgh and London  Some data collected by phone and email  32 out of the full population of 35 DREaM cadre members provided data  Article (forthcoming) addresses RQs 1-4  Article published in Journal of Documentation addresses RQ5  Hall, H., Cruickshank, P. & Ryan, B. (2018). Long- term community development within a researcher network: a social network analysis of the DREaM project cadre. Journal of Documentation, 74(4), 844-861. DREaM Again methods and outputs
  21. 21. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 RQ1: Had DREaM workshop participants innovated in the workplace since 2012?  Yes – but the extent to which this can be attributed to DREaM cadre membership is difficult to assess  If not innovating themselves, DREaM workshop participants support innovation of end-users in their research activities (e.g. encouragement of the use of techniques such as social network analysis)  Indications that the growth in the research confidence of members attributable to DREaM participation will embolden them to innovate in the future
  22. 22. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 RQ2: Had their post-DREaM research determined services provision and/or influenced the LIS research agenda? Yes – but the extent to which this can be attributed to DREaM cadre membership is difficult to assess
  23. 23. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 RQ3: To what extent could they point to any impact of their post-DREaM research on end- user communities? Primarily as research methods evangelists
  24. 24. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 RQ4: Had the DREaM network opened up new opportunities for their research? YES!  Growth in confidence as researchers has encouraged uptake of opportunities that might have previously been dismissed  Much on-going research-related activity (including publishing – all role types), around a quarter of which has been undertaken with other cadre members: 52% peer reviewing; 24% bidding for research funding; 21% winning research funding  Learning from DREaM applied in majority of research outputs identified  Clear indications that much of this activity would not have occurred without DREaM  Links between levels of network connectivity and productivity: the 12 most connected cadre members were also the most productive
  25. 25. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 RQ5: Did they continue to work as a network? YES!  A loose, but persistent network endured  Social ties were more important than work ties  Network members with the greatest centrality were from academic institutions  Job status had no bearing on network centrality  Physical proximity was/is important to the maintenance of network ties
  26. 26. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Social infrastructure Today’s delegates strengthen links to narrow gaps:  Librarians: academic, health, national, prison, public, school, special  Plus: LIS academics, professional body officers, independent consultants, users
  27. 27. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018
  28. 28. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018
  29. 29. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Next up: presentations on impact and value in practice
  30. 30. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Contact Hazel Hall @hazelh +44 (0)131 455 2760 Slides on SlideShare at:
  31. 31. Research, Impact, Value & LIS - #lis_rival - Edinburgh - 11th July 2018 Practitioner research: value, impact, and priorities Professor Hazel Hall Edinburgh Napier University Conceptualisations of LIS research impact and value: Learning from the LIS Research Coalition and DREaM
  32. 32. The Digital Library Futures Project: How does e-Legal Deposit Shape Our “Digital Universe” PI: Dr. Paul Gooding (University of East Anglia); Co-I: Prof. Melissa Terras (University of Edinburgh); Senior Research Associate: Linda Berube (University of East Anglia) @pmgooding;
  33. 33. Talk Overview • Project introduction. • What is Legal Deposit? And how did it develop? • E-Legal Deposit: key questions and challenges. • Conclusion – on working with libraries.
  34. 34. The Big Question: what will our “digital universe” look like in the future?
  35. 35. “Digital Library Futures” • Two year AHRC-funded project to investigate the impact of e-Legal Deposit on UK Academic Deposit libraries: • Case study partners: Bodleian Libraries & Cambridge University Library. • Focus on academic deposit libraries: • Shift focus away from national libraries and towards the specific problems faced within academic libraries. • First ever public user-centric study of the impact of e-legal deposit. • Normally focused on technical, preservation, and long-term aspects of these collections, not contemporary usage. • Aim to address several challenges created by tension between user and publisher rights.
  36. 36. What is Legal Deposit? • Legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a trusted repository: • Commonly applies to: • Books; • Periodicals; • Pamphlets; • Music; • Maps. • Ensures the systematic preservation of a nation’s published output. • Deposit libraries receive copies of all printed publications, and preserve them for posterity.
  37. 37. The Origins of UK Legal Deposit • 1610: Informal agreement between Sir Thomas Bodley (founder of the Bodleian Library) and the Stationer’s Company: • Bodleian could claim a copy of everything printed under Royal License. • 1662: First legal framework for legal deposit in the UK – extended Royal License to Cambridge University Library. • 1709/1710: Copyright Act under Queen Anne. • 1753: Establishment of British Museum; • Until this date the Bodleian Cambridge University Libraries were the de facto national libraries of the United Kingdom. • 1753-1911: Various minor changes, but…
  38. 38. Legal Deposit • The only relevant act in the whole Twentieth Century: Copyright Act of 1911 confirmed the UK Legal Deposit Libraries: • British Museum Library (British Library from 1973); • National Library of Scotland; • National Library of Wales; • Bodleian Library; • Cambridge University Library; • Trinity College Dublin.
  39. 39. The introduction of e-Legal Deposit • “Legal Deposit Libraries (Non-Print) Regulations 2013”: • Bring electronic publications into line with printed materials, and cover: • Websites; • e-Journals; • e-Books; • Digital Newspapers; • Digital Maps. • Users can access electronic materials within the six legal deposit libraries. • But what does this mean for us? We are attempting to investigate the following key research problems:
  40. 40. 1.) Impact of e-legal deposit on UK academic deposit libraries. • National and Academic Deposit libraries both share an interest in the long-term viability of legal deposit, BUT: • Academic libraries have a primary strategic motivator: • To make their collections available AND useful to their current readers. • Users are becoming accustomed to online remote access to library resources. • Threat to publisher revenues if materials are too widely available.
  41. 41. 2.) Usage of e-legal deposit collections within UK academic deposit libraries. • Focus of research is on technical and preservation aspects, not users. • Non-textual materials are totally excluded from the regulations: • Risk replicating loss of early cinematic movies. • Implied hierarchy within digital media – long term implications for how our digital collections are used. • Differing models of providing access at different institutions. • Balance between Intellectual Property rights and user needs – where is the sweet spot?
  42. 42. 3.) Data-driven innovations in academic research and government policy. • Emerging forms of digital research are enabled by access to library and archival digital resources: • e.g. large-scale text analysis. • Regulatory shifts elsewhere: • 2014: Copyright exemption introduced to allow non- commercial text and data mining of copyrighted materials. • Libraries changing the way they support users: • Digital scholarship support and outreach: e.g. BL LABS! • More remote support for users. • Push-pull between site access to e-legal deposit materials, and common view of data-driven methods…
  43. 43. 4.) Barriers to digital inclusion. • Digital domain viewed widely as positive democratising force. • Bodleian and Cambridge University Libraries both embed widening participation at the heart of what they do. • But decades of work show that social inequalities can persist online. • Legal Deposit has a number of implicit challenges to digital as inherently democratising: • On-site access eliminates benefits of digital in providing remote global access. • Access to legal deposit materials is under stricter terms than provided for in law.
  44. 44. Quick Reflection: The Value of LIS DREaM • Methodology is central to this study: it’s a complex question, with national, regional and institutional contexts, and varied data sources. • Exposure to variety of methodological approaches allows us to be more open to introducing new methods to our work. • Benefits of professional network: I haven’t been active within LIS DREaM, but building professional networks as a PhD student helped me to develop research programmes with broader relevance.
  45. 45. That’s all folks… • Thank you for listening! • Any questions? • Contact:; @pmgooding.
  46. 46. Developing a sector-wide Research and Evidence Base Portal Yvonne Morris MCLIP Research and Foresight Manager Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP)
  47. 47. Our Charter CILIP operates under Royal Charter to unite, develop and promote the interests of all Information Professionals • Unite, support and develop information professionals • Advance information science • Advocate on behalf of the profession • Ensure the adequate provision of services • Scrutinise legislation • Provide professional recognition and Chartership
  48. 48. Securing the Future Our Strategic Plan, Securing the Future, has 4 priorities: • Advocating for the profession • Developing a ‘future-ready’ workforce • Driving standards and innovation • Helping our members to succeed
  49. 49. Research & evidence Advocacy Policy Practice (Standards) Workforce development Diversity Membership growth Strategy/ priorities Securing the Future We see quality, up-to-date research and evidence as essential for advocacy, sector development, for workforce development and diversity and for our own development as a professional association
  50. 50. Getting us there… • Phase 1 (2016-2018): Building a CILIP-focused evidence base, created within existing resources – • Phase 2 (2018-2020): Creating a sector-wide Research/Evidence base Portal
  51. 51. Preparation for Phase 2 • Consortium of CILIP Special Interest Groups formed: • Academic and Research Libraries Group • Cataloguing and Indexing Group • Health Libraries Group • Information Literacy Group • Knowledge and Information Management Group • Library and Information Research Group • UK eInformation Group • Specification for a small-scale research project to: • Produce a model for a portal that will provide access to a LIS research/evidence-base • Provide recommendations for possible funding sources
  52. 52. A Report on Research to Support the Development of a Sector-wide Research Portal/Evidence-Base Peter Dalton (BCU) Sarah McNicol (MMU)
  53. 53. Methods: • Desk based research to identify other research portals/evidence bases via literature databases, internet, suggestions from respondents etc (48) • Stakeholder survey (1,150 responses) • Stakeholder interviews (13) with CILIP representatives, other potential stakeholders and other portals
  54. 54. Findings: • Evidence and research perceived as important across the sector • Differences between sectors in the use of research & demand for different types of evidence sources • Most common ways of using research were to improve existing services, professional development, and to create new services. • Most common challenges experienced in accessing research included lack of time, lack of awareness of where to find research, and inability to access certain resources. • Wide range of potential users for a research portal • Case studies the most requested type of resource for a research/evidence portal. Data sets, academic articles & research reports also considered important.
  55. 55. Essential features: • Case studies • Data sets/statistics • OA search engines & repositories • Research reports • Regular updating And some recommended & additional features, as well as options for future consideration… Report available at Or from
  56. 56. Round Table (June 19th 2018) Round Table convened with key stakeholders to: • Discuss the report and its recommendations • Look at research portals/evidence bases currently in existence/under development in the sector • Consider how to take the project forward
  57. 57. Policy/Advocacy vs Evidence Based Practice
  58. 58. Clap-o-meter!
  59. 59. Next steps… • Establish a “Community of Interest” • Look at the “evidence-base environment” • Develop a prototype
  60. 60. Thanks! Yvonne Morris 020 7255 0629
  61. 61. Using Data in Lifelong Learning – Examples of recent data collection and use in Libraries Andrew McTaggart – Lifelong Learning Strategy Officer (Libraries)
  62. 62. r = 0.96 r = 0.93 r = 0.86
  63. 63. • Provide free activities with no economic barrier to participation • Develop literacy skills and promote reading for pleasure and associated benefits (Clark & Rumbold, 2006): o Reading attainment and writing ability o Text comprehension and grammar o Breadth of vocabulary o Positive reading attitudes o Improved attainment levels o Greater self-confidence o General knowledge o A better understanding of other cultures o Community participation o A greater insight into human nature and decision-making • Help tackle the ‘summer slide’ with reading and maintaining confidence in reading (UKLA) • Identifies the library as a place to spend leisure time • Provide diversionary activities which reduce opportunities for engaging in anti-social behaviour • Varying nature of activities introduces children to other potential interests and develops new skills • Build relationship between library and parents whilst identifying the library as a safe space to spend leisure time • Deliver fun, structured activity with an educational basis Summer Reading Challenge:
  64. 64. Edinburgh Libraries 2017 SRC: A total of 4,593 children participated in the Summer Reading Challenge. o 1 in 7 children living in Edinburgh started the challenge o 1 in 12 children living in Edinburgh completed the challenge 42% of participants were boys 10% were age 4 or under 44% age 5-7 42% age 8-11 4% age 12+ 62% of participants completed the challenge (UK average 53%) Completion rate for girls was 63%, for boys it was 59% A total of 837 activities were used to promote participation and completion of the challenge with an average of 16 children and 9 adults attending each event.
  65. 65. Citywide, girls on average were more likely to complete the challenge, however, in these areas boys who started were more likely to complete it. These libraries held a total of 173 activities specifically introduced for the challenge with an average of 1 adult attending to every 7 children. (Citywide average 1 adult to every 3 children) The NLT survey (2016) found that a child's socio-economic background was not linked to reading pleasure, as the Trust did not find any difference between children who received free school meals and those who did not. In lower ranking SIMD areas of Edinburgh 1 in 8 children age 5-11 participated in the challenge, with 1 in 13 completing it. July and August accounted for 19.3% of yearly issues for age 5-11 (All others 16.9%)
  66. 66. Schools: Children from 85 different schools participated Children in more rural areas where a library was available (i.e. Ratho, South Queensferry and Kirkliston) were more likely to participate and complete the challenge. School proximity to a library was key in participation and completion. 12 Primary schools identified using Summer Reading and SIMD data for additional support via Bookbus: Forthview Craigroyston Ferryhill Hermitage Park Brunstane Stenhouse Broomhouse Sighthill Gilmerton Gracemount St Davids St Ninians
  67. 67. p.54-5. J. Bruner, “The Acts of Meaning” (Harvard University Press: 2013). “Story, in a word, is vicarious experience, and the treasury of narratives into which we can enter includes, ambiguously, either “reports of real experience” or offerings of culturally shared imagination.” “Stories … are especially viable instruments for social negotiation. And their status, even when they are hawked as “true” stories, remains forever in the domain midway between the real and the imaginary”.
  68. 68. story … real/imaginary … … ambiguous … … shared … experience
  69. 69. p.364. Walter Besant, 'The Amusements of the People', The Contemporary Review, March 1884, #45. pp.342-353 (my emphases). “Everybody knows, in general terms, how the English working classes do amuse themselves … First, it must be remembered as a gain–so many other things having been lost–that the workman of the present day possesses an accomplishment, or a weapon, which was denied to his fathers–he can read. That possession ought to open a boundless field; but it has not yet done so, for the simple reason that we have entirely forgotten to give the working man anything to read. This, if any, is a case in which the supply should have preceded and created the demand. Books are dear; besides, if a man wants to buy books, there is no one to guide him or tell him what he should get.”
  70. 70. ‘[b]ooks are a luxury, and the purchase of them has been confined to fewer people. In general, those who would be disposed to purchase books, have not the means of so doing, and are obliged to be frugal.’ Report from the Select Committee on the Copyright Acts (1818), p. 67. Quoted in Altick, The English Common Reader, p. 260.
  71. 71. Looking to actual WC wage rates (early-mid 19th C), it is apparent that when ‘[f]or most of the period, a [new] novel cost thirty-one shillings and sixpence’ this price represented either the entire weekly wages of a skilled worker at the top of the wage hierarchy (e.g. a tailor) or approximately three times the weekly wage of those on the bottom rung (e.g. an agricultural worker). Feinstein’s work on earnings and costs of living show, for example, that the likely composition of expenditure for working class households (covering a five year period between 1828-1832) was 65% food; 11% rent; 4% fuel; 1% light; 11% drink; and 8% clothing. Kate Flint, ‘The Victorian Novel and its Readers’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Victorian Novel, ed. by Deirdre David (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 20. Charles H. Feinstein, ‘Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain During and After the Industrial Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, 58 (1998), 625-658 (p. 635).
  72. 72. TABLE 1. Weekly wage rates for various manual occupations in English regions Date Trade Gender Location Wage (weekly) 1807 Leather cutter (gloves) M Woodstock, Oxford 21-30 shillings 1807 Sewing (gloves) F Woodstock, Oxford 8-12 shillings 1807 Agricultural worker M Clifton, Oxfordshire 9 shillings 1812* Carpenter - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 16 shillings 1812* Blacksmith - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 12 shillings 1812* Shoemaker - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 10 shillings 1813 Compositor M London 33 shillings 1816 Tailor M London 36 shillings 1820* Carpenter - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 20 shillings 1820* Blacksmith - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 16 shillings 1820* Shoemaker - Trowbridge, Wiltshire 15 shillings 1823* Carpenter - Newcastle-under-Lyme 21 shillings 1824 Handloom weaving (linen) M Knarlesburough [sic], N. Yorkshire 11-12 shillings 1824 Handloom weaving (linen) F Knarlesburough [sic], N. Yorkshire 5 shillings and 6 pence 1833* Shoemaker (general) - Newcastle-under-Lyme 9-14 shillings 1833* Shoemaker (superior) - Newcastle-under-Lyme 20-25 shillings 1833* Plumber - Newcastle-under-Lyme 15-20 shillings 1833* Hat-finisher (general) - Newcastle-under-Lyme 17-24 shillings 1833* Hat-finisher (superior) - Newcastle-under-Lyme 22-28 shillings 1833* Bricklayer - Newcastle-under-Lyme 20 shillings 1833** Fly-frame tenter (Cotton Factory) F Bolton, Lancashire 7 shillings 1833** Stripper (Cotton Factory) M Bolton, Lancashire 9-10 shillings 1833*** Collier - Bolton, Lancashire 12-15 shillings 1833*** Handloom weaver - Bolton, Lancashire 9-10 shillings 1833 Lace worker F Bedfordshire 2 shillings 1833 Agricultural worker M Starstone, Norfolk 10 shillings 1834+ Labourer M Bedford 9 shillings 1834+ Lace worker F Bedford 2 shillings and 6 pence 1834+ Labourer M St. Lawrence, Reading 8-12 shillings 1840 Handloom weaving (silk) M Braintree, Essex 7 shillings and 2 pence 1840 Handloom weaving (silk) F Braintree, Essex 5 shillings and 1 pence 1840 Handloom weaving (wool) M Gloucester 11 shillings and 10 pence 1840 Handloom weaving (wool) F Gloucester 7 shillings 1843 Agricultural worker M Wiltshire 9 shillings 1843 Agricultural worker F Wiltshire 3-4 shillings Sources: Joyce Lynn Burnette, ‘Exclusion and the Market’, p. 57-60. *B.P.P., 1834 (167) Factories Inquiry Commission, Supplementary Report, Part I, pp. 101-2, all occupations classed as ‘Artizan Labour’. ** Ibid, p. 164. *** Ibid, p. 169, discussing the ‘operative classes’. +B.P.P., 1834 (44),
  73. 73. ‘the persistent and largely unproblematised tendency in the wider humanities to privilege books in nineteenth-century studies’ over and above other types of printed matter suggests a gap in the scholarly record which is difficult to fully gauge and certainly problematic to easily fill. Laurel Brake, ‘The Longevity of ‘Ephemera’, Media History, 18.1 (2012), 7-20 (p. 7)
  74. 74. Master weaver, John Lench, 1803 trial witness: ‘I live in Horseshoe- alley, Moorfields […] On Saturday, the 7th of May, between twelve and one, I was reading the newspaper at a public-house, the Blue Bell, the bottom of Horseshoe-alley, there is a skittle-ground at the back of the house, which the back window looks to’ Witness in an 1808 trial notes that ‘[a]bout eleven o'clock it rained very hard; I stopped at the public house reading the newspaper’ Cheesemonger Richard James in his testimony to an 1849 trial: ‘I put the key of the cupboard into my pocket, and went to the public-house—I looked at a newspaper […] and returned to my own house.’ Old Bailey Proceedings Online (, version 6.0, 17 April 2011), 25 May 1803, trial of Charles Clarke, Joseph Chinnery (t18030525-56). Old Bailey Proceedings, 14 September 1808, Thomas Hatton (t18080914-39). Old Bailey Proceedings, 29 October 1849, James Somers (t18491029-1849).
  75. 75. Taxes on Knowledge – paper duties, advertisement duties, newspaper stamp. Price of books/info media – prohibitive for WC. Access to books/info media – mediated by class structures/hierarchies; geographies; literacies.
  76. 76. p.278. Thomas Greenwood, “Public Libraries: a history of the movement and a manual for the organisation and management of rate-supported libraries”. 3rd ed. London, 1890.
  77. 77. other routes on this map…
  78. 78. p.278. Thomas Greenwood, “Public Libraries: a history of the movement and a manual for the organisation and management of rate-supported libraries”. 3rd ed. London, 1890. “the most perplexing problem with regard to the future of these institutions [public libraries] has reference to the supply of fiction. … Should novels be provided at all, and if so to what extent? … There is … a vast store of excellent works of fiction … but below … there is a sea of trash and rubbish which ought never to be found on the shelves of Public Libraries.”
  79. 79. tm SEX FICTION UNWHOLESOME FAMOUS MOVIE COMEDIENNE SAYS GOOD READING IS BEST Mabel Normand. Celebrated Movie Actress, gL BY MABEL NORMAND, famous movie Actress There Is nothing one so much as reading. It gives a girl snme thine to do eveniies and helos Jong, lonesome hours t pass quickly and cheenauy. , I don't mean that young women should lock themselves up in their rooms when night comes decidedly not I am naturally a strong believer in wholesome entertainment, such as is afforded by the better class o theaters and good motion picture
  80. 80. P. Cowell, “The Admission of Fiction in Free Public Libraries,” (“of the Free Public Library, Liverpool.”). CONFERENCE OF LIBRARIANS, The Manchester Guardian; Oct 5, 1877; p.6. “Why was there an implied doubt about fiction? Was it that novels were not considered educational, that the amount of time spent in their perusal was out of all proportion to the profit gained, that they unfitted the mind for close and attentive study, weakened its energies, and rendered it unhealthy; and that their seductive powers and fascination were detrimental to the true interests of all readers, but particularly of young ones? Those were some of the charges brought against novel reading; and he feared there was much truth in them.”
  81. 81. “Mr. Barrett (Glasgow) complained of the excessive reading of fiction by those who frequented our public libraries. At least nine-tenths of the books read were works of fiction." … "Perhaps one of the most conspicuous of the services rendered by the public free [sic] as compared with many of the circulating libraries they had largely superseded had been the exclusion of unwholesome literature from their shelves.” H. Rawson, ‘The duties of Library Committees’, (PL Committee, Manchester, president of the Library Association), read at International Library Conference. Address by Sir John Lubbock. Paper by Mr Alderman H. Rawson. The Manchester Guardian, July 14, 1897. p.5.
  82. 82. The Manchester Guardian, September 27, 1899, p.9.
  83. 83. “This image of the “public” is not usually made explicit … the elite upset about the “low level” of journalism or television always assumes that the public is moulded by the products imposed on it. To assume that is to misunderstand the act of “consumption.” This misunderstanding assumes that “assimilating” necessarily means “becoming similar to” what one absorbs, and not “making something similar” to what one is, making it one's own, appropriating or reappropriating it. p.166. M. de Certeau, 'Reading as Poaching'. In "The Practice of Everyday Life" (University of California Press: Berkeley/London). 1988. pp.165-176.
  84. 84. Maja Djikic, Keith Oatley, and Mihnea C. Moldoveanu. “Reading Other Minds: Effects of Literature on Empathy” (in press, at The Scientific Study of Literature) 2013. “Participants who were frequent fiction-readers had higher scores on the non-self-report measure of empathy. Our results suggest a role for fictional literature in facilitating development of empathy.”
  85. 85. Keith Oatley and P.N. Johnson-Laird. ‘Cognitive approaches to emotions’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2013) pp.1–7 (pre-print). “it was found that the more fiction people read, the better were their empathy and understanding of others, but the effect did not occur with reading nonfiction. … reading fiction as compared with nonfiction caused increases in empathy and understanding of others … Also, when people read artistic literature, their personalities changed by small amounts, and not all the same direction as with persuasion, but for different people in their own ways. …The size of the change depended on the amount of emotion the participants experienced during reading”.
  86. 86. mood
  87. 87. bodies
  88. 88. Tania Zittoun & Frédéric Cerchia, ‘Imagination as Expansion of Experience’. Integr Psych Behav (2013) 47: pp.305–324. Published online: 28 April 2013 # Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013. “One way to understand the developmental function of uses of symbolic resources is precisely to consider them as one of the possible way[s] to facilitate and guide an imaginary experience in situation of ruptures in the continuity of people’s lives.”
  89. 89. relations
  90. 90. “The poetic image might be characterized then as a direct relationship between two souls, a contact between two human beings pleased at the chance, respectively, to speak and to listen, a renewal of language in the raising of a new voice” Gaston Bachelard Fragments of a Poetics of Fire The Dallas Institute, Texas USA (1990) [quotation bolded emphases mine]
  91. 91. other routes on this map (2.0)…
  92. 92. p.8 & p.67. M. Warner. Publics and Counterpublics (Zone Books, New York, NY), 2002. “...publics exist only by virtue of their imagining. They are a kind of fiction that has taken on life, and very potent life at that.” “A public is a space of discourse organised by nothing other than discourse itself … It exists by virtue of being addressed.”
  93. 93. p.68-9 & p.90. M. Warner. Publics and Counterpublics (Zone Books, New York, NY), 2002. “The peculiar character of a public is that it is a space of discourse organised by discourse. It is self-creating and self-organized; and herein lies its power, as well as its elusive strangeness.” “…a public is understood to be an ongoing space of encounter for discourse. Not texts themselves create publics, but the concatenation of texts through time.”
  94. 94. p.106. M. Warner. Publics and Counterpublics (Zone Books, New York, NY), 2002. [Bold emphases my own]. “A public seems to be self-organized by discourse but in fact requires preexisting forms and channels of circulation. …It appears to be open to indefinite strangers but in fact selects participants by criteria of shared social space (though not necessarily territorial space), habitus, topical concerns, intergeneric references, and circulating intelligible forms”
  95. 95. p.94. M. Warner. Publics and Counterpublics (Zone Books, New York, NY), 2002. [Bold emphases/square brackets my own]. “In order for a text to be public, we must recognise it not simply as a diffusion to strangers but also as a temporality of circulation … …Circulation organises time and vice versa. Public discourse is contemporary [con|temporary], and it is oriented to the future; the contemporaneity and the futurity in question are those of its own circulation.”
  96. 96. …the public library as “counterpublic” site or locus?
  97. 97. …an apex of “circulatory”?
  98. 98. What exactly was/is circulating amongst the public of Norwich public library?
  99. 99. 1881 censu s
  100. 100. “age 14”; “scholar”; “son” of George & Esther May (both age 38?), “Grocer”, “employing 14 men and boys”. Listed at “15 Unthank Road, Norwich”.
  101. 101. age 14 in 1881 = age 31 in 1898
  102. 102. 1901 census
  103. 103. George all grown up. “age 33”; now married to “Ethel” (“age 28”). Appears to have taken over his father’s business, “Wholesale Grocer”, “Employer”.
  104. 104. “F” = “fiction”
  105. 105. Let’s try and track those!
  106. 106. It’s possible (possibly) because librarians are *awesome* cataloguers & archivists too!
  107. 107. F5840 = Arthur Conan Doyle, “Uncle Bernac, Memory of the Empire”
  108. 108. F5835 = Henry James, “Terminations: Death of the Lion, Coxon Fund, Middle Years, &c.”
  109. 109. 1879 196819581948193819281918/ 9 190818981888
  110. 110. 2002-2003 Source: CIPFA annual statistics & “Library and Information Statistics Tables (LIST) & “LAMPOST”. LISU@ Loughborough University. infosci/lisu/lampost.html i.e. not a new trend
  111. 111. “Now identification, I can think of one novelist who would have typified that at one stage for me and a lot of my generation, and that’s Margaret Drabble [at what age?] through my 20s and 30s and 40s, and I feel that she’s writing about her own life experiences very much mirrored something I can see in the lives of myself and my friends… [and is that what attracted you to her work…?] Yes, less so recently, and that maybe because [laughs] I'm not so interested in myself now as I was when I was 20! Certainly, the earlier books like The Millstone, The Garrick Year and Jerusalem the Golden, one felt very strongly, ‘oh my god I am living this myself’” Excerpt from interviews with Norwich public library users, 2013
  112. 112. p.53. Alexander & Fox, ‘A Historical Perspective on Reading Research and Practice’. In “Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading”, ed. R.B. Ruddell & N. J. Unrau (International Reading Association: Newark, Detroit), 5th edition. 2004. pp.33-68. Readers are “active and willful participants in the construction of knowledge” with attention in the field moving to focus on “the individual working to create a personally meaningful and socially valuable body of knowledge.” With this view of learner-readers as “actively engaged” in the process providing for what Alexander and Fox call a “developmental perspective” of reading, where the emphasis is on a reader who is continuously growing, with “linguistic knowledge, subject-matter knowledge, strategic capabilities, and … motivations expand[ing] and matur[ing]” throughout his or her life.
  113. 113. …[and what do you think the role was of the book and accessing the book?] “It was explanation and understanding, feeling that one was part of a shared experience that other young women were having, were having the same sort of experiences that we were. There's a phrase she used in a novel called The Middle Ground, and it describes women as feeling “trapped between parents and children, free of neither” and you think, 'oh that is it!' It sums it up.” Excerpt from interviews with Norwich public library users, 2013
  114. 114. “Just as texts are created within and with ideologies that assume discourse contexts that privilege particular roles and social practices, so, too are readers.” …with more recent research exploring “how response styles might be connected to readers’ lives both within and beyond the classroom” noting that McGinley & Kamberelis (1996) found readers varying widely “in terms of how they use their reading”, with one individual using “his literary experience to help him understand the community in which he lived, the other to help her imagine her future.” p.853-4. Galda & Beach, ‘Response to Literature as a Cultural Activity’. In “Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading”, ed. R.B. Ruddell & N. J. Unrau (International Reading Association: Newark, Detroit), 5th edition. 2004. pp.852-869.
  115. 115. … “a lightbulb moment of understanding a bit more about what went on. Fiction can sometimes tell you more about the emotions than a serious analysis in a non fiction book. What it might have been like to live through it, or what it might have …what led to it, what prompted it. [what draws you to that?] I suppose just extending my knowledge and experience… I don't want to end up, say, just knitting sitting in the corner!” Excerpt from interviews with Norwich public library users, 2013
  116. 116. “many readers treat characters as people regardless of the fact that they exist only in the literary transaction” [citing Mellor & Patterson 2000 research] “often comparing character action and feeling with their own” [citing Hancock 1993, McGee 1992] “not all readers respond positively to the characters they are reading about” citing the research of Galda (1982) where “readers rejected the actions of characters when those actions did not correspond to their own lived experience, which they note the research of Enciso (1994) connecting “this type of response to cultural practice” whereby “some readers might resist or reject a text that does not reflect their cultural expectations.” p.854. Galda & Beach, ‘Response to Literature as a Cultural Activity’. In “Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading”, ed. R.B. Ruddell & N. J. Unrau (International Reading Association: Newark, Detroit), 5th edition. 2004. pp.852-869.
  117. 117. “You know when you watch television and you might think…Endeavour is on at the moment…I've watched Miss Marple, Murder She Wrote, Midsummer Murders … there’s something very compelling about these people and if you get a chance … it might be Wednesday evening, you always watch them … [and for the characters in the books you read? Is it the same?] “Yes, I think in a way I relate more to them than I do to, for instance, my next door neighbours because I actually can access them and see them more often. I mean I’ve got nice neighbours and very nice friends, but normally my friends, who I know best … you only, you can only really see them once a week, maybe on a Saturday when they’re not working, obviously you get to know them pretty well, but somehow you don’t get to know them even as well as a character, who you sort of form this relationship with, is it John Nettles, the chap who plays Barnaby? I think, yes, you sort of, they are characters who form part of your life, a bit like a soap.” Excerpt from interviews with Norwich public library users, 2013
  118. 118. R. A. Mar, “The Neural Bases of Social Cognition and Story Comprehension” Annual Review of Psychology, 62 (2011): p. 123. “recent work on anthropomorphization (Kwan & Fiske 2008) … has shown that people can treat fictional persons as if they were real (Epley et al. 2007) and that these fictional others can serve a social function. The mere presence of fictional others can relieve feelings of loneliness and isolation (Derrick et al. 2009, Epley et al. 2008), for example, or produce social psychological phenomenon such as social facilitation (Gardner & Knowles 2008).”
  119. 119. p.854. Galda & Beach, ‘Response to Literature as a Cultural Activity’. In “Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading”, ed. R.B. Ruddell & N. J. Unrau (International Reading Association: Newark, Detroit), 5th edition. 2004. pp.852-869. Such forms of response “also take the form of resisting the social norms readers perceive operating in a text or classroom” so that, instead, reader responses become sited in “resist[ing] invited stances and dominat[ing] discourses in ways that lead them to create their own versions of texts (Lewis, 1997).”
  120. 120. J. Rose. “The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes”. (Yale University Press: 2002). pp.94-108. [Bold emphases my own]. “I literally devoured it … A new world seemed to dawn upon me” – Albert Charles Adams, on reading his first novel. Described by Rose as a joiner’s son from an early 19thC. Scottish Village. “History of a Village Shopkeeper” (1876). p.94. “you had a story that stayed in your imagination and gave it something to glow with” – Jack Common, described by Rose as a proletarian novelist. “Kiddar’s Luck (1951). p.103. “At age ten Harry West (b.1880), the son of a circus escape artist, read Pilgrim’s Progress merely as “a great heroic adventure.” Only later did he appreciate it as a religious allegory, and still later … he came to “discover it as one of the greatest, most potent works on practical psychology extant.” – Autobiography of Harry Alfred West: Facts & Comment. (nd). “I interpreted it [the Bible] quite differently in prison to the way I had interpreted it outside.” – Annie Kenney (b.1879), described by Rose as a millworker and jailed suffragette. Memories of a Militant (1924). “New ideas from the perusal of this book [Robinson Crusoe] was now up in arms, new Crusoes and new Islands of Solitude was continually muttered over in my Journeys to and from school.” – John Clare. Autobiographical Writings.
  121. 121. J. Rose. “The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes”. (Yale University Press: 2002). pp.94-127. [Bold emphases my own] “To me Daniel Defoe’s book was a wonderful thing, it opened up a world of adventure, new countries and peoples, full of brightness and change; an unlimited expanse.” – Joseph Greenwood (b.c. 1833), described by Rose as the son of domestic handloom weavers. “Reminiscences of Sixty Years Ago” (1910). “I devoured–not read, that’s too tame an expression–Robinson Crusoe, and that book gave me all my spirit of adventure, which has made me strike new ideas before the old ones became antiquated, and landed me into many troubles, travels, and difficulties.” – John Ward (b.1866), described by Rose as a ploughboy. “The Labour Party and the Books that helped make it” (1906). “The coloured words flashed out and entranced my fancy. They drew pictures in the mind. Words became magical, incantations, abracadabra which called up spirits. My dormant imagination opened like a flower in the sun.” Richard Hillyer on reading Tennyson (b.c.1900), described by Rose as a cowman’s son from a Northamptonshire village. “Countryboy: the autobiography of…” (1966).
  122. 122. “to read is to wander” … “a system of verbal or iconic signs is a reservoir of forms to which the reader must give a meaning. … The reader takes neither the position of the author nor an author’s position. He invents in texts something different from what they “intended.” he detaches them from their (lost or accessory) origin. He combines their fragments and creates something un-known in the space organized by their capacity for allowing an indefinite plurality of meanings.” p.169. M. de Certeau, 'Reading as Poaching'. In "The Practice of Everyday Life" (University of California Press: Berkeley/London). 1988. pp.165-176.
  123. 123. story … real/imaginary … … ambiguous … … shared … experience
  124. 124. “In the act of reading, having to think something that we have not yet experienced does not mean only being in a position to conceive or even understand it;… p.67. Iser quoted in Tompkins. W. Iser (1989). Prospecting: From Reader Response to Literary Anthropology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; J. Tompkins (1980). Reader-response criticism: from formalism to post-structuralism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. …it also means that such acts of conception are possible and successful to the degree that they lead to something being formulated in us.”
  125. 125. “readers may not be aware of the conscious needs they are seeking to satisfy through their reading” B. Usherwood, J. Toyne “The value and impact of reading imaginative literature” Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, Vol. 34, No. 1 (March 2002): p. 34.) [quotation bolded emphases mine]
  126. 126. mood
  127. 127. bodies
  128. 128. relations
  129. 129. “Despite the promising activities of the last era, reading researchers still have not produced a well-accepted developmental theory that looks broadly at the nature of reading across the lifespan.” p.58. Alexander & Fox, ‘A Historical Perspective on Reading Research and Practice’. In “Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading”, ed. R.B. Ruddell & N. J. Unrau (International Reading Association: Newark, Detroit), 5th edition. 2004. pp.33-68.
  130. 130. 146 A new vista?
  131. 131. “… What if they convey the feel of a historical period better than anybody else? … Lyric poets perpetuate the oldest values on earth. They assert the individual’s experience against that of the tribe.” – Charles Simic The Best of the Best American Poetry ed. Harold Bloom (p.353)
  132. 132. 148 ? 148
  133. 133. 149 some kind of mutual journey…
  134. 134. where the exploratory goal is understanding and meaning … 150
  135. 135. Thank you for listening. Comments? Questions? Feedback? Like us to give a talk? @sarawingategray 151
  136. 136. Leo Appleton, Professor Hazel Hall, Professor Alistair Duff, Professor Robert Raeside Exploring the impact and value of UK public libraries through the analysis of longitudinal focus group data
  137. 137. • Brief background to the research project • Literature review & Research questions • Method • Pilot study • Fieldwork – engaging the public • Focus Group findings • Initial discussion and analysis • Next steps Overview
  138. 138. • Why public libraries? – Social function of libraries – Political agendas / lobbying against cuts – Citizenship agenda • Wider context – Information / Knowledge economies – Information Society – Exchange theory – Social capital Background to the research project
  139. 139. Literature review themes • Role and value of public libraries • Impact of public libraries • Performance measurement and evaluation of public libraries • Exchange theory • Social capital and public libraries • Information Society models • Public libraries in the Information Society • To what extent is an individual’s position advantaged or disadvantaged as a result of using public libraries? • What is the impact of using a public library service on individual and community citizenship Image credit: University of Glasgow, Research & Knowledge Exchange
  140. 140. • “I didn’t cry when I was homeless. The tears came later. I needed to care for my son and the library provided me an enchanted world to share with him. We arrived every day as the doors opened. My eager boy discovered dinosaurs, befriended librarians, and developed an on- going love of books. I devoured stories of others who face challenges. We shared story time and played on the lawn. Though homeless, the library helped me to mother my son by allowing me to give when I had nothing to spend” (Dowd, F. S. (1996) Homeless children in public libraries: a national survey of large systems. Journal of Youth Services in Libraries, 9 (2), 155-66.) Image credit: South Australian Public Library Network
  141. 141. Pilot focus group “When I come in, I have a dead positive vibe, when I walk through the doors straight away, ‘cos I know that I only need to spend fifteen minutes in here, and I’ll have lost myself in a book…. You don’t care what’s going on!” “I could be quite dramatic and say that reading saved my life!”
  142. 142. Pilot discussion – Values framework
  143. 143. Method – Commit to a focus group methodology • Longitudinal cohort approach to focus groups • Revisit annually over three years – Scope of project • Representative of UK library users • Approach UK local library authorities • Ensure that City/town councils, County councils and Metropolitan Borough Councils all represented. – Benefits of longitudinal approach • Familiarity of group (common experiences) • Willingness to share and discuss • Deep and reflective discussion
  144. 144. Empirical research 2014 - 2017 Edinburgh Liverpool Newcastle Lincoln Essex Devon Redbridge Sutton
  145. 145. Focus group participants
  146. 146. Transcribing and Coding • access (physical) • access (IT and e-resources) • books and monographs • citizenship and participation • community cohesion • integration • knowledge capital • knowledge and information sharing • people and library users • social capital • space • transactional capital • Information Society
  147. 147. Findings - themes Citizenship and public libraries Empowerment through Knowledge Print Books Community social role Community ownership
  148. 148. Empowered citizens – Knowledge and information • Educational role – Access to resources – Access to space – Access to expertise • The library is a place where knowledge is created and shared • The library is a place to ‘find out’, ‘enquire’ and ‘inform’ “…handling all those really old manuscripts and books,….it’s knowledge, just a body of knowledge. And knowledge is power I believe. Knowledge is power!” “I essentially feel empowered. I have all that information, knowledge and creative stuff at my finger tips”
  149. 149. Print monographs • “My favourite thing about the public library is that you can just grab any book that you like and you can just sit as long as you like and read it. And if you really like it you can get another one! Books!” • “I cannot overstate how much libraries have meant to me, and indirectly to other people. I have African heritage and the place where my family comes from there are no libraries so there is no free thought. They have an oral culture, but they don’t have a literary culture. Although people are clever, they are well educated, but they don’t think. They don’t think outside the box. When you read a book you think, you think to yourself ‘well what do I think about that?’ There people are more ‘well this is what you’re meant to think’ and for me it’s connected to freedom, not just personal freedom but community freedom and how we move on!”
  150. 150. Print monographs ‘You can’t access books on the Internet!’
  151. 151. Community cohesion and integration “The library is a place of great safety and security.” “It’s inclusive. It makes you feel part of the group. I think that society consists of groups doesn’t it? But I see the library more as a coherent group and it’s very inclusive of people from different backgrounds, different ethnic backgrounds and cultures.” “When you’re on the streets no one cares about you. It’s like every man for himself. When you come in here you can just communicate with anyone, you can discuss things with people. There’s loads of things that you can do.” “You’re never too old to go to a library. You see really old people reading newspapers and you see really young people on the computers or like reading a book or studying or researching. A library is place where you see every generation and you end up socialising with every kind of person” “It is the one place where everyone is equal”
  152. 152. Inclusion through professional support • “The staff are great. They will always show you how to do stuff. You don’t need to book on a course to set an email account up for example. They’ll just show you. The job centre doesn’t have computers now, yet you are meant to do all your job searching online. You can now only access this in the library. So having the staff available to help is so important.” • “I learnt how to use computers in the library. They showed me how to get online and how to search. I would never have had access to all of that before”
  153. 153. Community ownership of libraries • “If you close all the libraries you would be closing the door on opportunity an education. You don’t just learn in the classroom, you also learn in the library. You don’t just learn from teachers, you learn yourself, so if we close our libraries you are closing down opportunities for people who might not have a computer at home or can’t afford a printer. It’s taking your right to have an education away from you! We would be closing down opportunities for people” • “I think libraries make a very strong ideological statement like we’ve already said, as well as access to knowledge and access to imagination. It’s one of the few areas we’ve got that tries to level the playing field and we have that here in Lincoln to an extent. And that’s very important I think”
  154. 154. Bringing it all together: Information, Community and Support • “I feel secure and not so much empowered, because I’m not disempowered, but connected, connected to individuals but also to the wider world. What you can get from knowledge so it’s a sense of connection. I lead a very solitary life in lots of ways so I need to have that sense of connection with others and obviously to the wider world” • “I think that it was the first place I went to because there were people there and helpful people and I needed a lot of help and they were welcoming as well. It made me feel part of the community”
  155. 155. Next Steps
  156. 156. Thank you for listening • • @leoappleton •Questions?
  157. 157. Exploring the impact and promoting the value of LIS research in the UK: what next? Alison Brettle, Professor in Health Information and Evidence Based Practice, RIVAL event, Edinburgh Napier University, 11 July 2018
  158. 158. Outcomes, effectiveness and evidence
  159. 159. To being evidence based.. • Considering practice from a curious and questioning perspective with a view to continuous improvement • Gathering or creating evidence (through research or evaluation) if we don’t have it already • Using information or evidence wisely • To help make decisions about practice or our services • To help others make decisions about our services (by demonstrating our effectiveness, value, impact or worth)
  160. 160. Impact •The influence of libraries and their services on individuals and/or on society. The difference or change in an individual or group resulting from the contact with library services (3.25); METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF LIBRARIES BS ISO 16439:2014.
  161. 161. Outcome •Direct, pre-defined effect of the output related to goals and objectives of the library’s planning (e.g. number of users, user satisfaction levels) (3.44); •Consequences of deploying services on the people who encounter them or the communities served (Markless and Streatfield, 2006, p7)
  162. 162. Or very simply…. • Does it work (effectiveness) • Does it make a difference (impact) • …Measured by outcomes • = Evidence
  163. 163. Problems with measuring impact •Cause and effect??? •Intangible contributions • Libraries need to define outcomes relevant to their institution and assess the extent to which they are met (Oakleaf 2010)
  164. 164. North West Clinical Librarians Group •Systematic review on the impact of clinical librarian services (Brettle et al, 2011) • Highlighted 4 models of service provision • Demonstrated CLs are effective in saving time, providing relevant, useful information and high quality services AND have a positive effect on clinical decision making (contribution to better informed decisions, diagnosis, choice of drugs) • Study quality is improving – could be better • Critical Incident Technique useful approach for impact • Group systematic review good way of teaching research skills and building confidence
  165. 165. The impact of clinical librarians on patient care (Brettle, Maden, Payne 2016) •Measure specific CL impact on organizational and patient outcomes •Robust mixed methods study building on previous work (practicing CLs key) •Clinical Librarians contribute to a wide range of long and short term outcomes which reflect NHS priorities • Eg choice of intervention, diagnosis, increased patient involvement in decision making, risk management, cost savings financial planning
  166. 166. Value and impact of CL work • Winners of Practitioner Researcher Award – LIS Research Coalition (now LIRG sponsored award) • Ongoing study – across UK and also in Australia (UK component presented at EAHIL 2018) • Further collaborations and leadership relating to impact • Advocacy for Knowledge for Healthcare and Health Libraries
  167. 167. Value and Impact Toolkit
  168. 168. Impact data from questionnaire
  169. 169. Input Activity Output Outcomes (short, medium, long) Library services Current awareness or alerts Literature search or evidence search Supply of an article, book or document Training or e-learning Access to electronic or print information Clinical or outreach librarian service Study space IT facilities Journal club Organisational/Service development/business planning Legal or ethical questions Commissioning or contracting Personal or professional development Direct patient care Publication Research Patient information, advising or educating patients and families Sharing information or advising colleagues Developing guidelines, guidance, pathways, policies Audit Impact on teaching or Presentations Individuals Contributed to personal or professional development More informed decision making Improved quality of patient care Facilitated collaborative working Service or Organisation Improved quality of patient care Reduced risk or improve safety Changed service development or delivery Saved money or contribute to financial effectiveness
  170. 170. Local use of impact data
  171. 171. National use of impact data
  172. 172. National use of impact data – financial savings
  173. 173. National use of Impact Data The NHS invests £50m a year in NHS library and knowledge services in England…. Data is great but a story is powerful beyond any graph or table. It is absolutely vital to have impact stories to-hand, in our back pocket, ready to tell… Sue Lacey Bryant David Stewart Senior Libraries Advisor – HEE Director of Healthcare Libraries Unit North
  174. 174. Building up an evidence base 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 NW Clinical Librarians All South London library services Pilot
  175. 175. Research evidence • What evidence is there to support the employment of professionally trained library, information, and knowledge workers? A systematic scoping review of the evidence. Brettle, A. and Maden, M. (2016) London: CILIP. available from reviews/value-trained-information- professionals
  176. 176. Methods •Systematic Scoping Review • Identifying the question • Identifying the studies • Selecting the studies • Charting the data • Collating, summarizing and reporting results
  177. 177. Results Potentially relevant citations identified through searching n=7188 citations Studies included after title and abstract sifting n=428 Studies excluded after abstract review n=6760 Total number of studies included in review 135 Studies excluded after reading full text n=293 Public n= 15 Academic n=49 Health n=47 Schools n=14
  178. 178. Popular types of research evidence •Public • Contingent valuation (ROI) •School • Correlations, Surveys (CIT) •Health • Systematic review, RCT • Surveys/Mixed (CIT) •Academic • Correlations, quasi experiments
  179. 179. (CILIPs) areas for future research • Research that focuses on the value of staff rather than the services provided • Studies that compare the value of professionally registered staff v non registered • UK studies • Studies in other library sectors
  180. 180. What next from CILIP •Developing a sector wide research and evidence base: portal scoping project – Dalton and McNichols, 2018 •Developing a sector wide research and evidence base: round table meeting June 2018 “We’re excited about the potential for a joined-up approach to the use of Research and Evidence across the Library and Information sector – it could deliver real-world improvement for information users. We’re open-minded about what it might look like, how it could operate and who should be involved. It won’t work unless we work together. “
  181. 181. What next to develop the evidence base and skills •Brettle, Hall, CILIP research bid •Network to develop research skills through systematic reviews of the library literature •Building on experience of CLs, UofS and US projects
  182. 182. Over to you? •Grab your mobile phone or laptop •Log on to •Enter the code 91 51 20
  183. 183. Finally •Practitioner research, evidence and impact go hand in hand •10th Evidence Based Library and Information Practice Conference – University of Strathclyde week of 19 June 2019 #EBLIP10, @ConfEblip •Join LIRG
  184. 184. References • Arksey, H. and O’Malley, L. (2005) Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8, 19-32 • Brettle et al (2011) 'Evaluating clinical librarian services: a systematic review Health Information & Libraries Journal, 28(1), pp.3-22. • Brettle, A. and Maden, M. (2016) London: CILIP. available from professionals • Brettle, A., Maden, M., Payne, C. et al. (2015) Evaluating the impact of clinical librarian services in the North West. Salford: University of Salford • Koufogiannakis D and Brettle A (2016) Being evidence based in library and information practice. London Facet • Oakleaf, M. (2010). Value of academic libraries: A comprehensive research review and report (0004-8623). Retrieved from