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Poisonous pedagogy

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2014 Uluslararası Lider Martılar Projeleri_No 6
2014 International ICT Leading Seagulls Projects #6

Published in: Education
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Poisonous pedagogy

  1. 1. Page 1
  2. 2. Page 2 Content • Who are we? • Introduction • Problem Definition • Fishbone • Matrix Diagram • Pareto Diagram • Gantt Chart • Literature Review • Survey • Survey Results • Strategies to the Problem • Suggestion • Conclusion • Reference
  3. 3. Page 3 WHO ARE WE? Project Topic: “Poisonous Pedagogy as a Hindrance in ELT” Group Members: Fatma Deli Chasan Emine Karaduman Didar Karadağ Aysun Kart Average Age: 22.25 Meeting Point/Time: Thursday & Sunday / 16.00-19.00 @ Simit Sarayı
  4. 4. Page 4 WHO ARE WE? Group Name: Motivation Facilitators Group Slogan: Yes, We Can! “A wish is sometimes a bigger step than a total success.” Kart, A. (2014)
  5. 5. Page 5 WHO ARE WE?
  6. 6. Page 6 INTRODUCTION • How do you define motivation ? • Does motivation trigger language learning? • Does motivation affect students’ attitudes towards language learning? • What kind of strategies could be followed to promote motivation in schools? • What or who influences students’ motivation for language learning? • What comes to your minds about the term “motivation”?
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  8. 8. Page 8 Why did we choose this topic? • Learning is not a process that can be restricted to a certain part of individuals’ lives; it is a life-long process and it requires active participation of individuals all the time. • It is not always possible to keep this wish to learn awake; we need to show extra effort to be always on the road that leads to success. • When it comes to language learning, the learning process becomes a very complicated issue. • Especially, in EFL settings both teachers and students should have a great role in keeping the process going.
  9. 9. Page 9 Why did we choose this topic? We think : • Motivation is the key concept that keeps the language learning process alive. • All elements of learning and teaching process (teachers, administration, students etc.) should work in cooperation to foster motivation to language learning. • HOWEVER, this is not the case in most of the schools in our country. • That’s why we decided to analyze this situation in Turkey in detail.
  10. 10. Page 10 Background Knowledge • Motivation; the internal state or condition that activates and gives direction to our thoughts, feelings and actions. (Lahey, B.) • External Motivation : Human motives that activated by external rewards. • Intrinsic Motivation: Human motives stimulated by the inherent nature of the activity or its natural consequences. Lahey, B. B., 2007. "Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion."
  11. 11. Page 11 Background Knowledge • Motivation can only be inferred by understanding a person’s behavior, so it is not possible to directly observe motivation like intelligence. • As Glasser (1998) suggests, to be motivated, people need to feel satisfied in the areas of;  Competence  Belonging  Usefulness  Potency  Optimism Glasser, W., 1998. Choice Theory and Quality Teaching.
  12. 12. Page 12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Maslow believes that people pay attention to higher needs only when lower needs are satisfied. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs
  13. 13. Page 13 Expectancy Value Theory http://www.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/T_Expectancy-value.html A learner’s motivation is determined by how much they value the goal, and whether they expect to succeed.
  14. 14. Page 14 PROBLEM DEFINITION Why there is still lack of motivation in ELT settings? What can be the underlying reasons?
  15. 15. Page 15 FISHBONE Why there is lack of motivation in ELT settings?
  16. 16. Page 16 MATRIX DIAGRAM Student Materials & System Environment Teacher Emine 2 5 4 7 Aysun 4 6 5 6 Didar 4 6 6 7 Fatma 3 5 5 6 Total 13 22 20 26 % 46 78 71 92
  17. 17. Page 17 PARETO DIAGRAM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Emine Aysun Didar Fatma
  18. 18. Page 18 GANTT CHART
  19. 19. Page 19 What is “Poisonous Pedagogy”? “Poisonous Pedagogy” or “Black Pedagogy” refers to the kind of education and attitudes intended to harm child’s will but thinking that it is for their own good. http://www.authoritarianschooling.co.uk/index.php/poisonous-pedagogy http://www.dhakatribune.com/sites/default/files/Corporal-punishment_1_0_0.jpg
  20. 20. Page 20 LITERATURE REVIEW • “Poisonous Pedagogy” is a type of child rearing and this term is used to describe attitudes toward children. It harms the child psychologically or physically. Miller calls this process as a “soul murder”. • A child should feel comfortable, safe and welcomed to achieve motivation towards language learning. Teacher’s role is to follow different attitudes and intensions toward each student because students’ needs could differ. A teacher should consider the fact that every student has the capacity and the power to learn. Miller, A.,1990. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence
  21. 21. Page 21 LITERATURE REVIEW • Motivation is the main step to trigger students’ brains and let their thoughts activate. Even the tone of voice, appearance, intense and attitude toward students affect their motivation. • Therefore; a teacher should perform motivational teaching strategies to ensure and increase students’ achievements. Miller, A.,1990. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence
  22. 22. Page 22 LITERATURE REVIEW  The reality of learning environments according to Alice Miller; • Teachers are the masters of learners. • The school determines what is right and wrong. • The school provides everything that a reasonable parent could desire. • Children's enthusiasm and curiosity are a threat to authority. • Human behavior is driven by competition. • Emotional problems are irrelevant when you are in the classroom. • If anything goes wrong, it must be the boys' fault not teachers’. Miller, A.,1990. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence
  23. 23. Page 23 Some News from Turkey on Poisonous Pedagogy • “Otistik çocuğa okulda dayak iddiası” (Milliyet, 2014) • “Okullarda kütüphane yok şiddet var “ (Radikal, 2013) • “Okullarda şiddet 6 yılda 7 bin arttı!” (Haber 7, 2012) • http://www.haber7.com/egitim/haber/836338-okullarda-siddet-6-yilda-7-bin-artti http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/okullarda_kutuphane_yok_siddet_var_-1158532 http://gundem.milliyet.com.tr/otistik-cocuga-okulda-dayak-iddiasi/gundem/detay/1845038/default.htm http://tribune.com.pk/story/393321/child-rights-movement-corporal-punishment-in-schools-must-end/ http://tanzeelbinhaider.blogspot.com.tr/2012/08/what-excuse-do-you-have-funny.html
  24. 24. Page 24 SURVEY • Interview with 5 highschool English teachers. • They were asked to answer 14 questions related to their language teaching strategies and attitudes toward learning and students.
  25. 25. Page 25 SURVEY 1 2 3 4 5 1 Teacher can use his/her power over students 2 Teacher can criticize student’s error however he/she wants 3 Teacher’s attitude does not affect students’ motivation 4 Teacher’s attitude does not affect students’ performance 5 Teacher have the right to behave differently toward students 6 Teacher can harm students physically if S/he sees it necessary 7 Teacher should use punishment if students show unwanted behaviors 8 Teacher’s behaviour toward students does not have an effect on learning 9 Teacher has the only and ultimate authority in the classroom 10 Teacher should pay more attention to successful students 11 Use of rewards and punishment is a good way to motivate students 12 Teacher should be the decision-maker in the classroom 13 Teacher should trust students’ instincts and judgments 14 Teacher should guide and measure students’ development
  26. 26. Page 26 SURVEY RESULTS Question 1 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 2 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 3 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 4 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 5 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral
  27. 27. Page 27 SURVEY RESULTS Question 6 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 7 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 8 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 9 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 10 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral
  28. 28. Page 28 SURVEY RESULTS Question 11 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 12 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 13 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Question 14 Highly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
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  30. 30. Page 30 SURVEY RESULTS • Most of the teachers do not take responsibility for students’ lack of motivation and failure in language learning. • Most of the teachers see themselves as the ultimate authority in the classroom and they behave accordingly. • Most of the teachers regard themselves as the decision maker in the classroom and ignore students’ instincts and judgments.
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  32. 32. Page 32 SURVEY RESULTS • Even if most of the teachers do not approve physical punishment; they do not see psychological violence as a big issue. • All in all, they believe that whatever they do is to foster students’ learning process and they can justify their attitudes towards students by using the excuse: “It’s for their own good.”
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  34. 34. Page 34 STRATEGIES TO PROBLEM  WHAT NOT TO DO! • Unwelcomed behaviour must be prevented by punishment. • Teachers must be respected, simply because they are teachers, whatever their failings. • Learners must be humiliated so they become eager to please. • No teacher must ever show affection for a child. • Any boy who asks for more must be ignored. • Boys must always be ranked for everything. • A master must not consider what a boy feels; he only needs to correct what he does. • . Miller, A.,1990. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence
  35. 35. Page 35 SUGGESTIONS • A teacher should provide all students the most desirable opportunities to help them reach their goals in the classroom and also in their real life circumstances. • As a role model for every child and especially for those who are at an early age, a teacher has responsibilities which cannot be underestimated. A teacher should be well equipped and should have all kinds of input because some students may need extra help and assistance (if they are clashing with learning a topic).
  36. 36. Page 36 SUGGESTIONS **A Model for Teachers: Trustful Teaching “The child’s will is his/her motive force.” • What do we mean by trustful? We use the term trustful here to refer to an attitude of treating others as equals rather than as superiors or subordinates. ** This model of teaching is adapted from Peter Gray’s Playful Parenting Theory. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/play-makes-us-human-vi-hunter-gatherers-playful-parenting http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/trustful-parenting-its-downfall-and-potential-renaissance
  37. 37. Page 37 SUGGESTION • In trustful teaching, nobody may dominate the behavior of another person; each individual must be allowed to make his or her own decisions, within the boundaries set by the rules of the process, and all must have a say in establishing the rules. • A trustful style of teaching, then, is one in which teachers do not attempt to dominate children's behavior, but rather allow children maximal freedom to make their own moment-to-moment and day-to-day decisions. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/play-makes-us-human-vi-hunter-gatherers-playful-parenting http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/trustful-parenting-its-downfall-and-potential-renaissance
  38. 38. Page 38 SUGGESTION • Trustful teachers allow their students to make their own decisions because they trust their students’ instincts and judgments. • Trustful teachers do not measure or try to guide students’ development, because they trust students to guide their own development. They support, rather than guide development, by helping students achieve their own goals when such help is requested and needed. • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/play-makes-us-human-vi-hunter-gatherers-playful-parenting http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/trustful-parenting-its-downfall-and-potential-renaissance
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  40. 40. Page 40 Triarchic Theory of Love http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangular_theory_of_love
  41. 41. Page 41 CONCLUSION • These findings indicate that there are many problems in education system and most of these problems seem to be teacher-related. However, teachers are not aware of this serious problem and they do not blame themselves. • Most of the teachers regard punishment as a solution to deviant student behavior and they do not focus on the negative effects of punishment on students.
  42. 42. Page 42 REFERENCES  İmece Circles by Dr. Hayal Köksal.  Miller, A.,1990. For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence, 3rd ed., trans. HildegardeHannum and Hunter Hannum, New York: Noonday Press.  Glasser, W., 1998. Choice Theory and Quality Teaching.  Sagor, R., Motivating Students and Teachers in an Era of Standards. Pg: 2-15.  Kathryn R. Wentzel (1993) , Motivation and Achievement in Early Adolescence : The Role of Multiple Classroom Goals, vol.13 4- 20 University of Maryland  Lahey, Benjamin B. "Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion." Student Study Guide for Use with Psychology : An Introduction [by] Benjamin B. Lahey. 9th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2007. 383-89.
  43. 43. Page 43 REFERENCES • http://friendsofkentlibrary.blogspot.com.tr/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs • http://www.authoritarianschooling.co.uk/index.php/poisonous-pedagogy • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangular_theory_of_love • http://www.dhakatribune.com/sites/default/files/Corporal- punishment_1_0_0.jpg • Spark Notes; http://www.sparknotes.com/ • http://www.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/T_Expectancy-value.html • http://www.haber7.com/egitim/haber/836338-okullarda-siddet-6- yilda-7-bin-artti • http://www.radikal.com.tr/turkiye/okullarda_kutuphane_yok_siddet_va r_-1158532 • http://gundem.milliyet.com.tr/otistik-cocuga-okulda-dayak- iddiasi/gundem/detay/1845038/default.htm
  44. 44. Page 44 REFERENCES • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200907/play- makes-us-human-vi-hunter-gatherers-playful-parenting • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom- learn/200907/trustful-parenting-its-downfall-and-potential- renaissance
  45. 45. Page 45 http://friendsofkentlibrary.blogspot.com.tr/
  46. 46. Page 46 Special Thanks to Dr. Hayal Köksal

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