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Native vs nonnative teachers


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2014 Uluslararası Lider Martılar Projeleri_No 5
2014 International ICT Leading Seagulls Projects #5

Published in: Education, Career
  • I think it's an important aspect. And in any case it's better to choose native-english-speaker if you are going to study English.
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Native vs nonnative teachers

  1. 1. Nativeness: Does it matter?
  2. 2. DifferencesbetweenNativeand Nonnative Teachersin EFL Classrooms
  3. 3. 1. Who are We? We are all teacher candidates! Project Topic: “Differences between Native and Nonnative Teachers in EFL Classrooms” Group Members: Muazzez Tuğçe Bütün Fatih Hazar Kedersiz Selin Kuyucu Selda Pür AverageAge: 22.50
  4. 4. Group Name: N for Nativeness GroupSlogan: “Nativeness: Does it Matter?” MeetingTime: Saturday (17.00-20.00) Meeting Point: Tugçe’s Residence
  5. 5. Observed Schools: Rustu Akın Vocational High School Istanbul High School ACI Schools Sezin School
  6. 6. 2.What willwetalk inthis presentation? 1. Whatour project is:  What ourproblem is  Brainstorming  Introduction  Why wechose this topic  Fishbone Diagram  Matrix Diagram  GanntChart  Literature Review  Methods  Results  Solutions 2. Myth vs. Reality
  7. 7. 3. What is Our Project? Our Problem: “DifferencesbetweenNative and NonnativeTeachers in EFL Classrooms” “Major Concerns of NonnativeTeachers of English”
  8. 8. Öğretmen ayakta MEB’in yurtdışından 40 bin İngilizce öğretmeni alacak olması protesto edildi. Bakanlık önünde toplanan öğretmenler, “İthal bakan istiyoruz” dedi Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’nın, “Yabancı Dil Öğretiminin Geliştirilmesi Projesi” kapsamında her yıl 10 bin olmak üzere toplam 40 bin anadili İngilizce olan yabancı İngilizce öğretmeni getirilecek olmasına eğtimciler tepki gösterdi. Türk Eğitim-Sen üyesi bir grup, MEB önünde toplanarak, “Öğretmen mi, misyoner mi geliyor”, “İthal öğretmen değil, ithal bakan istiyoruz”, “Atama bekleyen öğretmen adayını unuttunuz mu” yazılı dövizler taşıdı. ayakta/gundem/gundemdetay/25.03.2011/1368692/default.htm
  9. 9. BRAINSTORMING: The differences in teaching behaviors betweenyour nativeand nonnativeteachers What are our major concerns as prospective teachers? What are the maincauses the perceptionthat native teachers are better.
  10. 10. Why did we choose this topic? We areall teacher candidates, and we should beaware of what wewill encounter in the future. There is a general tendency that native teachers are better in teaching English. Nonnative teachers are suffering from the prejudice and suspicion onthe part of students, parents and administration.  Discriminations against nonnative teachers in terms of payment, accommodation, working hours and health insurance.
  11. 11. What do you think?What are your observations in your practicumschools? Are the administrationsof your trainingschool praising nativenessor nativelooking? What are studentsand parents’ perceptions?
  12. 12. BackgroundKnowledge: Who is native speaker ofEnglish?: “Onelearned language at one’s mother’s knee” (Bloomfield, 1927). A person who was born in an English speaking country (Medgyes, 2006). Thequestion of ownership of English: Does English belong to just natives by virtue of their better language proficiency and stronger cultural affiliation? Widdowson (1994) says; “It is not a possession which native speakers lease out to others while retaining the freehold. Other people actually ownit.”
  13. 13. Definition of the Problem: What are the causes of differences between native and nonnative teachers? What are the causes of the perception that native teachers are better ? Perception of the students Perception of the parents Teachers’ own perception Administration Policies of Schools
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Literature Review: Butler (2007) found that 60% agreed with the statement that ‘the English Language is best taught by a native speaker’ and that 85% of the respondents indicated that they did not have the minimum levels of proficiency needed to conduct activities using the English language because they perceived their own proficiency to be very low. Dogancay & Aktuna (2008) Surveyed 21 teacher educators in Turkey to determine their self-perceptions as NNESTs. 41% reported that they had no proficiency problems and perceived themselves to have an improved ability to express themselves idiomatically. 43% did not perceive problems with their NNEST status but those who did claimed it was an issue felt that it was public perception that led them perceive a problem with their non native speaker status.
  16. 16. Kamhi- Stein (1997) Studies show that many administrators in California believe that only native English speakers could be good teachers of ESL . Kamhi- Stein (1997) Unlike what many administrators believe, the ideal ESL/EFL teacher is not necessarily a native speaker. Most studies agree on identifying the qualities of a credible teacher. Among the qualifications of a good language teacher most often stressed are training in ESL /EFL pedagogy, an in-depth understanding of the English language and knowledge of the second language acquisition process. Nativeness is not included.
  17. 17. Native-Speakerism according to Adrian Holliday;  includes prejudicial judgement in its nature and sees the other English learning cultures as subordinate cultures.  English-speaking West considers their own teaching-learning techniques such as active, collaborative, and self-directed ‘learner- centred’ ones superior over other ones that they assume ‘collectivist’, ‘reticent’, ‘indirect’, ‘passive’, ‘docile’, ‘lacking in self esteem’.  But this kind of perspective like ignoring the cultural elements or ‘’othering’’ some cultures must be eliminated and students from outside English-speaking West should be taken into account.
  18. 18. parlez-vous-anglais-no-i-speak-que-dalle.html
  19. 19. english-teacher-or-non-native.html
  20. 20. Teachers: Lack of intuational language use and non native pronunciation. Low self confidence and embrassment Students: Students have tendency to question their non native teachers’ language knowledge  Students feel more secure when they can use their L1. Parents:  Parents are questionening language competence of non native teachers. Administration: Discrimination against non native teachers in the hiring decision.  Working hours, salary, health insurance, accommodation
  21. 21. Student Teacher Administration Parents Selin 5 3 7 5 Selda 5 3 5 7 Tuğçe 7 5 7 5 Fatih 7 5 3 5 Total 24 20 22 18 % 82 75 78 60 MATRIX DIAGRAM
  22. 22. PLAN STEPS MARCH (Weeks) APRIL (Weeks) MAY (Weeks) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Circle Formation Problem Definition Approval Literature Review Cause Definition Approval Strategies Tools DO Survey CHECK Data Analysis Suggestions Conclusion Power Point Rehearsal ACT Presentation Correction Video Expected Observed GANNT CHART
  23. 23. Methodology 40 high school students from Rustu Akın Vocational High School, Istanbul High School, ACI Schools and Sezin College are given 10 questions in a questionnaire and asked to assess the statements using the 5-scale.
  24. 24. Please circle the numbers related to how much you agree with the statement. Assess the statements according to scale: 1-I certainly don’t agree. 2- I don’t agree 3- I’m not sure 4 – I agree. 5- I certainly agree. TEACHER ASSESSMENT EDUCATION QUALITY 1. Native teachers' language knowledge is better than nonnative teachers. 2. Students improve their pronounciation skills better with native teachers. 3. Parents tend to regard native teachers more competent. 4. Nonnative teachers apply learning strategies better than native teachers. 5. Nonnative teachers manage the classroom more easily and better. 6. Students learn the culture of the target language better with native teachers. 7.Students' needs and expectations are fulfilled by native teachers better compared to nonnative teachers. 8.Nonnative teachers use more different techniques, methods and materials effectively compared to nonnative teachers. 9. Students' listening and speaking skills improve much better by native teachers. 10. Students communicate with their nonnative teachers more comfortably.
  25. 25. Results: Answers are assessed according to assessment graphic.
  28. 28. Results: According to the survey, there is not much difference in the perception of native-nonnative teachers’ assessment. However, each statement differs in the results, therefore it is more sensible to analyze each statement separately.
  29. 29. TEACHER ASSESSMENT 1. Parents tend to regard native teachers more competent. 2. Native teachers' language knowledge is better than nonnative teachers. 3. Students improve their pronunciation skills with native teachers better. 4. Nonnative teachers apply learning strategies better than native teacher. 5. Nonnative teachers manage the classroom more easily and better. 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Teacher Assessment Teacher Assessment 3,4 4,4 4,1 3,9 4,3
  30. 30. EDUCATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT 1. Students learn the culture of the target language with native teachers. 2. Students' needs and expectations are fulfilled by native teachers better compared to nonnative teachers. 3. Students' listening and speaking skills improve much better by native teachers. 4. Nonnative teachers use more different techniques, methods and materials effectively compared to native teachers. 5. Students communicate with their nonnative teachers more comfortably. 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 1 2 3 4 5 EDUCATION QUALITY EDUCATION QUALITY 4,3 3,6 4,1 3,85 3,9
  31. 31. We also had interviews with one native and one non native teacher Our question: Do you see any advantages of you over non - native teachers? No I don't. I think they are as effective as we are. Because they also care about linguistic competence of students. Their pronunciation is also not a problem for students as long as they understand their teacher, they can always develop their pronunciation with other ways. Jenny Abamu/ Açı College
  32. 32. Our question: Do native teachers earn more than the nonnative teachers and do you have much more opportunities like accommodation and free education advantage for your children in your school? Actually I can’t say anything about the salaries because as the rules require, we don’t know how much other teachers earn but I can say that each teacher gets different amounts based on their experience and their educational background and competence. Again I don’t have an accommodation opportunity however my manager helped me to find a good place near around as ı’m not familiar with here Istanbul. Also I don’t know anything about the free education opportunity because I don’t have children. As I know from my colleagues they just get some sale for their children's education as they work here but this is not only for native teachers but also nonnative teachers. Jenny Abamu/ Açı College
  33. 33. Our question: Do you find yourself adequate in teaching environment as a non native English teacher? Well, I think I can meet their needs.I think I have a fluent English and I don't see a huge gap between me and a native teacher in terms of fluency, grammar, word choice etc. Sometimes there can be slight differences in terms of pronunciation but I am trying to improve myself more and more everyday. I also think that because we have a common cultural background with them, I can understand what students think and feel in some specific circumstances. So, if a non native teacher manages and directs his qualities well enough, he can move ahead of his native counterparts. Doruk Gürkan/ Sezin School
  34. 34. Our question: Can you mention any advantages of being a non native teacher in a private school. What do you think? Actually, in this school we are not allowed to speak in Turkish with the children, so they think we don’t know Turkish. We are using English while communicating. But, as a teacher I can guess the problems they can encounter while learning. For example, in the last lesson you observed I focused on the word “scissors” because I know it is a difficult word to pronounce for a Turkish student. Doruk Gürkan/ Sezin School
  35. 35. Solutions: Whatcan we do? 1.Encourage collaboration between NESTs and NNESTs. (Canagarajah, 1999) 2.Consider the context of EL teaching in a world where English is an international language 3.Considerations for NNESTs teaching pronunciation for English as an International language (EIL). (Modiano 2005 and Low 2010) 4.Pedagogical Implications for English as an International Language
  36. 36. MYTHS REALITIES 1. Native teachers teach pronunciation better. 1. English is spoken globally in today’s world. There are so many varieties of English not just standard English. 2. Native teachers teach language skills better (Listening, speaking, reading and writing). 2. Because nonnative teachers experience the same language learning paths, they are more aware of problematic language areas than their native colleagues 3. Native teachers meet students’ needs and expectations better. 3. We can’t make a generalization about it. Every teacher has its own style disregarding his nativeness. 4. English-speaking West has the most agreeable culture and each culture that wants to speak English should adapt its culture to English-speaking West. 4. As English is spoken interculturally, it doesn’t belong to a single culture or a couple of cultures.
  37. 37. Acknowledgements SpecialThanksto Dr. Hayal Köksal
  38. 38. Thanksto Our Collegues
  39. 39. References: Bloomfield,L. (1933).Language.NewYorkandChicago:Hold, RinehartandWinston. Butler,Y.G. (2007a).Factorsassociatedwiththe notionthatnativespeakers arethe ideal languageteachers:An examinationof elementaryschool teachers in Japan.JALT29(1),7-40. Canagarajah,S.(1999). Interrogatingthe “nativespeakerfallacy”:Non-linguistic roots,non-pedagogical results.In G.Braine(Ed.), Non-native educatorsin English languageteaching(pp.77-92). Mahwah,NJ: LawrenceErlbaumAssociates,Publishers. Dogancay-Aktuna,S. (2008).Non-nativeEnglish speakingteachereducators:A profilefromTurkey. In Aktuna,S&J. Hardman (Eds.),Global English teaching andteacher education:Praxisand possibility(pp.61-82). Alexandria,VA: TESOLPublications.
  40. 40. Kamhi-Stein,L.,Aagard,A., Ching, A.,Paik,A., & Sasser,L.(2004). Teaching in K- 12 programs:PerceptionsofnativeandNNEST practitioners.In L.D. Kamhi-Stein(Ed.), Learningand teaching from experience:Perspectives onnonnativeEnglishspeaking professionals(pp. 81-99).Ann Arbor,MI: University of Michigan Press. Köksal,H.(2004). İmece circles in schoolsandatclassroomsto realizeunityin education. AcademyIstanbulPublishing,Istanbul. Low,E.L.2010.Soundinglocal andgoing global: Currentresearchandimplications for pronunciationteaching. In L.Lim, A. Pakir,& L.Wee(Eds.), English in Singapore:Modernityand Management(pp.235–260). Hong Kong:Hong KongUniversity Press. Modiano,M.(2005). Culturalstudies,foreignlanguage teachingandlearning practices,andthe NNSpractitioner.In E.Llurda(Ed.), Nonnativelanguageteachers:Perceptions,challengesand contributionsto the profession(pp.25-43).NY:Springer.
  41. 41. INTERNET SOURCES ayakta/gundem/gundemdetay/25.03.2011/1368692/default.htm dalle.html