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Hate crimes

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2014 Uluslararası Lider Martılar Projeleri_No 14
2014 International ICT Leading Seagulls Projects #14

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Hate crimes

  1. 1. HATE CRIMES: MURDER OF HOMOSEXUAL AND TRANSSEXUAL INDIVIDUALS
  2. 2. Group Members: Seher AKKUŞ Hilal ALTUNAY Fadime DUYMUŞ Our slogan: Rainbow Against Discrimination
  3. 3. Our Agenda Brain Storming Matris Diagram Literature Review Fishbone Diagram Reasons of the Issue Example from Turkey Survey Suggestions Gannt Chart References
  4. 4. BRAIN STORMING Working Children Education in Mother Tongue Hate Crimes Violence Against Women
  5. 5. Why do we decide the topic «Hate Crimes»? Preventable Can be seen all around the world There are a lot of victim of these problems
  6. 6. MATRIS DIAGRAM
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW
  8. 8. Sex Sex is characterized as biological and physical traits that makes us male and female.
  9. 9. Gender Gender refers to culturally and socially determined sex roles.
  10. 10.  When a baby borns it is identified as girl or boy according to the biological characteristics. Some people are forced to choose one of these two.
  11. 11. Gender role begin to occur while different names given to girls and boys and while girls are dressed in pink and boys are dressed in blue.
  12. 12. Gender roles determine the jobs and responsibilities of different sexes as well as it plays an important role in accessing to the resources.
  13. 13. Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation is an enduring personal quality that inclines people to feel romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
  14. 14. Heterosexuality: Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of opposite sex or gender in the gender binary.
  15. 15. Homosexuality: Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
  16. 16. Bisexuality: Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior toward both males and females.
  17. 17. Transsexualism: Transsexualism is when an individual identifies with a gender inconsistent or not culturally associated with their assigned sex.
  18. 18. The gay, transgender and bisexuals are treated differently by various communities. There are mainly two types of violance that are exhibited: 1. Homophobia 2. Transphobia
  19. 19. Hate Crimes Hate crime (also known as bias-motivated crime) is a usually violent, prejudice motivated crime that occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of his or her perceived membership in a certain social group.
  20. 20. Examples of such groups include but are not limited to: ethnicity, gender identity, language, nationality, physical appearance, religion, or sexual orientation.
  21. 21. Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
  22. 22. Homophobia is observable in critical and hostile behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual.
  23. 23. Today, homophobia is beyond being personal fear and irrational belief system. It is something that occur in political area and it is in relation to the social and political traditions.
  24. 24. Transphobia is a range of negative attitudes and feelings towards transsexuality and transsexual or transgender people, based on the expression of their internal gender identity.
  25. 25. Not fulfilling the gender roles that are expected from the man and woman mean shaking one of the most important pillars of social systems that is gender identity. This situation pushed the LGBT individuals out of society.
  26. 26. How do homophobia and transphobia manifest themselves?
  27. 27. Homophobia and transphobia within families are experienced in the form of verbal abuse, physical threats or physical violence.
  28. 28. Sexual orientation punished with parents’ and relatives’ abusive responses and 26% of gay and lesbian youth are forced to leave their homes.
  29. 29. During the last decade, the rising proportion of the victims especially in schools and public spaces was formed in parallel to increase the visibility of the homosexuals.
  30. 30. Cultural and social norms defined different sexual orientations as a deviant life style and exclude the ones that have different sexual orientation.
  31. 31. Educational process and the school itself also serves as one of the tools important for the consolidation of established- discriminatory attitudes against homosexuals, bisexuals, and transsexuals.
  32. 32. Using some straight words to humiliate another person reinforces the process of stigmatization of gays and heterosexism.
  33. 33. Those which exhibit strong homophobic attitudes than others are usually (Franzoi, 2003);  Men  They have traditional attitudes with regard to gender roles  They have stronger religious beliefs,  They have friends who have similar negative attitudes,  They have racist and sexist stereotypes,  They are authoritative,  They have very little personal/social interacitions and familiarity with LGBT individuals,  They have at a higher level of the orientation of social superiority,  They have relatively low levels of education.
  34. 34. Transgender Day of Remembrance The TDOR 2013 update reveals a total of 1,374 reported killings of trans people in 60 countries worldwide from January 1st 2008 to October 31st 2013. It is important to note that these cases are those that could be found through Internet research and through cooperation with trans organizations and activists. In most countries, data on murdered trans people are not systematically produced and it is impossible to estimate the numbers of unreported cases.
  35. 35. Throughout all six world regions, the highest absolute numbers have been found in countries with strong trans movements and trans or LGBT organizations that do a professional monitoring: Brazil (539), Mexico (144), Colombia (76), Venezuela (70) and Honduras (60) in Central and South America, the USA (85) in North America, Turkey (34) and Italy (26) in Europe, and India (30) and the Philippines (29) in Asia.
  36. 36. FISHBONE DIAGRAMFISHBONE DIAGRAM
  37. 37. CAUSES OF THIS ISSUE  DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDES  Bias/prejudice  Being uninformed  OTHERING  MEDIA/INTERNET  USING OFFENSIVE LANGUAGE  HOMOPHOBIA/TRANSPHOBIA  RESISTANCE TO CHANGE  LEGAL LOOPHOLE  ATTITUDES OF OFFICIAL PEOPLE
  38. 38. Discriminatory Attitudes
  39. 39. Othering
  40. 40. Media/Internet «The good news is that everything is on the Internet. The bad news is that everything is on the Internet.» «It is a utopia for all kinds of hate groups.» * Prum, Deschamps, and Barbier: Racial, Ethnic, and Homophobic Violence: Killing in the Name of Otherness
  41. 41. «If speech as blatantly hateful as that is increasingly difficult to find on American television, it has not disappeared. Instead, efforts to demonise gays have found the more hospitable venue of Internet.» «Hate groups use the Internet as a toolfor self-organizing and for recruiting new members.» * Prum, Deschamps, and Barbier: Racial, Ethnic, and Homophobic Violence: Killing in the Name of Otherness
  42. 42. Using Offensive Language Think before you speak: The 'You Don't Say' campaign at Duke University confronts everyday expressions that center around gender and sexual orientation and has gained national publicity, especially from critics.
  43. 43. Homophobia/Transphobia
  44. 44. Resistance to Change «American Family Association (AFA) and Family Research Council (FRC) representing homosexuality as a voluntary sin and the LGBT movement as a plot to destroy American family.» * Prum, Deschamps, and Barbier: Racial, Ethnic, and Homophobic Violence: Killing in the Name of Otherness
  45. 45. Legal Loophole
  46. 46. Attidues of Official
  47. 47. BAD EXAMPLES List of 265 reported murdered trans persons from November 15th 2011 to November 14th 2012. List composed by Carsten Balzer and Jan Simon Hutta for the ‘Trans Murder Monitoring’ project, a subproject of Transgender Europe’s ‘Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide’ (TvT) research project
  48. 48. Name: Melda (Metin) Yuksel Age: 26 Date of Death: 13/02/12 Location of Death: Kocaeli (Turkey) Cause of Death: shot Remarks: The victim was shot by her brother in her apartment. The court gave decreased sentence to the perpetrator (16 years of imprisonment) with the argument that the perpetrator was under "heavy provocation". Source: TVT project: TGEU SC member Kemal Ordek
  49. 49. Name: Tugce (Hasan) Sahingoz Age: 23 Date of Death: 30/03/12 Location of Death: Izmir (Turkey) Cause of Death: shot Remarks: The victim was shot in her car. The perpetrator was arrested. Source: TVT project: TGEU SC member Kemal Ordek
  50. 50. Name: Nukhet (Kadir) Kızılkaya Age: not reported Date of Death: 05/04/12 Location of Death: Aydın (Turkey) Cause of Death: stabbed Remarks: The victim was found dead in her apartment, stabbed 40 times to death. Source: TVT project: TGEU SC member Kemal Ordek
  51. 51. Name: Secil Dilşeker Age: 46 Date of Death: 10/07/12 Location of Death: Antalya (Turkey) Cause of Death: stabbed Remarks: The victim was found dead in her apartment, stabbed several times to death. Her throat was cut. Source: TVT project: TGEU SC member Kemal Ordek
  52. 52. Name: Serap (Mustafa Serkan) G. Age: 28 Date of Death: 24/10/12 Location of Death: Antalya (Turkey) Cause of Death: stabbed Remarks: The victim was stabbed to death. Her throat was cut by two perpetrators. Source: TVT project: TGEU SC member Kemal Ordek
  53. 53. Ahmet Yıldız
  54. 54. Ramazan Çiçek
  55. 55. Umut Göktuğ Söyler
  56. 56. SURVEY Participants: Total:28 (15 male/13 female) Avarage age: 31.9 (between 18-64) Time: May 2,2014
  57. 57. OUR SUGGESTIONS
  58. 58. Increasing the acknowledgement about homosexuality and transsexuality  Activities at universities  Changes in curriculums  Adding required courses about human sexuality  Spreading these informations to other members of society
  59. 59. Homophobia should be counted as hate crime. Some changes should be done in labour law in order to prevent people from discrimination. Politicians should actively stand against discriminatory acts.
  60. 60. GANNT CHART
  61. 61. REFERENCES  http://web.firat.edu.tr/sosyalbil/dergi/arsiv/cilt19/sayi2/209- 230.pdf  http://feministatolye.org/index.php/morbolge/sozluk/81- toplumsalcinsiyet  http://www.duyguguncesi.net/?p=5210  http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/42/998/12144.pdf  http://earsiv.arel.edu.tr:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1/140/14 0.pdf?sequence=2  http://marx-21.net/wp- content/uploads/2014/03/marx21_2.pdf#page=270  http://www.tgeu.org/node/435
  62. 62.  Racial, ethnic, and homophobic violence : killing in the name of otherness / edited by Michel Prum, Bénédicte Deschamps and Marie-Claude Barbier. Abingdon [England] ; New York : Routledge-Cavendish, 2007.  “Demokratikleşme Paketi”nde LGBTİ’ler Yine Yok! http://kaosgl.org/sayfa.php?id=15959  Kaos GL: Nefret Artık Devlet Koruması Altında! http://www.kaosgl.com/sayfa.php?id=15965  Hakan Yılmaz. 2010. “ 'Türkiye'de 'Biz'lik, 'Öteki'lik, Ötekileştirme ve Ayrımcılık: Kamuoyundaki Algılar ve Eğilimler”. Açık Toplum Vakfı (Destek No: 2009001) ve Boğaziçi Üniversitesi (Destek No: 07K120620) tarafından eş katkıyla desteklenen araştırma projesi. Tamamlanma tarihi: Haziran 2010. Erişim adresi: www.hakanyilmaz.info
  63. 63.  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2615160/Man-Thats- gay-Dont-pussy-offensive-slang-Duke-University-students- told-not-say.html
  64. 64. THANKS TO HAYAL KÖKSAL!

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