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2016 leading seagulls 7 teacher candy dates

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Increasing Learner Motivation: Why does students’ motivation get negatively affected in EFL classes in Turkey?
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2016 leading seagulls 7 teacher candy dates

  1. 1. INCREASING MOTIVATION AND LEARNING BY IMPLEMENTING INNOVATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS teacher candy- dates
  2. 2. Table of Content • Content • Who are We? • Gantt Chart • Chapter Review • Fishbone Diagram • Matrix Diagram • Statement of the Problem • Literature Review • Survey & Results • Suggestions • References • Thanks teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  3. 3. teacher candy-dates http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/update-nexus-5-pure-android-5-0-lollipop-fastboot-flashable-native- lollipop-illusion-roms-1473868 Şule Betül Aşıkoğlu Pelin Aydın Asuman Gez Merve Özçelik Atilla Kocabalcıoğlu teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  4. 4. Our motto is… UNCHAIN YOUR BRAIN! http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2011-02/16/content_21934282.htm teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  5. 5. Gannt Chart STEPS October 19,2015 October 21,2015 October 23,2015 October 24,2015 October 25,2015 October 26,2015 Plan Determination of the problem Literature review targets Do Determination of the main causes Collecting and preparing data Check Checking data Suggestions Act Project preparation Presentation EXPECTED teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  6. 6. Chapter Review Personal Needs Academic Needs teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  7. 7. Many students meet their personal needs by successfully completing classroom activities and assignments. Other students find school to be anxiety- producing, frustrating setting and look elsewhere for the significance competence and power. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  8. 8. Understanding the research on motivation and its relationship to student academic needs enables teachers to implement instruction that results in virtually all students’ obtaining feelings of worth within the school setting. https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/signs- symptoms/academic-readiness/academic-skills-your-child-needs-for-first-grade teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  9. 9. FORMULA OF MOTIVATION Climate Expectation MOTIVATIONValue teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  10. 10. As with personal needs, understanding and response to student’s academic needs are central factors determining whether we as educators can create communities in which learning is viewed as desirable teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  11. 11. STUDENT’S ACADEMIC NEEDS • Understand and value learning goals • Understand the learning process • Be actively involved in the learning process • have learning goals related to their own interests and choices • Receive instruction matched to their learning styles and strengths • See learning modeled by adults as an exciting and rewarding process • Experience success • Have time to integrate learning • Receive realistic and immediate feedback that enhances self-efficacy • Be involved in self-evaluating their learning and effort • Receive appropriate rewards for performance gains • Experience a supportive, safe, well-organised learning environment teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  12. 12. 1. Understand and value learning goals • Objective(s) • Reason(s) • Activity(ies) • Assesment This not only provides students with an opportunity to examine and discuss the learning goals but also helps students to understand the learning process. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  13. 13. 2.Understand the learning process • Functional definition of learning • How to study effectively • Cognitive maps teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  14. 14. 3. Be actively involved in the learning process • Cooperative learning • Active involvement, choice and meaningful activity • Developing lifelong skills • Real-world problem solving teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  15. 15. 4. Have learning goals related to their own interests and choices Studies suggest that students prefer instructional methods supportive of their special interests and needs (Davidson, 1999), and that when these are implemented, students who have a history of somewhat low achievement can be very successful. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  16. 16. Cultural Mismatch Whirlpools teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  17. 17. 4. Have learning goals related to their own interests and choices Cont’d • Utilizing thematic units • Place-based education • Involving students in academic goal setting teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  18. 18. 5. Receive instruction responsive to their learning styles and strengths • Teachers can increase students’ motivation and success by responding effectively to students’ learning styles. • Teachers who use the same instructional methods with every student or who use a limited range of instructional activities will create a situation in which some students become frustrated, experience failure, and respond by misbehaving. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  19. 19. - Adjusting environmental factors to meet students’ learning needs teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  20. 20. Howard Gardner’s work on multiple intelligences theory teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  21. 21. 6. Learning modeled by adults as an exciting and rewarding activity Teachers possess many characteristics that make their behavior likely to be modeled. Teachers will be more effective when students observe them actively and enthusiastically engaged in the learning process. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  22. 22. 7. Experience Success Nobody wants to fail. Students may feel anxiety when they are given inappropriate tasks, which causes to divide their attention between the material and concern about failure. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  23. 23. 8. Have time to integrate learning Students need time to internalize and process what they have learned. If they do not have enough time, they may begin to feel confused and experience a sense of failure. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  24. 24. 9. Receive realistic and immediate feedback that enhances self-efficacy Students need immediate, specific and proper feedback to assess their own learning process. otherwise they tend to judge their performance as unacceptable. Not all feedback is effective in improving students’ performances. Studies show that hostile or extensive criticism creates negative attitudes and lowers achievements, creativity, and classroom control. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  25. 25. 10. Be involved in self-evaluating their learning and effort Students evaluating and recording their own work tend to develop an internal locus of control and monitor their progress based on their own efforts. Providing students with specific data that show their progress is probably the most effective motivational strategy teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  26. 26. 11. Receive appropriate rewards for performance gains Rewards are essential for increasing effort rather than improving quality of performance. Therefore, it is better to use them when the goal and strategy is clear. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  27. 27. 12. Experience a safe, well-organized learning environment Classroom should be pleasing, spacious, and properly lit. Learners should feel physically and emotionally safe. http://www.alsson.com/about/facilities/primary-facilities teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007)
  28. 28. System Student Material Teacher - Course books mostly based on grammar exercises - Test books mostly based on reading skills - Inadequate visual materials - Content and method mismatch - Instruction type - Corrective feedback - Curriculum prepared according to exam- oriented system - Highstakes exams - Washback effect - Content and interest mismatch - Having difficulty in valuing the task - Not knowing one’s goals WHY DOES STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION GET NEGATIVELY AFFECTED IN EFL CLASSES IN TURKEY? teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning Jones & Jones (2007) http://www.slideshare.net/Presentationsat24point0/fishbone-diagram-powerpoint-slides
  29. 29. Matrix Diagram STUDENTS SYSTEM MATERIAL TEACHER Şule Betül Aşıkoğlu 4 7 5 6 Pelin Aydın 4 7 5 6 Asuman Gez 7 6 5 4 Atilla Kocabalcıoğlu 5 6 4 7 Merve Özçelik 5 7 6 4 Percentages 22,7 % 30 % 22,7 % 24,5 % teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  30. 30. Percentages 1 2 3 4 STUDENTS TEACHER SYSTEM MATERIAL teacher candy- dates 22,7 % 24,5 % 22,7 % 30 % Increasing Motivation & Learning
  31. 31. Statement of the Problem • Among the factors influencing learner’s motivation, we have decided on the Education System. To specify furthermore, we have focused on the negative washback effect of high-stakes EFL exams on EFL learners. http://www.philipchircop.com/post/40604773093/our-educational-system- the-bird-made-it-to-the teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  32. 32. LITERATURE REVIEW While doing literature research about the relationship between high-stakes testing and motivation, we have encountered that testing may have a negative influence on motivation. teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Examshttp://www.brainclinic.co.za/function.php
  33. 33. • One of the most relevant studies on this field is the work of Kellaghan et al. (1996). • They concluded that students who take external examinations focus on performing goals rather than learning goals. Performing goals are shallower than learning goals, which leads surface learning (Deci and Ryan, 1985). teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  34. 34. • In the research field the influence of testing on learning and teaching process is defined as washback by Shohamy, Donits-Schmidt, Ferman (1996). • Washback can be positive or negative according to the nature and implementation of examination (Adnan &Mahmood, 2014) teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  35. 35. Adnan et al. (2014) state; “Despite their beneficial or harmful washback, public exam and test have maintained their place because they hold a mirror to all the other activities going on under the umbrella term of teaching-learning process and other processes in education system. “ teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  36. 36. - The case is not very different in Korea as well. Korean high school students take Korean Scholastic Aptitude test (KSAT) to enter universities. - Choi (2008) claims KSAT has greater washback effect on the Korean education than any other test. Regarding the EFL KSAT’s English section does not include speaking and writing tests. As a result, there is very little , if any, teaching of speaking and writing in high school. This also results in that many Koreans lack productive skills. - As students are prepared just to pass the exam, there is a huge gap between their English proficiency and exam scores. This shows the failure of multiple choice EFL test preparation to induce productive English skills. teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  37. 37. Shohamy et al.( 1999) suggest; “In settings where tests are used for scaling and standardizing an entire population, tests are viewed as the primary tools through which changes in the educational system can be introduced without having to change other educational components such as teacher training or curricula.” teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  38. 38. SURVEY We have conducted a survey among twenty FLED students in our university, who studied in the foreign language department in high school. The survey includes six questions through which we expected to learn their last year experience of English classes in high school and reveal the effect of LYS 5 (National University Entrance Examination on Foreign Languages) on their motivation for English classes. teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  39. 39. 1. How many hours of English class were you suppose to attend in the last year of high school? English Class 10 hours of English 12 hours of English 14 hours of English 16 hours of English 65 % 20 % 5 % 10 % teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  40. 40. 2. What was the medium of instruction in your English class in high school? Medium of Instruction Turkish Mixed-Mostly Turkish Mixed-Mostly English English 70 % 25 % 5 % teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  41. 41. 3. How much of the class time did your English teacher spend to prepare you for LYS-5? Time Allocation to LYS 5 Preparation All of the classes Most of the classes Some of the classes None of the classes 60 % 30 % 10% teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  42. 42. 4. How much of the content presented in English class matched your interests and choices? Content vs Interests All of the Content Most of the Content Some of the Content None of the Content70% 10 % 5 % 15% Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  43. 43. 5. Please grade the given language skills according to time allocated in your English classes in the last year of high school? • Listening • Writing • Speaking • Reading teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  44. 44. – never seldom sometime s often always Total Average –listening %25,0 0 5 %60,0 0 12 %5,00 1 %10, 00 2 %0,00 0 20 2,00 –writing %30,0 0 6 %25,0 0 5 %35,00 7 %10, 00 2 %0,00 0 20 2,25 -speaking %50,0 0 10 %25,0 0 5 %20,00 4 %0,0 0 0 %5,00 1 20 1,85 –reading %0,00 0 %5,00 1 %5,00 1 %40, 00 8 %50,0 0 10 20 4,35 The table of frequency of language skills according to time allocated in English classes in the last year of high school teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  45. 45. LISTENING Frequency of Listening Activities Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 25% 10% 5% 60% teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  46. 46. WRITING Frequency of Writing Activities Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 25% 35 % 10 % 30 % teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  47. 47. SPEAKING Frequency of Speaking Activities Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 5 % 20 % 25 % 50% teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  48. 48. READING Frequency of Reading Activities Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 5 % 5% 50% 40 % teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  49. 49. 6. How did the fact that there is no testing of listening , writing and speaking skills in LYS-5 influence your motivation to study these skills? LYS-5 Influence on Motivation No influence Negavite Influence Positive Influence 15% 65% 20% teacher candy- dates Washback Influence on High-stakes Exams
  50. 50. Suggestions on the Problem For teachers: • Lesson content should not be prepared solely according to the topics covered in the high-stakes exam. • All language skills should be developed equally by implementing a variety of activities. • Instead of grammar based instruction, communicative and collaborative learning should be promoted teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  51. 51. Suggestions on the Problem For students: • Students can involve actively in the process of academic goal setting. • Students can collaborate with the teachers to modify the national curriculum. • Students should aim to develop other language skills than required for the high- stakes exam. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  52. 52. Suggestions on the Problem For system: • Teachers and students’ values, interests, and needs should be taken into consideration. • Teachers and board of education should comprise on curriculum. • Ministry of National Education should organize in-service training programs for teachers to create a positive washback. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  53. 53. References • Imece circles by Hayal Köksal • Adnan, U., & Mahmood, M. A. (2014). Impact of Public Examination on Teaching of English: A Washback Perspective. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2), 132-139. Chicago • Choi, I. (2008). The impact of EFL testing on EFL education in korea. Language Testing, 25(1), 39-62. • Deakin Crick, R., & Harlen, W. (2003). Testing and motivation for learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 10(2), 169-207. • Deci, E. L. & Ryan R. M. (1985) Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum: New York. • Jones, V. F. & Jones, L. S.(2007). Comprehensive Classroom Management: Creating communities of support and solving problems, 8th edition. Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. • Kellaghan, T., Madaus, G. & Raczek, A. (1996) The Use of External Examinations to Improve Student Motivation. Washington DC: AERA. • Muñoz, A. P., & Álvarez, M. E. (2010). Washback of an oral assessment system in the EFL classroom. Language Testing, 27(1), 33-49. • Shohamy, E., Donitsa-Schmidt, S., & Ferman, I. (1996). Test impact revisited: Washback effect over time. Language Testing, 13(3), 298-317 • Wynne Harlen & Ruth Deakin Crick (2003) Testing and Motivation for Learning, Assessment in Education. Principles, Policy & Practice, 10:2, 169-207 • Yildirim, O. (2010). Washback effects of a high-stakes university entrance exam: Effects of the english section of the universiry entrance exam on future english language teaching in turkey. Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 92-116. teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning
  54. 54. Web Resources • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/update-nexus-5-pure-android-5-0- lollipop-fastboot-flashable-native-lollipop-illusion-roms-1473868 • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/update-nexus-5-pure-android-5-0- lollipop-fastboot-flashable-native-lollipop-illusion-roms-1473868 • http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/update-nexus-5-pure-android-5-0- lollipop-fastboot-flashable-native-lollipop-illusion-roms-1473868 • http://www.alsson.com/about/facilities/primary-facilities • http://www.brainclinic.co.za/function.php • https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10153250298873108 &set=a.452047908107.225606.703658107&type=3&theater • http://www.slideshare.net/Presentationsat24point0/fishbone- diagram-powerpoint-slides
  55. 55. Special Thanks to Dr. Hayal Köksal teacher candy- dates Increasing Motivation & Learning https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10153250298873108&set=a.452047908107. 225606.703658107&type=3&theater
  56. 56. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Sincerely yours, teacher candy-dates Increasing Motivation & Learning

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