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II-SDV 2017: Artificial Intelligence is not a Matter of Strength but of Intelligence

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Francisco Webber offers a critical overview of current approaches to artificial intelligence using "brute force" (aka big data machine learning) as well as a practical demonstration of Semantic Folding, an alternative approach based on computational principles found in the human neocortex. Inspired by the ground-breaking work of Jeff Hawkins from Numenta, Cortical.io has developed the Semantic Folding Engine which is based on a statistics-free processing model that uses similarity as a foundation for intelligence. Semantic Folding is not just a research prototype; it is a production-grade enterprise technology.

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II-SDV 2017: Artificial Intelligence is not a Matter of Strength but of Intelligence

  1. 1. © cortical.io inc. 2017 Co-founder and General Manager Francisco De Sousa Webber Language Intelligence through Semantic Folding f.webber@cortical.io AI is not a matter of strength … … but of Intelligence
  2. 2. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 timely worldwide generic complete A startup company from Vienna - Austria We explore & expand Semantic Folding Theory We spread & sell Semantic Folding Technology What is Cortical.io?
  3. 3. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 The Fundamental NLP Problem Computing is processing of values Numbers can be computed directly: 2+3=5
  4. 4. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 The Fundamental NLP Problem But What about Words? What is the value of the word “CAT” The Representational Problem Computing is processing of values
  5. 5. ©cortical.ioinc.2016 The Representational Problem Statistical Modelling word frequencies vector space models Zipf’s law word independence distributional probabilities TF/IDF n-grams Semantic Grounding SIMPLIFICATION model-free processing ? Brute Force Processing Direct Computation with Text
  6. 6. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 It was in the middle of winter, when  the broad flakes of snow were falling  around, that a certain queen sat  working at her window, the frame of  which was made of fine black ebony;  and, as she was looking out upon  the snow, she pricked her finger, and  three drops of blood fell upon it.  middl winter broad flake snow fall   queen sat window frame fine  black eboni look snow prick finger  drop blood fell   LITTLE SNOW WHITE littl snow white NLP Reality Check
  7. 7. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 The search field of view The actual Internet The “virtual view” of the internet The “blind spot”user internet 
 is 
 growing visible internet is growing slowly invisible internet is growing fast Systemic Limitation of Information Access on the Internet By using keyword search on very large document collections 
 many pages cannot be reached
  8. 8. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Brute Force Processing Training Data Simplifying Data Conversion Statistical Model ML Algorithm
  9. 9. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Brute Force Processing Problems • Low Semantic Payload Encoding —> Ambiguity • Low Training Efficiency —> Lots of Data • Need labeled Data —> Manual Preparation • Simplification Noise —> False Positives • Black Box Effect —> No Debugging • Training is Task Specific —> Low Reusability • Computationally Intensive —> No Real-Time • Tuning only by ML Experts —> High Project Risk “ Get me all emails where customers complain ” —> VERY HARD PROBLEM
  10. 10. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Solution: 
 Semantic Folding • By Jeff Hawkins (Silicon Valley, California) • numenta.com technical implementation & IP • Processing algorithm of the human brain (neo-cortex) Hierarchical Temporal Memory Theory • By Francisco De Sousa Webber (Vienna, Austria) • cortical.io technical implementation & IP • Processing language-data like the human brain Semantic Folding Theory +
  11. 11. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Semantic Folding Theory • Based on recent findings in Neuroscience • Implemented as Unsupervised Machine Learning approach • Replaces complex statistical modelling by Analogical Computation
  12. 12. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Cortical Constraints • Neocortex is a 2D sheet of repeating Modular Assemblies of neurons with binary inputs. • Neocortex is a Memory System not a processor. • Neocortex stores Pattern Sequences. • Neocortex is an Online Learning system • Neocortex is only Trained by Exposure to real-world data • All data fed into the neocortex must have Sparse Distributed Representation (SDR) format: • SDRs are very long Binary Vectors with max. 2% of “1”. • Every SDR-bit is a self-contained Semantic Feature of the world (via sensorial input). • Every SDR-bit is an Explicit Part of the signal. • Similar “things” have similar SDRs. • The Union of SDRs maintains all information of its members.
  13. 13. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 fMRI Evidence 2008: T. Mitchell Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell, et al. Science 320, 1191 (2008); DOI: 10.1126/science.1152876
  14. 14. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 fMRI Evidence 2016: A. Huth “The similarity in semantic topography across different subjects is really surprising.” Natural speech reveals the semantic maps that tile human cerebral cortex Alex Huth et al. Nature, 2016 “This study shows how 985 distinct semantic concepts are mapped systematically across the surface of the cerebral cortex.” “The resulting maps show that semantic information is represented in rich patterns that are distributed across several broad regions of cortex.”
  15. 15. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Virtual Word Layer hear see touch word (SDR) …..Wordsensorstream Wordproductionstream Symbolinput Muscles Motor output Symboloutput Virtualization into Retina
  16. 16. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Phase 1: Generation of the Semantic Map For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament. Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates' life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent. As for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon. There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan. To understand Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative source about Socrates' life and philosophy, and also Xenophon. These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates. Nothing written by Socrates remains extant. As a result, all first-hand information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary sources. Furthermore, close comparison between the contents of these sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question. Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. Plato's Socrates also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology, and his ideologies and approach have proven a strong foundation for much Western philosophy that has followed. Socrates ( 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato". step1: IDENTIFICATION step 2: PARSING step 3: SLICING step 4: CLUSTERING
  17. 17. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Phase 2: Semantic Fingerprint Generation For instance, those who prosecuted and convicted Socrates have left no testament. Historians therefore face the challenge of reconciling the various evidence from the extant texts in order to attempt an accurate and consistent account of Socrates' life and work. The result of such an effort is not necessarily realistic, even if consistent.(117,63) As for discovering the real-life Socrates, the difficulty is that ancient sources are mostly philosophical or dramatic texts, apart from Xenophon. There are no straightforward histories, contemporary with Socrates, that dealt with his own time and place. A corollary of this is that sources that do mention Socrates do not necessarily claim to be historically accurate, and are often partisan.(122,40) To understand Socrates and his thought, one must turn primarily to the works of Plato, whose dialogues are thought the most informative source about Socrates' life and philosophy, and also Xenophon. These writings are the Sokratikoi logoi, or Socratic dialogues, which consist of reports of conversations apparently involving Socrates.(102,85) Nothing written by Socrates remains extant. As a result, all first-hand information about him and his philosophies depends upon secondary sources. Furthermore, close comparison between the contents of these sources reveals contradictions, thus creating concerns about the possibility of knowing in-depth the real Socrates. This issue is known as the Socratic problem, or the Socratic question.(23,36) Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. Plato's Socrates also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology, and his ideologies and approach have proven a strong foundation for much Western philosophy that has followed.(110,45) Socrates ( 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is "hidden behind his 'best disciple', Plato”.(17,83) WORD LIST CONTEXT LOOKUP SEMANTIC FINGERPRINT DB … Socrates classical Greek Athenian philosopher credited as one of the founders Western philosophy He is an enigmatic . . . Aristophanes Plato's dialogues are among most comprehensi ve accounts … Socrates classical the Athenian philosopher is
  18. 18. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 The Cortical.io 
 Retina Technology … … converts any text into 
 a semantic fingerprint. “mobile phone” Fingerprint Generation
  19. 19. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 organ Step 1: Word Fingerprints piano church liver
  20. 20. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 aggregation + sparsification Step 2: Text Fingerprints teens like to hear music on their mobile phones teens like to hear music on their mobile phones
  21. 21. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Similar meanings … … look similar 37% overlap teens like using itunes on their iphone he consumes chart hits on his notebook
  22. 22. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Different meanings … … look different the fishermen are sailing out of 5% overlap teens like using itunes on their iphone the fishermen are sailing out of the harbor
  23. 23. ©cortical.ioinc.2016 Semantic Feature Inspection “done deal” “signed contract” Contexts: investors, liquidity, shareholders, risks, 
 regulated, corporate, managers Overlap 30%
  24. 24. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Tuning The Semantic Space “cholecystitis” unsupervised training on less semantic detail more semantic detail
  25. 25. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 All u need to know about the newly elected President of Galmudug administration By SOMALI CURRENT / Jul 5, 2015 Abdikarim Hussein Gulled was born in Beladweyne, Hiraan region in 1967. He attended his primary school in the same town and later travelled to Yemen for his higher education. He was admitted to Yemen University of Science and Technology. Dynamically extend the Vocabulary Automated updating reduces maintenance costs Add new terms “on the fly” without retraining Abdikarim Hussein Gulled News Message New Term All u need to know about the newly elected President of Galmudug administration By SOMALI CURRENT / Jul 5, 2015 Abdikarim Hussein Gulled was born in Beladweyne, Hiraan region in 1967. He attended his primary school in the same town and later travelled to Yemen for his higher education. He was admitted to Yemen University of Science and Technology. New Fingerprint
  26. 26. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Aligning Semantic Spaces philosophy philosophie filosofía философия ‫ﻓﻠﺳﻔﺔ‬ Concepts and their representations are stable across languages. EN FR ES RU AR ZH
  27. 27. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 NLU Primitives: Disambiguation organ most similar Term liver organ - liver piano most similar Term organ - liver - piano most similar Term church
  28. 28. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 NLU Primitives: Classification semantic space trained on “Zoology” mammal 
 AND 
 mammals 
 AND 
 mammalian cat dog elephant ant frog chicken Semantic filter FP mammal class non - mammal class
  29. 29. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 NLU Primitives: Search similarity engineexample 
 document most similar documents ordered along 
 the users information need query document index result set ranking
  30. 30. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 NLU Primitives: Keywords Socrates 470/469 – 399 BC was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Plato's dialogues are among the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity, though it is unclear the degree to which Socrates himself is hidden behind his best disciple, Plato. [ "plato", "socrates", "philosopher", "aristophanes", "antiquity", "writings", "xenophon", "dialogues", "disciple", "philosophy" ] Extract Keywords aggregation maximise for similarity
  31. 31. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Snoring Definition Snoring is a sound generated during sleep by vibration of loose tissue in the upper airway. Description Snoring is one symptom of a group of disorders known as sleep-disordered breathing. It occurs when the soft palate, uvula, tongue, tonsils, and/or muscles in the back of the throat rub against each other and generate a vibrating sound during sleep. Twenty percent of all adults are chronic snorers, and 45% of normal adults snore occasionally. As people grow older, their chance of snoring increases. Approximately half of all individuals over 60 snore regularly. In some cases, snoring is a symptom of a more serious disorder called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA occurs when part of the airway is closed off (usually at the back of the throat) while a person is trying to inhale during sleep, and breathing stops for more than 10 seconds before resuming again. These breathless episodes can occur as many as several hundred times a night. People with OSA almost always snore heavily, because the same narrowing of the airway that causes snoring can also cause OSA. Snoring may actually contribute to OSA as well, because the vibration of the throat tissues that occurs in snoring can cause the tissue to swell. Snoring is associated with physical problems as well as social stress. People who do not suffer from OSA may be diagnosed with socially unacceptable snoring (SUS), which refers to snoring that is loud enough to prevent the sleepers bed partner or roommate from sleeping. SUS is a factor in the breakup of some marriages and other long-term relationships. Moreover, a study published in 2002 indicates that people who snore are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Snoring appears to be a risk factor that is independent of body weight or a family history of diabetes. Causes and symptoms There are several major causes of snoring, including: Excessively relaxed throat muscles. Alcohol, drugs, and sedatives can cause the throat muscles to become lax, and/or the tongue to pull back into the airway. Large uvula. The piece of tissue that hangs from the back of the throat is called the uvula. Individuals with a large or longer than average uvula can suffer from snoring when the uvula vibrates in the airway. Large tonsils and/or adenoids. The tonsils (tissue at the back of either side of the throat) can also vibrate if they are larger than normal, as can the adenoids. Excessive weight. Overweight people are more likely to snore. Their snoring is frequently caused by the extra throat and neck tissue they are carrying around. Nasal congestion. Colds and allergies can plug the nose, creating a vacuum in the throat that results in snoring as airflow increases. Cysts and tumors. Cysts and/or tumors of the throat can trigger snoring. Structural problems of the nose. A deviated septum or other nasal problems can also cause snoring. Diagnosis A patient interview, and possibly an interview with the patients spouse or anyone else in the house? hold who has witnessed the snoring, is usually enough for a diagnosis of snoring. A medical history that includes questions about alcohol or tranquilizer use; past ear, nose, and throat problems; and the pattern and degree of snoring will be completed, and a physical examination will be performed to determine the cause of the problem. This will typically include examination of the throat to look for narrowing, obstruction, or malformations. In some cases the patient may be referred to a dentist or orthodontist for evaluation of the jaw structure and dentition. In addition, the patient may be examined by sleep endoscopy. In this procedure, the patient is given a medication (midazolam) to induce sleep. His or her throat and nasal passages are then examined with a flexible laryngoscope. In many cases, sleep endoscopy reveals obstructions that are not apparent during a standard physical examination of the throat. Many patients are found to have obstructions at more than one level in their breathing passages. If the snoring is suspected to be a symptom of a more serious disorder such as obstructive sleep apnea, the patient will require further testing. This testing is called a polysomnography study, and is conducted during an overnight stay in a specialized sleep laboratory. The polysomnography study includes measurements of heart rate, airflow at the mouth and nose, respiratory effort, sleep stage (light sleep, deep sleep, dream sleep, etc.), and oxygen level in the blood. Treatment There are a number of remedies for snoring, but few are proven clinically effective. Popular treatments include: Mechanical devices. Many splints, braces, and other devices are available which reposition the nose, jaw, and/or mouth in order to clear the airways. Other devices are designed to wake an individual when snoring occurs. Patients should consult a dentist or orthodontist about these devices, as most require custom fitting. In addition, persons with certain types of gum disease or dental problems should not be fitted with oral appliances to stop snoring. Nasal strips. Nasal strips that attach like an adhesive bandage to the bridge of the nose are available at most drugstores, and can help stop snoring in some individuals by opening the nasal passages. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Some chronic snorers find relief by sleeping with a nasal mask that provides air pressure to the throat. Decongestants. Snoring caused by nasal congestion may be successfully treated with decongestants. Some effective herbal remedies which clear the nasal passages include golden rod (Solidago virgauria) and golden seal (Hydrastis canadensis). Steam inhalation of essential oils of eucalyptus blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) or peppermint (Mentha x piperata) can also relieve congestion. Weight loss. Snoring thought to be caused by exces? sive weight may be curtailed by a sensible weight loss and exercise program. Sleep position. Snoring usually worsens when an individual sleeps on his or her back, so sleeping on ones side may alleviate the problem. Those who have difficulty staying in a side sleeping position may find sleeping with pillows behind them helps them maintain the position longer. Other devices include a new vest designed to prevent the sleeper from lying on his or her back. Bed adjustments. For some people, raising the head of the bed solves their snoring problem. A slight incline can prevent the tongue from retracting into the back of the throat. Bricks, wooden blocks, or specially designed wedges can be used to elevate the head of the bed approximately 4-6 in. Alternative treatments that have been reported to be effective for patients whose snoring is caused by colds or allergies include acupuncture, homeopathy, and aromatherapy treatments. Aromatherapy treatments for snoring typically make use of marjoram oil, which is thought to be particularly effective in clearing the nasal passages. Allopathic treatment Several surgical procedures are available for treat? ing chronic snoring. These include: Uvulopalathopharyngoplasty (UPPP), a surgical procedure which involves removing excess throat tissues (e.g., tonsils, parts of the soft palate) to expand the airway. The success rate of UPPP is about 53% after five years. The success of the surgery is related to the patients body mass before the operation. Laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP) uses a surgical laser to remove part of the uvula and palate. Its chief drawback is a period of discomfort that lasts for about a week following surgery. Palatal stiffening is a minimally invasive surgical technique in which a laser or a cauterizer is used to produce scar tissue in the soft palate in order to stop the vibrations that produce snoring. Radiofrequency ablation is another technique that uses scarring to shrink the uvula and/or soft palate. A needle electrode is used to shrink and scar the mouth and throat tissues. Like other surgical treatments for snoring, radiofrequency ablation has a relapse rate over the long term. One of its advantages, however, is that it is less painful than other surgical treatments. Prevention Adults with a history of snoring may be able to prevent snoring episodes with the following measures: Avoid alcohol and sedatives before bedtime. Remove allergens from the bedroom. Use a decongestant before bed. Sleep on the side of the body, not the back. NLU Primitives: Slicing slicing point
  32. 32. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Technology Comparison Improved Accuracy over State of the Art Amount of Training Material needed Language Dependency Processing Speed per Worker Node Semantic Payload Closes Vocabulary Gap Representation Vector is Compositional Simple Tuning Enterprise Ready Semantic Folding up to 25% 0.4 M Wikipedia pages One Training Set applies 
 to all Languages 1 M FPs/sec 16,384 explicit features Yes Yes Yes Yes Word2Vec up to 5% 2,000 M Web pages Every Language needs its own Training Set 100 words/sec 300 opaque features No No No No 5:1 5000:1 10000:1 50:1 n:1 Efficiency
  33. 33. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Cloudera Integration
  34. 34. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Semantic Folding Products • Document Retrieval • Expert Finding • Knowledge Management Enterprise Semantic Search • Semantic Streaming Text Filter • (Social) Media Monitoring • Business Intelligence & Analytics Big Text Data • Natural Language based Automation • Content Personalisation • Semantic Profiling Semantic Matching similarity engine example 
 document most similar documents ordered along 
 the users information need query document index result set ranking #finance #markets #mobile #movies #products #trend Topic of interest Analytics Match Making EnterpriseApplicationWebApp
  35. 35. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Semantic Search similarity engineexample 
 document most similar documents ordered along 
 the users information need query document index result set ranking
  36. 36. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Semantic Content Filter real-time, across languages, intelligent, meaning based #finance #markets #mobile #movies #products #trend Topic of interest Analytics
  37. 37. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Example: Twitter Filter 
 The State of the Art desired topic Every tweet related to smart phones 200 catch words mobile phone Iphone cell Android … sim-card text message network Verizon Apple Google … 5 words per tweet Required throughput for one filter 200 X 5 X 20,000 = 20,000,000 comparisons per second 20,000 tweets/sec
  38. 38. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Example: Twitter Filter 
 Semantic Fingerprinting stream of 
 semantic fingerprints twitter firehose realtime content sub-stream Filter Fingerprint not matching matchmatchmatch
  39. 39. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Newstillery-API Filter Engine Personalised News Global: News Blogs Forums +300K Sources 240 Languages +5M posts/day Articles Posts Fingerprint Stream B2B Access B2C Access News Alerting Brand Monitoring Press Clipping Content Providing User profile information to define 1st free filterGet fully personalised news from all messages (360 degree view) Modify free filter or create additional (payable) topic filters with 360 degree view
  40. 40. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 • match people by their profiles • no keyword or field based string matching limitations • semantic similarity measure to compare professional profiles • different profiles for professional, leisure, interests, sports etc… Social Media 
 Profile Matching profile fingerprint activity fingerprint
  41. 41. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 • create fingerprints from product descriptions • find similar products by matching description fingerprints • create customer fingerprints from purchased products Product recommendations match Product Recommendation product description fingerprint similar products recommendations
  42. 42. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Dynamic Topic Pattern Analysis Start catching messages with obfuscated or metaphoric language Unexpected or sudden topic jumps are detected Ongoing e-mail conversation Time > Henyep Investment Bank Ltd's strategy is to provide it's clients with one of the most comprehensive product offerings currently available in the market. The Henyep Group's in-house product development and research experts are continuously improving our offering to suit the needs of the investors' market. Unlike forex only service providers, Henyep Investment Bank Ltd allows it's clients to gain exposure to multiple capital markets, thus allowing investors to develop a diverse portfolio from a single integrated account. Except for our foreign exchange offerings all other products are structured as Contracts for Difference (CFDs) A CFD is a tradable financial derivative instrument that mirrors the movements of the asset underlying it. It allows for profits or losses to be realized when the underlying asset moves in relation to the position taken, but the actual underlying asset is never owned. Essentially, it is a contract between the client and the firm. All our products offer deep liquidity, margin trading, and direct execution. The amount of cash collateral contributed by a client as a percentage of the current market value of the securities held in a margin account. View Product Specifications Under the tri-partite customer agreement, all Henyep Investment Bank clients are also clients of HY Investment*. Accordingly, all products offered for trading are published and updated by HY Investment. Unlike forex only service providers, Henyep Investment Bank Ltd allows it's clients to gain exposure to multiple capital markets, thus allowing investors to develop a diverse portfolio from a single integrated account. Except for our foreign exchange offerings all other products are structured as Contracts for Difference (CFDs) Contracts for Differences (CFDs) Explained in Brief A CFD is a tradable financial derivative instrument that mirrors the movements of the asset underlying it. It allows for profits or losses to be realized when the underlying asset moves in or losses to be realized when the underlying asset moves in relation to the position taken, but the actual underlying asset is never owned. Essentially, it is a contract between the client and the firm. All our products offer deep liquidity, margin trading, and direct execution. Margin Trading Explained in Brief The amount of cash collateral contributed by a client as a percentage of the current market value of the securities held in a margin account. View Product Specifications Appearance of unexpected topic clusters 
 “…buying Seafood needs fast decisions…” Buyer Buyer Seller Seller Seller Compliance Monitoring
  43. 43. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 q  Existing email surveillance system •  High number of false positives -> large amount of manual review •  Misses emails where keywords don’t match •  Does not scale (too slow) q  Cortical email surveillance engine •  Created custom semantic space (Retina) for finance q  Advantages •  Able to uncover interesting emails that cannot be found with keywords •  Reduced false positives while maintaining high recall •  High speed (real-time) – can check 100% of emails •  Dynamically updating (keeps up with jargon) Semantic fingerprints resolve vocabulary mismatch fraud crime crimes corruption Closing the Vocabulary Gap Compliance Monitoring
  44. 44. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 TV Caption Topic Clustering Content Management
  45. 45. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Topic Clustering Content Management 25%
  46. 46. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Author Detection Digital Publishing Document Document Document Document Author 1 Document Document Document Document Author 2 Document Document Document Document Author 3 Document Unknown Author compare Author 1 Examples Documents Aggregated Fingerprints
  47. 47. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Semantic Correlation of SEC Filings Analytics
  48. 48. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Combine Fingerprints with AI Algorithms Text Anomaly Detection 7. Enabling Artificial Intelligence Applications email chat Message Forums Blog Posts Facebook Posts Realtime Anomaly Detection in Text Streams any Text Stream
  49. 49. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 Combine Fingerprints with AI Algorithms http://www.cortical.io/demos/semantic-anomaly-detection/ Semantic Anomaly Detection
  50. 50. ©cortical.ioinc.2017 website: cortical.io product: https://aws.amazon.com/marketplace/pp/B00T5794P6/ twitter: http://twitter.com/cortical_io video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3ZxJokDpds demos: http://www.cortical.io/demos.html API: http://api.cortical.io Numenta: http://numenta.com

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