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ICIC 2016: Tutorial: Searching for Information – the Classical Way with Key Words and Classification compared with a Semantic Approach

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Adding value to information through key words or classification is a long established practice. Using it is still common at least in professional information searching. Some years ago means for semantic searching emerged as additional search tools and were very much welcomed by the community of searchers. But were expectations fulfilled? The tutorial will try an answer demonstrating search paths for both methods and comparing results.

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ICIC 2016: Tutorial: Searching for Information – the Classical Way with Key Words and Classification compared with a Semantic Approach

  1. 1. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß WissensWert Tutorial Searching for Information – The Classical Way with Key Words and Classification compared with a Semantic Approach
  2. 2. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß About WissensWert Consulting We provide expert support in the field of patent information: • Patent searching in the field of chemistry, engineering, materials (metalls, polymers, paper, textiles) • Consultancy in the selection / implementation of patent information databases / software • Training on all issues of patent information in German and English, as open seminars and webinars as well as inhouse, subjects are worldwide free patent databases, basic searching, professional searching, patent classification, legal status, citations, results processing, and more) www.wissenswert-seminare.de Phone 02361-9040-273 Mail g.kirch-verfuss@wissenswert-wm.de 2
  3. 3. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß How to deliver parcels – past and present 3 parcelauditpros.com dpaKeystone
  4. 4. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß How to deliver parcels – past and present 4 parcelauditpros.com dpa Shutterstock DHL
  5. 5. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß How to deliver parcels – the future www.starship.xyz amazon
  6. 6. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß How to deliver parcels – the future www.dpdhl.com/de/presse/mediathek/fotos/dhl_paketkopter_strand.html http://www.dailymail.co.uk/
  7. 7. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß … The company’s drone program, which many in the tech press dismissed as a marketing gimmick, is central to its future; drones could be combined with warehouses manned by robots and trucks that drive themselves to unlock a new autonomous future for Amazon.
  8. 8. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Google‘s answer on „drone delivery“ About 10.800.000 results (0,62 sec) • Amazon Prime Air - Amazon.com We're excited about Prime Air — our future delivery system ... • Delivery drone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia • The Economics of Drone Delivery – Flexport (global logistics) Drones currently perform poorly on the economic aspects of last-mile delivery ... • Domino's Pizza Is One Step Closer to Drone Delivery – Fortune … it hopes to be the world's first commercial drone delivery service • Drone Delivery Canada (technology firm) We are pioneering drone delivery technology for Canadian retailers … 8
  9. 9. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 9
  10. 10. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß The information specialist‘s answer • Will take a bit longer • Asking questions • Working quietly in the back office • Maybe asking more questions • Again working quietly in the back office • Finally coming out with a selection of appropriate documents, much less than 10 million 10
  11. 11. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information request Concepts 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For delivery of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload and release it 11
  12. 12. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information request 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For deliverying of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload using a rope and to release it 1. Not a helicopter 12
  13. 13. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß A Drone not a helicopter US 2009146010
  14. 14. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information request 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For deliverying of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload using a rope and to release it 1. Not a helicopter 2. Not for military or emergency purpose 14
  15. 15. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Transport of payload but not life rings or rescue ladders US2012152654 WO16159481 Life rings Rescue ladder
  16. 16. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information request 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For deliverying of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload using a rope and to release it 1. Not a helicopter 2. Not for military or emergency purpose 3. Not for carrying a camera 16
  17. 17. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Delivering of goods no surveillance services www.globe-flight.de
  18. 18. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information request 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For deliverying of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload using a rope and to release it 1. Not a helicopter 2. Not for military or emergency purpose 3. Not for carrying a camera 4. No delivery by dropping the payload or by using parachutes 18
  19. 19. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Releasing the payload not using a parachute 19 US2016130001
  20. 20. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 20
  21. 21. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Free and fee-based information sources • Free information sources Search engines, specialized search engines Google patents, Google scholar, Wikipedia, social media … • Free patent databases Espacenet, DEPATISnet … • Host-based databases STN, Proquest, WTI … • Fee-based fulltext patent databases Patbase, Orbit, TotalPatent, sem-ip, Invention Navigator… • …
  22. 22. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 928177 578802 325989 210292 152662 65965 42854 40308 35481 30342 25956 23040 16533 16135 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 800000 900000 1000000 CN US JP KR EP DE IN RU CA BR AU UK FR MX 22 Estimation of patent languages 38% 32% 13% 8% 4% 2% 1% 1% 1% Chinese English Japanese Korean German Russian Portugese French Spanish Publishing languages (estimated) WIPO 2014
  23. 23. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Search query – basis for a comprensive search Adequate collection of search terms for each concept of the subject in question – How can this be built up? • Trial and error – Experience and imagination • Sample documents • Support tools: „old-fashioned“ like thesauri or „modern“ like concept maps 23
  24. 24. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Unmanned aerial vehicles
  25. 25. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 25 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delivery_drone Unmanned aerial vehicles
  26. 26. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Word net – a lexical database of English About WordNet from Princeton University The main relation among words in WordNet is synonymy. Synonyms are grouped into unordered sets (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Each of WordNet’s 117 000 synsets contains a brief definition and is linked to other synsets by means of a small number of “conceptual relations”.
  27. 27. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 27 http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu
  28. 28. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß WIPO Pearl – a multilingual terminology Terminology portal built up by specialists in a controlled process and comprising • 29 subject fields • 17.000 technical concepts • 115.000 terms offered in up to ten languages: • English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese • Japanese, Chinese, Korean • Russian, Arabic www.wipo.int/reference/en/wipopearl/
  29. 29. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Concept Map presenting 29 subject fields Mouse over gives the complete title of the field and the number of concepts therein http://www.wipo.int/reference/en/wipopearl
  30. 30. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Subject field Aeronautics & Aerospace engineering with its 9 Subfields 30 Aircraft types
  31. 31. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Subfield Aircraft types with its concepts
  32. 32. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Questel Orbit – Keyword search wizard 32
  33. 33. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Thesaurus • A thesaurus is a controlled vocabulary with terms connected by relations. • Well known is the MESH-Thesaurus, a hierarchically-organized terminology for biomedical information.
  34. 34. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß INSPEC – Engineering database The Inspec Database holds over 16 million abstracts centred on the fields of physics, electronics, computing and engineering. Users are supported by specialised indexing and a thesaurus. 34
  35. 35. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß INSPEC Thesaurus Inspec Controlled Indexing Terms (Descriptors) Controlled terms are indexing terms that are applied to each document in the Inspec Database. Controlled terms build a dynamic and evolving controlled vocabulary of over 10,000 scientific terms arranged for access in the Inspec Thesaurus. 35
  36. 36. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß INSPEC Thesaurus BT – broader term TT – Top term NT – narrower term RT – related term PT – partial term CC – Classification UF – used for Concept family: Hierarchy:
  37. 37. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß INSPEC Descriptor search 37
  38. 38. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß INSPEC Descriptor search – Results
  39. 39. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 39 Not available in Google Scholar! “Google’s project Wing currently takes a different approach, using drones that take off vertically, before turning horizontally for flight. [...] The company has even patented a delivery receptacle which winches the parcel down to be stored securely.”
  40. 40. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Specification of the information requirement Concepts 1. Drone 2. For transport of payload 3. For delivery of goods by logistics services 4. With a delivery device to lower the payload and release it – winch 40
  41. 41. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Simple search using Google patents https://patents.google.com
  42. 42. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  43. 43. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß US 9302770 B2 Payload-Release Device and Operation Thereof 43
  44. 44. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Abstract US9302770B2 Part 1 An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is disclosed that includes a retractable payload delivery system. The payload delivery system can lower a payload to the ground using a delivery device that secures the payload during descent and releases the payload upon reaching the ground. […]
  45. 45. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Support tools for search term collection On the basis of a sample document further search term collection is supported by • counting words in the document • depicting concepts from the document • using third-party abstracts
  46. 46. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß SIP Invention Navigator Word statistics for US 9302770 46
  47. 47. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  48. 48. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Orbit – Concepts in US9302770B2 48
  49. 49. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Derwent Abstract ADVANTAGE […] The device allows a payload delivery module to cause a payload-release assembly to ascend/descend at rates selected to encourage intuitive, safe and efficient interaction between a payload delivery system and people on the ground. 49
  50. 50. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß The concept drone – term collection 50 drone unmanned pilotless robotic radio-controlled automated autonomous aerial air flying vehicle aircraft robot UAV The collection might not be complete and not all connections are given.
  51. 51. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Results of a fulltext search performed with Patbase Concept 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step Drone 24.500 7.900 2.450 1.900 Payload > 1 Mio Delivery > 1 Mio Winch > 1 Mio
  52. 52. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 52
  53. 53. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Search result – example, not relevant TOWABLE AIR VEHICLE US8646719
  54. 54. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Results of a fulltext search Concept 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step Drone 24.500 7.900 2.450 1.900 Payload > 1 Mio Delivery > 1 Mio Winch > 1 Mio Google 23.613 27
  55. 55. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß „Unmanned aircraft“ 56 documents Keyword Analysis
  56. 56. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 56 B64D EQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT … B64C AEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS Classification Analysis
  57. 57. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Searching with words – conclusion • more terms per concept  bigger result  higher recall, lower precision • more concepts per query  smaller result  lower recall, higher precision • Check results for each single term and each single concept  better control of final result • Check final results‘ quality using known documents and analysis tools
  58. 58. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 58
  59. 59. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß International Patent Classification (IPC) The International Patent Classification • is a patent classification scheme launched in 1968 • is a hierarchical system for grouping patents into technical fields using 70.000 classification symbols • is managed by the WIPO • is subject to a yearly revision 59
  60. 60. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 45000 50000 55000 60000 65000 70000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 NumberofIPCsymbols Development of the IPC system over time 2006 Reform des IPC-Systems 1968 1974 2006 2010
  61. 61. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 61
  62. 62. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß International Patent Classification B PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS B64D EQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT … B64D1/00 Dropping, ejecting, releasing, or receiving articles, liquids, or the like, in flight B64D1/02 . Dropping, ejecting, or releasing articles B64D1/08 . . the articles being load-carrying devices B64D1/12 . . . Releasing 62
  63. 63. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß International Patent Classification B PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS B64D EQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT … B64D9/00 Equipment for handling freight 63
  64. 64. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß International Patent Classification B PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS B64C AEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS B64C39/00 Aircraft not otherwise provided for B64C39/02 . characterised by special use 64
  65. 65. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) The Cooperative Patent Classification • is a new patent classification scheme launched in 2013 • is jointly managed by the EPO and the USPTO • is an extension of the IPC with about 260.000 symbols • is subject to a continuous revision process • is allocated to about 50 % of all patents 65
  66. 66. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 66
  67. 67. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Cooperative Patent Classification B PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS B64C AEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS B64C39/00 Aircraft not otherwise provided for B64C39/02 . characterised by special use B64C39/024 . . of the remote controlled vehicle type, i.e. RPV B64C39/028 . . Micro-sized aircraft 67
  68. 68. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Cooperative Patent Classification B PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING B64 AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS B64C AEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS B64C2201/00 Unmanned aerial vehicles; Equipment therefor B64C2201/12 • adapted for particular use B64C2201/128 • • for transporting goods other than bombs 68
  69. 69. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Results of classification search Meaning: Aircraft … IPC CPC B64D1/12 … releasing articles 257 94 B64C39/02 … special use 3.682 344 B64C39/024 … remote controlled vehicle type --- 1.560 B64C39/028 … Micro-sized aircraft --- 126 B64D9/00 … handling freight 1.900 675 B64C2201/128 … UAV transporting goods --- 195 69
  70. 70. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Results of a fulltext and classification search Concept 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. Step Drone 24.500 7.900 2.450 1.900 Payload > 1 Mio Delivery > 1 Mio Winch > 1 Mio Group of classes 5.800 252
  71. 71. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß HUMAN INTERACTION WITH UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (US9459620 – Amazon) 71
  72. 72. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Restrictions for classification search • Often IPC classification is not precise enough. • Only about 50 % of the patents have a CPC which might be more precise. • For most patents only the invention is classified. Any further technical information that might be valuable is not regarded. 72
  73. 73. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 73
  74. 74. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Searching without query Use one or several relevant documents and advanced tools for • Citation analysis 74
  75. 75. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Patbase – Citation explorer – US9302770 75 Long Mission Tethered Aerostat And Method Of Accomplishing (US2012091261)
  76. 76. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Patbase – Citation explorer – US9302770 76 GUIDED LIFT SYSTEM (US2016096623)
  77. 77. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Ambercite Cluster Searching Understand patent similarity by leveraging citations from ~ 90 million patents to build a ‘network’, also using indirect citations, … www.ambercite.com
  78. 78. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Searching without query Use one or several relevant documents and advanced tools for • Citation analysis – less applicable for young technologies • Similarity search 78
  79. 79. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  80. 80. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Hover Delivery of Cabin Payload in Tilt-Rotor and Tilt-Wing Aircraft US20100171001 car
  81. 81. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  82. 82. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß PLUG AND PLAY MULTIFUNCTION KIT FOR REMOTE ROTORCRAFT (German utility model) B64C39/024 Aircraft . . of the remote controlled vehicle type, i.e. RPV
  83. 83. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Searching without query Use one or several relevant documents and advanced tools for • Citation analysis – less applicable for young technologies • Similarity search • Semantic search 83
  84. 84. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 84
  85. 85. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß What is semantic? Semantic – a science, dealing with the meaning of linguistic expressions (words, sentences etc.) 85
  86. 86. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Lewis Carroll, “Through the Looking Glass”, Chapter 6 Humpty Dumpty When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, 'it means just what I choose it to mean — neither more nor less.' 'The question is,' said Alice, 'whether you can make words mean so many different things.' 'The question is,' said Humpty Dumpty, 'which is to be master — that's all.‘ 86
  87. 87. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß What is semantic search? Semantic search – a search method, focussing on the meaning of a search input which is complete text not single search terms 87
  88. 88. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß What is semantic search? A semantic search engine is not just looking for words in the text of the documents in stock, like with keyword-based search engines. It takes into account the meaning of searched text by using background knowledge. Semantic search aims at imitation of the human brain that works with its knowledge and associations. 88
  89. 89. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß What is semantic search? Basis of semantic search is the handling of searched text taking into account • Morphological variations (plurals, inflections, etc.) • Homonyms (different meanings of a term) • Synonyms (different terms with the same or similar meaning) • Generalizations • … 89
  90. 90. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Synonyms, homonyms, generalizations Drone – some homonyms • male bee • pipe of a bagpipe • unchanging monotone • aircraft without a pilot Drone – some synonyms • unmanned aerial vehicle • pilotless aircraft • radio-controlled aircraft Drone – some generalizations Craft . aircraft .. pilotless aircraft .. radio-controlled aircraft Vehicle . Aerial vehicle .. Unmanned aerial vehicle 90
  91. 91. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß What is semantic search? Basis of semantic search is the handling of search terms taking into account • Morphological variations (plurals, inflections, etc.) • Homonyms (different meanings of a term) • Synonyms (different terms with the same or semilar meaning) • Generalizations • Concept matching • Knowledge matching • … 91
  92. 92. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Disambiguation process A process • to resolve ambiguities • to select the most probable meaning of single or compound words (terms) • by using the context of the term 92
  93. 93. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Disambiguation by context • Bagpipe drones (US6476301) • Trapper and retainer for bee swarms and separator for drones and queens (US1896925) • Altitude control system for drones (US4017718) • Autonomous and automatic landing system for drones (US2009055038) 93
  94. 94. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Disambiguation process A process • to resolve ambiguities • to select the most probable meaning of single or compound words (terms) • by using the context of the term • by recognizing concepts using background knowledge in form of semantic networks organized on a conceptual basis, i.e. an ontology 94
  95. 95. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Orbit – Concepts in US9302770B2 95
  96. 96. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß 96 http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu
  97. 97. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Wordnet background knowledge http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu
  98. 98. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Vector space model 98 www.innography.com/learn-more/what-you-need-to-know-about-semantic-search
  99. 99. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Abstract US9302770B2 Part 1 An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is disclosed that includes a retractable payload delivery system. The payload delivery system can lower a payload to the ground using a delivery device that secures the payload during descent and releases the payload upon reaching the ground. […]
  100. 100. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Result of a semantic search using the abstract of US9302770B2 US9422139 Once the UAV arrives at the delivery site, the UAV is operated in a hover mode and the payload is lowered from the UAV towards the delivery site. 100
  101. 101. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Result of a semantic search using the abstract of US9302770B2 WO16115574A1 UAVs can be useful assistants such as in package delivery … The payload may be suspended by cables or other structures with a mechanism for releasing said payload. 101
  102. 102. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Result of a semantic search using the abstract of US9302770B2 WO15155086A1 The invention relates to an arrangement with an unmanned transport means to deliver a shipment and a transfer device. By means of the transfer device the shipment can be transferred in a secure manner, in particular by lowering … 102
  103. 103. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Result of a semantic search using the abstract of US9302770B2 US6476301 A multi-use emergency descent device for descent of a payload from an aircraft … 103
  104. 104. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß octimine technologies is a young and innovative company in the field of Intellectual Property Management. […] “The secret to our success are our self-developed semantic text analytics methods which enable our customers to easily retrieve unique quality searches at a record-breaking speed.” Octisearch is octimine’s semantic search tool offered for free at the moment. 104
  105. 105. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Octimine octisearch results octisearch‘s semantic search using the abstract of Google‘s patent US9302770 results in 1000 patent families (This is the system‘s limit.) Google‘s patent is #883 in the result set.
  106. 106. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Octimine octisearch 106 Text of the abstract of US9302770B2
  107. 107. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  108. 108. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß
  109. 109. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß octimine octiSearch – Result list Results are ranked by relevance according to the Similarity Index.
  110. 110. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Octimine octisearch – Result #883
  111. 111. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Infoapp sem-ip Sem-ip‘s semantic search using the abstract of Google‘s patent US9302770 results in about 107 patent families. Sample patent of Google is #4 in the result set. At least 80 % of the documents are about Payload delivery with unmanned aerial vehicles
  112. 112. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Infoapp sem-ip – Semantic search
  113. 113. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Infoapp sem-ip – Result list
  114. 114. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß LexisNexis PatentStrategies PatentStrategies semantic search using the abstract of Google‘s patent US9302770 results in about 1500 patent families With good fit for the higher relevance documents Sample patent of Google is #1
  115. 115. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Infoapp sem-ip – Analysis of results 115 CPC
  116. 116. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß LexisNexis PatentStrategies – Semantic search Abstract of US9302770B2
  117. 117. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß LexisNexis PatentStrategies – Semantic search
  118. 118. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß LexisNexis PatentStrategies – Analysis Text clustering PatentScape
  119. 119. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Questel Orbit Orbit semantic search using the abstract of Google‘s patent US9302770 results in  5.000 patent families (customizable limitation)  From these about 90 patent families had 99 % relevance.  Sample patent of Google is #1, also further most relevant documents are on top.
  120. 120. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Questel Orbit – Semantic search
  121. 121. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Questel Orbit – Semantic search Selection of concepts
  122. 122. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Questel Orbit – Semantic search results 122
  123. 123. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Refining of results from semantic search Because often semantic search results are quiet big a refining might be necessary – precising semantic search results by • Relevance • Keywords • Classification • Concepts
  124. 124. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß LexisNexis TotalPatent Semantic search Refining results by selected terms (concepts) generated from the result set 124
  125. 125. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß APPARATUS, SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (WO16115574A1) The disclosed invention include Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) and UAV universal docking ports to be incorporated into and/or attached to headwear, footwear, clothing, … 125
  126. 126. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Agenda • Finding information – an information specialist‘s task? • What we get searching with words • Classification for better findings • Can we get around search query building? • What is different with semantic searching? • Matching the outcome of the approaches 126
  127. 127. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Using a search query 127 • Searcher maintains control over the search. • Selecting and deselecting of terms and classes allows for controlled broadening and precising of results. • Building the search query can be complicated. • Completeness is not guaranteed. • An information specialist is needed.
  128. 128. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß The information specialist‘s approach • Ask questions to specify the information requirements. • Work quietly in the back office using the optimum choice of sophisticated tools and his knowledge and expertise. • Finally come out with an individual selection of appropriate documents. 128
  129. 129. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Semantic search • Input is just text describing the technology in question. • No search query building is needed. • Results show up in high quality relevance ranking. • Completeness is not guaranteed. • Maybe the information specialist is not needed. ??? • Maybe later it will allow for multilingual searching. 129
  130. 130. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Social media – Twitter • Nanette Byrnes @nanettebyrnes 4. Okt. In the race for drone delivery, the U.K. is way ahead of the U.S. • 1st In SEO @1stInSEO 4. Okt. #Drone delivery is still several years away … • april glaser @aprilaser 4. Okt. After safety issues, low-altitude air traffic control is the biggest barrier to opening US skies to drone delivery • PatentBuddy @patentbuddy 2. Okt. Delivery Option: Drone. Arrival Estimate: 2020 130
  131. 131. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Social media – Twitter 131
  132. 132. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Acknowledgements LexisNexis Minesoft Questel Infoapps WTI / INSPEC
  133. 133. © 2014 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß© 2016 WissensWert Seminare Dr. Kirch-Verfuß Thank you for listening! Contact: WissensWert Seminare – Beratung Dr. Gabriele Kirch-Verfuß g.kirch-verfuss@wissenswert-wm.de T: +49-2361-9040-273 www.wissenswert-wm.de Subscribe to our newsletter: info@wissenswert-wm.de

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