Copyrights, Trademarks, and Fair Use for Authors


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Copyrights, Trademarks, and Fair Use for Authors

  1. 1. Copyrights, Trademarks and Fair Use for Authors <ul><li>Idaho Book Extravaganza </li></ul><ul><li>October 28, 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Brad Frazer </li></ul><ul><li>Hawley Troxell </li></ul><ul><li>208-388-4875 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview and Introduction-- Goals and Objectives <ul><ul><li>Situational Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue Spotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Liability </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
  3. 3. Legal Issues for Authors (Media Professionals) <ul><li>Usage Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Content Protection Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Content Rights Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Right of Publicity Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Defamation Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Issues </li></ul>[email_address]
  4. 4. For today, however . . . <ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbound (using third-party content) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outbound (protecting your content) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks </li></ul>[email_address]
  5. 5. Overarching Construct: Intellectual Property <ul><li>Define terms: what is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks and Domain Names </li></ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets </li></ul>[email_address]
  6. 6. Copyright—Why Do You Care? <ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>See next two slides . . . </li></ul>[email_address]
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  9. 9. Copyright Discussion Hypothetical <ul><li>Wilbur says, “I copyrighted my book by putting ‘Circle C’ on the bottom of the first page.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jane says, “This quote is on the Internet, so I can just ‘right-click’ and use it in my manuscript.” </li></ul><ul><li>Clarence says, “I copyrighted this manuscript by mailing it to myself.” </li></ul><ul><li>Judy says, “We don’t have any copyrights because we never registered anything.” </li></ul>[email_address]
  10. 10. Key Take Away Point Here . . . <ul><li>“ Copyright” is not a verb! </li></ul>[email_address]
  11. 11. What is a copyright? <ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>A property right that springs into existence when a sufficiently creative idea is reduced into or onto a tangible medium. </li></ul><ul><li>The owner is the “author.” </li></ul>[email_address]
  12. 12. Copyright—Exclusive Rights <ul><li>Make copies </li></ul><ul><li>Create derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute copies </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly perform the work </li></ul><ul><li>Display the work </li></ul><ul><li>Titles and Short Phrases not “Copyrightable” </li></ul>[email_address]
  13. 13. Copyright Considerations <ul><li>Inbound considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can I use the content? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining licenses (permissions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outbound considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting your content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
  14. 14. Copyright Ownership <ul><li>Who’s the author? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that the same as the copyright owner? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taking a license </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate either directly with the owner or with a rights clearinghouse (ASCAP, Harry Fox, CCC) </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
  15. 15. Copyright Registration <ul><li>After a copyright is created by an author, the owner of the copyright may register it with the Copyright Office. </li></ul><ul><li>Timely registration is critical! Rights may be lost if not done within three months of the date of first publication. </li></ul>[email_address]
  16. 16. Copyright Duration <ul><li>Duration and registration are different concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a copyright is created, the author or his/her heirs own it as a property right and it lasts for the life of the author, plus 70 years. </li></ul><ul><li>A copyright can be given away or sold, but that does not affect its duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Registration or absence thereof does not affect duration of the copyright. </li></ul>[email_address]
  17. 17. When do I not need permission to use work I did not author? <ul><li>Public domain </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use </li></ul><ul><li>Original is not protected by copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Always err on the side of caution and get permission! </li></ul>[email_address]
  18. 18. Fair Use (17 USC Section 107) <ul><li>The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research , is not an infringement of copyright . In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include— </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and </li></ul><ul><li>(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul>[email_address]
  19. 19. Public Domain (from <ul><li>“ The public domain is not a place. A work of authorship is in the ‘public domain’ if it is no longer under copyright protection or if it failed to meet the requirements for copyright protection. Works in the public domain may be used freely without the permission of the former copyright owner.” </li></ul>[email_address]
  20. 20. Moving next to trademarks . . . <ul><li>Any remaining copyright questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Email me. </li></ul>[email_address]
  21. 21. Trademark Discussion Hypotheticals <ul><li>Clarence says, “I trademarked that new product name we came up with by putting ‘TM’ next to it on our brochure.” </li></ul><ul><li>Constance says, “We need to trademark the domain name for that website.” </li></ul><ul><li>Candace says, “We can use that name. I searched at and there’s nothing the same.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jules says, “My book title is trademarked.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Key Take Away Point Here . . . <ul><li>“ Trademark” is not a verb! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Trademarks <ul><li>A trademark or service mark is any word, slogan, logo, symbol, sound, color, smell, or other item that serves as a means of commercial source identification of a product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., Nike, Coke, Geico Gecko--or Geico Cavemen </li></ul>[email_address]
  24. 24. Types of U.S. Trademark Protection <ul><li>Common Law™ - unregistered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S., trademark rights arise through use, not through registration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Registration – the “truly local” </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Registration® - interstate </li></ul><ul><li>Registration in the U.S. requires acceptable “trademark use.” </li></ul>[email_address]
  25. 25. Generic Descriptive Suggestive Fanciful (weak) (strong) shoe “Shoe Gleam” “Walk-n-Glo” “Kiwi” polish [email_address]
  26. 26. Examples of US Registered Marks
  27. 30. Q & A <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> Brad Frazer </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>208.388.4875 </li></ul><ul><li>@bfrazjd </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>[email_address]