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  1. 1. HawaiiThe island of Hawaii is composedof five volcanoes: Kohala, Hualalai,Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa andKilauea. We visited the last 3.
  2. 2. Mauna KeaLast erupted 4,500 years agoTallest volcano on EarthCharacterized by abundant cinderconesKnown for the astronomicalobservatories on its summit
  3. 3. Mauna KeaGlacial features on Mauna Kea.Yes, there were glaciers on MaunaKea. No, you can’t see much in thisphoto.
  4. 4. Puu MahanaTo get an idea as to what the insideof a cinder cone (sort of) looks like,we visit one of only two greensand beaches in the world. Thisbeach represents an eroded littoralcone, caused by the interaction offlowing lava (associated withMauna Loa) and seawater.
  5. 5. Green Sand BeachThe ash that eroded to produce thebeach.
  6. 6. Black Sand atPunalu’uFor comparison to the green sand,here turtles are relaxing on a blacksand beach. The black sand formsat a point where lava entered thesea and cooled very quickly.
  7. 7. Mauna LoaTallest mountain in the world (ifyou measure from the seafloor)Last erupted in 1984Covered with multi-colored lavaflows
  8. 8. ObservatoryAt just over 11,000 feet is theNational Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration’s Mauna LoaObservatory. The observatory hasbeen measuring atmospheric gases,particles and solar radiation sincethe 1950s.
  9. 9. ObservatoryChinese experiment station
  10. 10. ObservatoryThe original 1950s carbon dioxidemonitor
  11. 11. ObservatoryWater-mist fire extinguisher.Computer geeks like these becausethe extinguishing agent doesn’tconduct electricity and it doesn’tmake a mess like a regular multi-purpose dry chemical extinguisher.
  12. 12. Mauna LoaIn 1935, stone walls were built in anattempt to contain lava flows
  13. 13. KilaueaOne of the most active volcanoeson EarthHas been erupting continuouslysince 1983
  14. 14. A large block of the Kilauea rim has partially slumped into thecaldera. Steam escapes from vents all over this slumped area.
  15. 15. The Sulphur BanksVents, known as solfatars, emit gases, including sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.Condensation of these emissions leaves deposits of yellow sulfur, red hematite and white opal.
  16. 16. Sulphur Banks
  17. 17. Sulphur Banks
  18. 18. Sulphur Banks
  19. 19. Sulphur Banks
  20. 20. Sulphur Banks
  21. 21. Halemaumau Crater: Currently active, with a lava lake about 600feet below its rim.
  22. 22. Halemaumau Crater during the day
  23. 23. And at night
  24. 24. With a full moon
  25. 25. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory with its “Crisis Center” on top.
  26. 26. Kilauea Iki: site of a spectacular eruption in 1959. The eruptionfilled a valley with a lava lake over 400 feet deep.
  27. 27. Kilauea Iki valley today. The cooled lava lake is in the foreground. The sourceof the lava fountains is in the background. Steam rising from HalemaumauCrater is visible in the distance.
  28. 28. Kilauea Iki
  29. 29. Kilauea IkiThe red hole is the location of the 1959 eruption.
  30. 30. Kilauea Iki
  31. 31. Rolling surface of the lava lake at Kilauea Iki.
  32. 32. Cooling lava lake surface broken up like sea ice
  33. 33. The high lava mark in the Kilauea Iki valley
  34. 34. Borings installed by the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the cooling of thelava lake at Kilauea Iki. It was still partially molten until around 1990.
  35. 35. Janice self-extricating from a fissure at Kilauea Iki.
  36. 36. Pauahi Crater: An eruption in the 1970s partially filled this valleywith lava. The high lava mark is visible on the far wall.
  37. 37. Ohia Tree: Common on the island of Hawaii. One of the first plantsto colonize a recently emplaced lava flow.
  38. 38. Tree mold: actual lava and mold (somebody added the tree).
  39. 39. Tree mold (tree removed)
  40. 40. Ancient Hawaiian petroglyph (no, I didn’t do it)
  41. 41. Structure destroyed by lava flow
  42. 42. Ropy lava
  43. 43. Cross section showing banding in lava
  44. 44. Approaching the ocean entry
  45. 45. Flowing lava!
  46. 46. Lava
  47. 47. Lava
  48. 48. Near (actually, on top of) flowing lava
  49. 49. Lava
  50. 50. Lava
  51. 51. Lava
  52. 52. Lava
  53. 53. Ocean entry
  54. 54. Ocean Entry
  55. 55. Ocean entry
  56. 56. Ocean entry
  57. 57. Ocean entry