The Art and Science of Lifestyle
Changes in Naturopathic Medicine
Maya Nicole Baylac N.D.
Hawaii Naturopathic Retreat Cent...
Lifestyle Change Model for
Physical and Mental Health
awareness
mental
emotional
physical
Nutrition &
Exercise
Psychothera...
The American Heart Association
Study: Heart Health and Lifestyle
The incidence of blood clots were compared in:
30,000 + a...
Results of Study
The America Heart Association Study: Life’s Simple 7 and CVD
38 %
lower
risk
44 %
lower
risk
Optimum
Heal...
HOWEASYISITTOMAKETHESELIFESTYLECHANGES?
NORMAL WEIGHT
NORMAL CHOLESTEROL
NORMAL BLOOD
PRESSURE
NORMAL BLOOD
SUGAR
Stop
Smo...
Obesity Rates Continue to Climb
27.00%
28.00%
29.00%
30.00%
31.00%
32.00%
33.00%
34.00%
35.00%
36.00%
37.00%
2000 2008 201...
Dieting is the Most Common
Method Used to Lose Weight
55% of the total adult population, nearly 116 million adults
are die...
Long-term Failure of Weight Loss Dieting
Source: Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies 1,2,3
Ja...
Why this Failure of Calorie
Restriction and Public Education?
Obesity and overweight is treated as a simple
metabolic diso...
The Hijacking of the Brain Reward
Centers by the Food Industry
As a result, the brain
adapts to the
environment, and a
mal...
The Problem Today:
Thenatureofthehomeostaticfeedingsystem
low energy
requirements
abundance
versus
scarcity
high reward
fo...
Food in the Restrictive Natural
Pre-industrial Environment
Food in the Abundant Artificial
Modern Environment
From stomach hunger to cravings
Today the environment has
created a shift from a
homeostatic feeding
behavior, to a hedoni...
Stomach Hunger:
Homeostatic Regulation
Brain Cortical and Sub Cortical Centers
Stomach Hunger Homeostatic Regulation by
Dopamine in the Hypothalamus
The Hijacking of the Brain by the Food
Industry:Stomach Hunger and Brain Hunger
This homeostatic mechanism is normally pri...
Cravings, Sensitization and the
Brain Reward System
Stimulus
Fatty, Sugary
Foods
Sight and Smell
Cravings
Eat
Liking
Hedon...
Features of an Addiction:
Psychological and Behavioral
Psychological
dependence:
Need
Emotional eating
Compulsive eating
L...
The Making of Fat:
Neil Bernard, M.D., in his book
Breaking the Food Seduction: The
Hidden Reasons Behind Food
Cravings—an...
The Making of Fat
Highly stimulating
processed foods play
into the brain
preferences for
concentrated food.
Low nutrients ...
Addiction Reorganizes the Brain
Brain imaging evidence shows that the brain’s “cortex changes
with overeating and obesity...
Addiction Reorganizes the Brain:
Subcortical and irrational, versus cortical and
rational
 When the obsessive or addictiv...
How do we Heal the Addicted Brain?
Physical level
Nutrition
Whole Food Diet
Not Calorie
Restriction
Sleep
8 Hours per
Nigh...
Nutrition
Weight-loss dieting, by definition, requires lowering food
intake below the amount the body needs to maintain i...
How Do We Heal the Addicted Brain?
 Creating New Pathways
 Education and psychotherapy
 Stimulate and support motivatio...
Education: How to Overcome the
Power of the Addicted Brain
Why will power does not work
The brain and the palate
Propertie...
Psychotherapy Methods:
Cognitive
Behavioral
Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has shown good results
when combined with...
Motivate: Motivational Interview
 Miller and Rollnick (1991) developed this method
to be applied to the field of addictio...
Motivate:Support the Desire for Change
Know what
stage the
patient is at
Group:
Overeaters
Anonymous
Be an
inspiring
model...
Psychology of Change:
The Trans-Theoretical Model of Change
Move from
contemplation
to action.
Know where
your patient is
...
The5stagesofChanges:ProchaskaandDiClemente(212L.Joranbyetal.)
First stage Pre-contemplation
The person does not recognize ...
Liberate:
MINDFUL AWARENESS
What is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness is a state of heightened awareness. It orinates from the
Buddhist tradition of meditation...
Why Mindful Awareness?
 The addicted brain cannot cure itself.
 Fighting the unconscious with will power gives more ener...
Mindfulness and Addiction
Promotes understanding and compassion rather than judgment
and conflict with the addicted self.
...
Mindfulness and Addiction
 Mindfulness does not reinforce the addiction pathways.
 Gives the opportunity to fully experi...
Mindfulness and Addiction:
Bring awareness
when the desire
arises
Pause (Find a place
to sit)
Breathe
Witness, or be
mindf...
Diagram: Mindful Awareness and Cravings
Wants
Desires
Cravings
Fatty Sugary Foods
Conscious Avoidance
Conscious Awareness
...
Four Steps Conscious Attention
by Dr. Schwartz for OCD
Brain lock: stuck neurological gear that causes thoughts to be acte...
Five Step Mindfulness Method
for Addictive Behavior
Step 1 Relabel:
“False belief” rather than “Need”. I do not need
to ha...
Research on Mindfulness
and Binge Eating Disorder
Pilot research
involving 18 obese
women, (1999).
Findings:
Reduced binge...
How to Cultivate Mindfulness
 Conscious eating
 Conscious walking
 Sitting meditation
Lifestyle Change Model for
Physical and Mental Health
awareness
mental
emotional
physical
Nutrition &
Exercise
Psychothera...
Naturopathic Doctor Tools:
LOC and Groups
Listen
Observe
Compassion
Develop Team
Treatment
Work
Refer Patient
to Support
G...
For More Information
Maya Nicole Baylac N.D.
Hawaii Naturopathic Retreat Center, Inc.
www.HawaiiNaturopathicRetreat.com
ww...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Art and Science of Lifestyle Changes In Naturopathic Medicine - ICNM Paris 2013

4,017 views

Published on

Dr. Baylac’s presentation focuses on how mind, body and spirit approaches work together to bring about permanent lifestyle changes. The specific conditions in which this is demonstrated in her talk are: food addiction (obesity, overweight) and depression.
Contemporary physical and mental illness both need to be addressed on the physical, mental, emotional, spiritual and social levels to be treated successfully on a permanent basis. Nutrition and exercise can restore the biochemistry of the body and the brain and a psycho-spiritual approach is necessary for behavioral changes to happen. Dr. Baylac reviews the need of psychology in physical medicine for successful lifestyle changes and the need of nutrition in psychiatry to resolve mental illness.
Today, eighty percent of physical illness can be resolved by lifestyle changes. However, we need to be familiar with the science of change to help our patients successfully.
For change to take place the following sequence has to happen:
Educate – Understand the relationship between nutritional and lifestyle habits and health.
Motivate – Doctor as model: we need to inspire our patients by practicing what we teach and patients should emulate us. Social network.
Liberate – Awareness techniques and meditation to provide means to access the free will to make positive choices

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,017
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,885
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen and thank you for inviting me to this beautiful gathering of collegues, teachers and friends
  • . We are going to discuss how we can introduce psychology and spirituality in our approach to help our patients to make more effective lifestyle changes. I am going to use the example of obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
  • The American Heart Association just completed a study on 30,000 adults 45 years older or more on the influence of healthy lifestyle on blot clots.
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight were the most significant
  • Maintaining ideal levels of physical activity and body mass index were the most significant factors related to lower risk of blood clots.
  • Not so easy if we look at statistics on obesity
  • Is it that people like being obese and do nothing about it? Not at all. A large amount of people diet at one given time to control their weight
  • There are a lot of studies showing the long term failure of calorie restriction
  • Why this failure of calorie restriction?
  • The brain has been hijacked by the food industry and has adapted to the environment and now the system is not serving the needs of the individual.
  • This is an illustration of the relationship people had to food in the past
  • This is what is happening now
  • Now we have a new form of hunger, cravings
  • Anatomical and physiological basis of hunger and satiety
  • This diagram shows the cycle of hunger and satiety regulated by the hypothalamus and dopamine
  • This system is usually primed by hunger but it can also be primed by external cues. Those external cues can override hunger
  • This is how cravings are workingCravings are made possible by repeated behavion, sensitization and memory pathways
  • We reviewed the physiology of food addiction now let’s have a look at the psychology of food addiction
  • How is the brain confused by the environment?
  • Now we are going to go through the various layers of the pyramid starting at the bottom. The physical level
  • Addressing the mental level with education
  • Emotional with psychotherapy
  • Spiritual level with mindfulness
  • Level 1 and 2 both in redChange arrove
  • The Art and Science of Lifestyle Changes In Naturopathic Medicine - ICNM Paris 2013

    1. 1. The Art and Science of Lifestyle Changes in Naturopathic Medicine Maya Nicole Baylac N.D. Hawaii Naturopathic Retreat Center A healthy body + an open heart + a positive and creative mind = a happy spirit!
    2. 2. Lifestyle Change Model for Physical and Mental Health awareness mental emotional physical Nutrition & Exercise Psychotherapy Philosophy Meditation Liberate Educate Motivate Behavioral Changes
    3. 3. The American Heart Association Study: Heart Health and Lifestyle The incidence of blood clots were compared in: 30,000 + adults Aged 45 / older Followed 4.6 years They were then divided into 3 groups rated according to their adherence to Life’s Simple 7. The groups were: Inadequate Average Optimum
    4. 4. Results of Study The America Heart Association Study: Life’s Simple 7 and CVD 38 % lower risk 44 % lower risk Optimum Health Average Health Risk of Blood Clots Compared to Inadequate Group: Inadequate Health high risk
    5. 5. HOWEASYISITTOMAKETHESELIFESTYLECHANGES? NORMAL WEIGHT NORMAL CHOLESTEROL NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE NORMAL BLOOD SUGAR Stop Smoking Start Exercising Eat a Healthy Diet
    6. 6. Obesity Rates Continue to Climb 27.00% 28.00% 29.00% 30.00% 31.00% 32.00% 33.00% 34.00% 35.00% 36.00% 37.00% 2000 2008 2010 Obesity Rates Obesity Rates 30.5% 33.7% 35.7% Journal of American Medical Association Increase of 5.7% from 2000 to 2010 in the United States Obesity is defined by exceeding the BMI of 30kg/m2
    7. 7. Dieting is the Most Common Method Used to Lose Weight 55% of the total adult population, nearly 116 million adults are dieting at any given time. Roughly 25 million men and 43 million women are dieting to lose weight. Another 21 million men and 26 million women are dieting to maintain weight. 91% of women surveyed on a college campus in the mid- 90s had attempted to control their weight through dieting.
    8. 8. Long-term Failure of Weight Loss Dieting Source: Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies 1,2,3 James W Anderson, Elizabeth C Konz, Robert C Frederich, and Constance L Wood © 2001 American Society for Clinical Nutrition Meta-analysis reviewed 29 research reports of long- term weight loss maintenance after a structured weight loss program involving various diets. Results: 3.2 % sustained weight loss maintenance, averaging 3.0 kg, 5 years later.
    9. 9. Why this Failure of Calorie Restriction and Public Education? Obesity and overweight is treated as a simple metabolic disorder. Obesity is a complex bio-psychosocial phenomenon involving the adaptation of our brain to our modern environment: high food availability and palatability, which hijacks the brain reward system, and reorganizes the brain around addiction rather than around a homeostatic function.
    10. 10. The Hijacking of the Brain Reward Centers by the Food Industry As a result, the brain adapts to the environment, and a maladaptive addictive behavior follows The modern environment exerts an unprecedented pressure- manipulation on people’s mind to consume more food
    11. 11. The Problem Today: Thenatureofthehomeostaticfeedingsystem low energy requirements abundance versus scarcity high reward for extremely palatable foods The system has evolved to guarantee survival in a nutrient scarce environment And this system rewards with pleasure the eating of fatty sugary food
    12. 12. Food in the Restrictive Natural Pre-industrial Environment
    13. 13. Food in the Abundant Artificial Modern Environment
    14. 14. From stomach hunger to cravings Today the environment has created a shift from a homeostatic feeding behavior, to a hedonistic feeding behavior.
    15. 15. Stomach Hunger: Homeostatic Regulation Brain Cortical and Sub Cortical Centers
    16. 16. Stomach Hunger Homeostatic Regulation by Dopamine in the Hypothalamus
    17. 17. The Hijacking of the Brain by the Food Industry:Stomach Hunger and Brain Hunger This homeostatic mechanism is normally primed by: HUNGER [hunger: the mental translation of a physiological state of need for food to create energy] This homeostatic mechanism can also be primed independently of hunger by external cues such as: SMELLS SIGHTS STRESSORS It can also be primed by internal mental cues: MEMORIES OF PAST PLEASURABLE EXPERIENCES BOREDOM OR SADNESS EXTERNAL CUES / INTERNAL EMOTIONAL STATES CAN OVERRIDE HUNGER
    18. 18. Cravings, Sensitization and the Brain Reward System Stimulus Fatty, Sugary Foods Sight and Smell Cravings Eat Liking Hedonic Response Pleasure Memory Created Sensitization ↑ Opioids POMC (1) Repeating Behavior ↑ Dopamine Pathways Reinforcement (1) Pro-opiomelano cortin (POMC) Desire To Eat
    19. 19. Features of an Addiction: Psychological and Behavioral Psychological dependence: Need Emotional eating Compulsive eating Loss of control Binge eating Overeating Dieting Withdrawal symptoms in the absence of the substance Relapsing
    20. 20. The Making of Fat: Neil Bernard, M.D., in his book Breaking the Food Seduction: The Hidden Reasons Behind Food Cravings—and 7 Steps to End Them Naturally, summarizes the scientific research demonstrating that there are selective foods which break down into addictive ingredients and do the same thing to a person’s brain as cocaine does. DOES THE SAME THING TO A PERSON’S BRAIN AS COCAINE DOES Various other chemical preservatives found in processed junk food Refined salt Hydrogenated oils Monosodium glutamate (MSG) High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) Addictive Properties of Certain Foods
    21. 21. The Making of Fat Highly stimulating processed foods play into the brain preferences for concentrated food. Low nutrients in processed foods do not stimulate adequate amount of leptin the satiety hormone, unless large quantities are ingested. low nutrients in snack foods give our taste buds a supernormal stimulus, while withholding the nutrition that has always gone along with that stimulus in evolutionary time. “Snack food” is designed to make us fat
    22. 22. Addiction Reorganizes the Brain Brain imaging evidence shows that the brain’s “cortex changes with overeating and obesity so that the mouth and tongue increase in geographical area,” Gold Thoughts, desires, cues, feelings trigger the hunger pathways independently, creating learnt pathological reward pathways With every use, the enabling circuits become stronger and more compelling creating an addiction Reversing food addiction is not just a matter of giving up something pleasurable, the obese person has undergone a reorganization of the brain. Treating obesity requires dealing with every aspect of this reorganization.
    23. 23. Addiction Reorganizes the Brain: Subcortical and irrational, versus cortical and rational  When the obsessive or addictive thought occurs, obsessive or addictive action follows.  The prefrontal area is weaker than subcortical systems or,  Subcortical systems are stronger than prefrontal area  The experience of cravings is irrational and there is a deficit of prefrontal inhibitory control over subcortical systems that mediate incentive appetite responses and automated unconscious response.
    24. 24. How do we Heal the Addicted Brain? Physical level Nutrition Whole Food Diet Not Calorie Restriction Sleep 8 Hours per Night Exercise Start Small
    25. 25. Nutrition Weight-loss dieting, by definition, requires lowering food intake below the amount the body needs to maintain its present form. So, in a valiant attempt to regain homeostasis, the dieter's stomach-hunger system lowers levels of the satiety signals leptin and insulin and pumps the hunger hormone ghrelin into the bloodstream. Any kind of weight loss diet sets you up for biochemical warfare with stomach hunger. The body does not know when it is overweight it only knows when it is in jeopardy of losing weight. Whole Food Diet rather than Calorie Restriction
    26. 26. How Do We Heal the Addicted Brain?  Creating New Pathways  Education and psychotherapy  Stimulate and support motivation for change
    27. 27. Education: How to Overcome the Power of the Addicted Brain Why will power does not work The brain and the palate Properties of addictive foods How dieting sets them up for bingeing How to prepare food and shop Alternatives to food for pleasure Avoidance of triggers
    28. 28. Psychotherapy Methods: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has shown good results when combined with a dietary approach Hypnosis Research shows that hypnosis is efficacious. Benefits of hypnosis increase over time. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1996).
    29. 29. Motivate: Motivational Interview  Miller and Rollnick (1991) developed this method to be applied to the field of addictions.  The motivational interview empowers patients to change their behavior by presenting the discrepancies between their current behaviors and their larger life goals.  This technique forces patients to identify reasons for change on their own and can be a powerful motivator for those who are ambivalent.
    30. 30. Motivate:Support the Desire for Change Know what stage the patient is at Group: Overeaters Anonymous Be an inspiring model Eliminate social network which support the addiction
    31. 31. Psychology of Change: The Trans-Theoretical Model of Change Move from contemplation to action. Know where your patient is on the stages of change. This model involves five stages through which a person will pass on the way to eliminating a behavior. Prochaska and DiClemente (1992). The trans-theoretical model of change.
    32. 32. The5stagesofChanges:ProchaskaandDiClemente(212L.Joranbyetal.) First stage Pre-contemplation The person does not recognize the behavior as a problem Second stage Contemplation The person can recognize the behavior but maintains ambivalence about changing Third stage Preparation stage The person wants to change the behavior but is unsure of how to go about change Fourth stage Action stage Now actual change takes place Fifth stage Maintenance stage Focuses on maintaining the new behaviors and avoiding regression into the old behaviors
    33. 33. Liberate: MINDFUL AWARENESS
    34. 34. What is Mindfulness? Mindfulness is a state of heightened awareness. It orinates from the Buddhist tradition of meditation. Mindfulness has been defined as “bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis” (Marlatt & Kristeller, 1999, p. 68). Mindfulness brings about separation of the observer (the witness) from the contents of awareness (thoughts). Mindfulness allows the meditator to monitor her/his thoughts as they arise in the present time, rather than be victimized by them.
    35. 35. Why Mindful Awareness?  The addicted brain cannot cure itself.  Fighting the unconscious with will power gives more energy to unconscious patterns.  It is a self-reliant method and can be used in daily life when the addicted behavior is triggered.  Cravings are automatic, pre- attentive, involuntary, emotional, impulsive and irrational with a sub cortical base and avoidance would be aware, attentive, voluntary, cognitive, planned and rational (control) with a cortical base.
    36. 36. Mindfulness and Addiction Promotes understanding and compassion rather than judgment and conflict with the addicted self. It allows the unconscious patterns to emerge to the conscious mind. It provides the opportunity for the rational mind to evaluate thoughts and dis-identify from them. It can create a window where the witness has the power to make a conscious decision. It has been used efficiently to break the cycle of addiction and compulsive behavior.
    37. 37. Mindfulness and Addiction  Mindfulness does not reinforce the addiction pathways.  Gives the opportunity to fully experience the desire as it arises and release it.  Brings dis-identification with the desire to binge or eat compulsively.  Allows the opportunity to commit to higher values.
    38. 38. Mindfulness and Addiction: Bring awareness when the desire arises Pause (Find a place to sit) Breathe Witness, or be mindful of the thoughts (can write them) Go through the Advantages of not acting on the cravings Connect with higher self and reconnect with determination and decision to quit DO NOT ACT (last stage of change) Indulge consciously or Choose an alternative (first stage of change) How to use mindful awareness to break the automatic subcortical response to cravings. Dr. Baylac’s method.
    39. 39. Diagram: Mindful Awareness and Cravings Wants Desires Cravings Fatty Sugary Foods Conscious Avoidance Conscious Awareness Mindful Contemplation Unconscious Automatic Response Compulsive Eating Binge Eating Alternative Choices Abstinence Level 1 Level 2
    40. 40. Four Steps Conscious Attention by Dr. Schwartz for OCD Brain lock: stuck neurological gear that causes thoughts to be acted out before the action can be stopped. 4 step self-treatment method of conscious attention to transform the automatic mind and its physiological substrates in the brain in the treatment of OCD, UCLA school of medicine. Dr. Jeffrey Schwartz. 5 steps self-treatment by Dr. Gabor Mate, adapted from Dr. Schwartz OCD treatment to behavioral and substance addiction (5th step added).
    41. 41. Five Step Mindfulness Method for Addictive Behavior Step 1 Relabel: “False belief” rather than “Need”. I do not need to have a piece of chocolate right now. Step 2 Reattribute: Blame the brain “This is my brain sending me a false message” Step 3 Refocus: Buy time knowing that the desire is impermanent. Find something else pleasurable to do. Step 4 Revalue: What this addictive urge has done for me, my friends, husband children Step 5 Recreate: My Life has been created by automatic mechanisms, it is now time for me to create my life. Excerpts from “In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts” North Atlantic Books Berkeley, CA
    42. 42. Research on Mindfulness and Binge Eating Disorder Pilot research involving 18 obese women, (1999). Findings: Reduced bingeing episodes and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Increased self-acceptance and self-control around food. Kristeller and Quillian-Wolever are now replicating the pilot study with about 150 men and women with binge- eating disorder and who weigh on average 240 pounds. Dr. Kristeller and Killan-Wolever
    43. 43. How to Cultivate Mindfulness  Conscious eating  Conscious walking  Sitting meditation
    44. 44. Lifestyle Change Model for Physical and Mental Health awareness mental emotional physical Nutrition & Exercise Psychotherapy Philosophy Meditation Liberate Educate Motivate Behavioral Changes
    45. 45. Naturopathic Doctor Tools: LOC and Groups Listen Observe Compassion Develop Team Treatment Work Refer Patient to Support Groups
    46. 46. For More Information Maya Nicole Baylac N.D. Hawaii Naturopathic Retreat Center, Inc. www.HawaiiNaturopathicRetreat.com www.RawDetox.org www.MindYourBody.info contact2013@hawaiinaturopathicretreat.com 1-808-933-4400 (U.S.) 239 Haili St. Hilo, HI 96720

    ×