• Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as
machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so as to have
quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of
handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the
delivery of the final product.
• The subject of plant layout not only covers the initial layout of machines
and other facilities encompasses improvement in, or revisions of, existing
layout in the light of subsequent developments in the methods of
Objectives of a good Layout
Provide enough production capacity.
Reduces handling costs.
Reduces hazards to personnel.
Utilizes labour efficiently.
Increase employee morale.
Utilizes available space efficiently and
Provide for volume and product
Provide ease for supervision.
Provide safety and health.
Allow ease of maintenance.
Allow high machine/equipment
FACTORS INFLUENCING FACILITY
• MATERIALS (Type of raw materials and availability)
• PRODUCT (Type of product and its position)
• WORKER (Type , position and requirements)
• MACHINERY(Product, volume and process)
• INDUSTRY (Type of industry: Synthetic, Analytical, Conditioning and
• LOCATION (Factor of production)
• MANAGERIAL POLICIES ( volume, provision for expansion,
automation, making or buying decisions, desire for rapid delivery, purchasing
policy and personnel policies)
Principles of Layout
Principle of minimum travel
Principle of sequences
Principle of usage
Principle of compactness
Principle of safety and satisfaction
Principle of flexibility
Principle of minimum investment.
Types of layout
Process layout or functional or job shop layout.
Product layout or line processing layout.
Fixed position layout or static layout.
Cellular manufacturing layout or Group Technology
Combination layout or Hybrid layout.
• The process layout involves a grouping together
of like machines in one department.
• For example : machines performing drilling
operations are fixed in the drilling department
– In this way there would be a heating department ,
painting department, casting department.
Process Layout or Functional Layout
shop Assembly Finished
While grouping machines certain principles need
to b kept in mind :
• The distance between departments should be as short as
• Machines should be grouped in accordance with the principle of
sequence of operation within the department.
• Convenience for inspection.
• Convenience for supervision.
Handle a variety of processing
Not vulnerable to equipment failures
General-purpose equipment is less
costly and is easier and less costly to
Possible to use individual incentive
• Scope for expansion as the capacity
can be easily increased.
• Greater flexibility.
Difficulty in the movement of material.
Requires more space.
Difficult in production control.
More production time as work in
progress has to travel from place to place.
Accumulation of work in progress at
• The product layout involves the arrangement of machines in one
line, depending upon the sequence of operations. Material are fed
into the first machine and finished products come out of the last
• In between , partly finished goods travel automatically , from
machine to machine, the output of one machine becoming the input
for the next.
• It is a feast for the eyes to watch the way sugarcane , fed at one end
of the mill , comes out as sugar the other end.
Product Layout (Straight Line)
Product Layout (Straight Line)
• All the machine tool and equipment must be placed at the point demanded
by the sequences of operations.
• There should be no points where one line crosses another line.
• Materials may be fed where they are required for assembly but not
necessarily all at one point.
• All the operations , including assembly, testing and packing should be
included in the line.
• Reduction in material handling cost
due to mechanization.
• Avoid production bottleneck.
• Economy in manufacturing time.
• Better production control.
• Require less floor area per unit of
• Work-in-progress is reduced and so on
• Early detection of mistakes.
• Greater incentive to a group of
workers to raise their level of
Product layout is known for its
This is an expensive layout
Difficulty in supervision.
Expansion is also difficult.
Breakdown can disrupt the whole
• The fixed position layout involves the movement of men and
machines to the product which remains stationary. In this type
of layout , the material or major components remains in a fixed
location and tools , machinery and men as well as other pieces
of material are brought to this location.
• The movement of men and material to the product is advisable
because the cost of moving them would be less than the cost of
moving the product which is very bulky.
Fixed position layout
Fixed Position Layout
• Men and machine can be used for a wide variety of operations
producing different products.
• The investment on layout is very small.
• The worker identifies himself with the product and takes pride
in it when the work is complete.
• The high cost of, and difficulty in transporting a bulky product
As the production period being very long so the capital
investment is very high.
Very large space is required for storage of material and
equipment near the product.
As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so
there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different
Combined layout or Group technology layout or
• A combination of process and product layouts combines the
advantages of both types of layouts product and process
layout. A combination layout is possible where an item is
being made in different types and sizes.
• Here machinery is arranged in a process layout but the process
grouping is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture
various types and sizes of products. It is to be noted that the
sequence of operations remains same with the variety of
products and sizes.
Combined layout or Group technology layout
or Hybrid layout)
Group Layout (or Cellular Layout)
• In cellular manufacturing (CM),machines are grouped
into cells and the cells function somewhat like a product
layout within a larger shop or process layout.
• Each cell in the CM layout is formed to produce a single
parts family-a few parts, all with common characteristics
, which usually means that they require the same
machines and have similar machine settings