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Emotional Changes


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Emotional Changes

  2. 2. EMOTIONAL CHANGES As discussed earlier emotional changes can be  Physiological  Behavioral and  Cognitive. We will explain them one by one.
  3. 3. Physiological Changes in Emotion  These change include neural, hormonal (glandular), Visceral and muscular. The systems involved in change are following  Autonomic Nervous System  Glandular System especially adrenal gland  Limbic System
  4. 4. Introduction  Most of the physiological change that take place during emotional arousal result from activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic system, as it prepares the body for emergency action.
  5. 5.  In normal life, when we experience an intense emotion, such as fear or anger, we become aware of many bodily changes which include  rapid heartbeat and breathing,  dryness of the throat and mouth  , increased muscle tension, respiration, trembling of the extremities and a sinking feeling in the stomach.
  6. 6. Role of Autonomic Nervous System in Emotion
  7. 7. Introduction  The autonomic nervous system is responsible for most of the physiological changes that accompany emotional reactions.
  8. 8.  ANS is the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries information between the brain and all organs of the body.  The ANS affects all of the organs such as the heart and blood vessels, the digestive system and so on.  The autonomic nervous system coordinates their functioning to meet the needs of the whole organism and prepares the body for changes by modulating the activity of the organs.
  9. 9.  Autonomic Nervous System has two divisions;  Sympathetic Nervous System  Parasympathetic Nervous System
  10. 10.  The sympathetic system is responsible for the following changes;  1. Blood pressure and heart rate increase.  2. Respiration becomes more rapid.  3. The pupils dilate.  4. Perspiration increases while secretion of saliva and mucous decreases.  5. Blood sugar level increases to provide more energy.  6. In case of wound the blood clots more quickly.  7. Blood is diverted from the stomach and intestines to the brain and skeletal muscles.
  11. 11.  Parasympathetic system which is actually energy conserving system, takes over and returns the organism to its normal state. Either branch of the autonomic nervous system can be activated during an emotion.
  12. 12. For example during anger, sympathetic nervous system increases the heart rate and the Parasympathetic nervous system causes tears to flow in grief
  13. 13.  In both the Parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, there is relay station called a ganglion between the central nervous system and target organs.  In a parasympathetic system, the neurotransmitter at the target organ is acetylcholine, but in sympathetic system the neurotransmitter at the target organ is almost always noradrenalin. Very often Erie same organ innervated by fibers of both systems, each of which may produce opposite effects. For example, the noradrenalin speeds up the heart, where as acetylcholine slows it down.
  14. 14.  Polygraph Autonomic arousal is an inevitable part of an emotion, that's why polygraph has been introduced as a lie detector. Polygraph simultaneously measures several physiological responses known to be the part of autonomic arousal. The measure most frequently are changes in heart-rate, blood pressure, respiration and the galvanic skin response (GSR), which is a rapid change in the electrical conductivity to the skin that occurs with emotional arousal.
  15. 15.  Role of Adrenal Gland in Emotion  It is also part of sympathetic nervous system  There are adrenal glands, one on each side of the body just above the kidney, Each adrenal gland has two parts; adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla, both of which participate in emotional responses.  The outer adrenal cortex is part of endocrine system and the inner adrenal medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system. The adrenal medulla acts as a ganglion of the sympathetic target organs. It activates all target of the sympathetic system.
  16. 16.  The influence of hormones on emotion on emotion has been shown in several kinds of studies. Hormone levels in the blood and urine rise during emotional sates, where as change in emotional responding occurs when hormones are administered and in diseases, affecting the endocrine glands. Steroid hormones, as epinephrine and nor-epinephrine, act on many different kind of body tissues, including nerve cells
  17. 17.  Limbic System  Parts of the limbic system are involved in display of emotional reactions. It consists of amygdala, hippocampus and septum.  Amygdala is involved in emotional awareness and expressions through its many connections with higher and lower regions of the brain. Amygdala also produces reaction of rage and aggression when stimulated.
  18. 18.  Septum (another part of Limbic system) has the opposite effect. It reduces the intensity of emotional reactions when stimulated. The impact of amygdala and septum on emotional reactions is quite immediate and direct in non-humans. In humans it is more subtle, reflecting the influence of other brain centers.